WAC Bibliography

Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

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Category: WAC in the Schools

Your search found 128 citations.

1. [various]. (1988). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Sixth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April, 1988]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 08, 4-33.
Keywords: testing, K-12, mode, portfolio, WAC, rising-junior [Governors State University], revamping, exit-exam [Ball State University], proficiency, rising-junior [University of Massachusetts], WAC, program, campus-wide, universal, literacy, validity, direct, reliability, scale stability, rater-training, holistic, discrepant-essay, primary-trait, placement, rhetorical, rater-training, video, program-program-validation, longitudinal, growth, regression, mode, rhetorical-task, pedagogy, reader-response, holistic, self-assessment, computer, style-checker, legal, national, international, Written Composition Study [International Association for Educational Achievement], criteria, contrastive, topic, classroom-research, computer-analysis, feature
2. [various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school
3. [various]. (1986). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fourth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Cleveland, Ohio, April, 1986]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 06, 3-25.
Keywords: testing, measurement, portfolio, reading, language-proficiency, placement, assessment, instrument, purpose, topic, holistic, revising, drafting, validity, administering, cost, data-analysis, minimum competency, competency, WAC, curriculum, peer-evaluation, self-assessment, K-12, CBest [teacher-certification, Oregon], school, computer, pre-writing software, WANDAH [Writer's Aid and Author's Helper], style-checker, EECAP [Early English Composition Assessment Program, Ohio], computer-analysis
4. [various]. (1985). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Third National Testing Network in Writing Conference, San Francisco, California, March 1985]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 05, 2-26.
Keywords: testing, assessment, K-12, portfolio, proficiency, procedure, teacher-certification, holistic, rating, rater-training, primary-trait, research-method, research, WAC [at Stanford University], Research in the Effective Teaching of Writing Project, discourse-feature, gain, classroom-research, longitudinal, development, regression, analytic, funding, program, ESL, teacher-training minority, curriculum, G5, response, administering, cost, data-analysis, peer-evaluation, topic, large-scale, Canada, placement, feature
5. Abasi, Ali R.; Nahal Akbari; Barbara Graves. (2006). Discourse appropriation, construction of identities, and the complex issue of plagiarism: ESL students writing in graduate school. Journal of Second Language Writing 15.2, 102-117.
Annotation: Drawing on case studies of five L2 graduate students – two MA students in a Second Language Education program, a PhD student in Counseling, a PhD student in Educational Administration, and a PhD student in Education – the authors examine how L2 graduate students make choices about appropriating discourse when writing, how they identify their voices in source-based writing, and how choices of appropriation and voice relate to a student’s identities. They found that the less experienced graduate students were less likely to be aware of textual choices as rhetorical and as creating identity in writing in contrast to the more experienced graduate student writers. After analyzing participants’ writing, the authors discovered that the less experienced graduate students also plagiarized more and tied this practice to their educational histories and assumptions about their roles as writers. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, plagiarism, identity, constructivist, graduate, appropriation, case-study
6. Abrams, Nancy & Feiler, Nadine. (2003). Greater than the Sum of Parts: a Poetry/Science Collaboration. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines, 6(2), 129-140. https://doi.org/10.37514/LLD-J.2003.6.2.07
Annotation: Collaborations between disciplines in middle school usually occur between language arts and social studies, or between math and science; however, we found a collaboration between language arts and science to be a fruitful experience for our students in their learning both disciplines and in improving our own teaching. Understanding poetry and science requires many of the same skills: close observation, description, and metaphorical thinking. To that end, we developed a curriculum that focused on those skills as our students studied barrier islands in sixth grade science and poetry in sixth grade language arts.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, science, poetry
7. Addison, Joanne; Sharon James McGee. (2010). Writing in high school/writing in college: Research trends and future directions. College Composition and Communication 62.1, 147-179.
Annotation: Outlines major large-scale writing research projects done within the ten years preceding article publication. Using student responses to the National Survey of Student Engagement’s (NSSE) 'writing-specific' questions, Addison and McGee identified five scales that 'describe the quality of undergraduate writing and establish that certain types of writing are substantially related to NSSE’s deep learning subscales, especially higherorder thinking and integrative learning,' through investigating: pre-writing activities, instructor articulation of clear expectations, the assignment of higher-order writing tasks, good instructor practices such as student collaboration, sample review and opportunities for writing practice, and evidence of student use of integrated media like the inclusion of visual content in their writing. Upon comparison of the aggregate data from the studies referenced above using these five scales, Addison and McGee found that college and high school faculty across the curriculum only diverged in their practices in terms of assigning higher-order writing tasks and using integrated media . Yet, college faculty tended to provide fewer opportunities for peer review and 'informal, exploratory' writing. Alternately, student and teacher as well as instructor-workplace perceptions and expectations about writing were far less congruent. In response, calls for the following future actions: the creation of 'WAC-centered vertical curriculum' between high schools and colleges that concretely emphasizes the transfer of skills related to not only essay but also narrative and critical research-based writing , including interdisciplinary rhetorical analysis and workplace genres; the establishment of future research partnerships between large organizations like NSSE and WPA jointly guided by the Committee on Research and Committee on Professional Visibility and Databases within CCCC; and the formation of an online repository by NCTE/CCCC to archive the raw data and tools used in writing studies as a resource for upcoming research and advocacy efforts [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Keywords: writing-studies, school-college, articulation, literacy, WAC, scale, deep learning, curriculum, workplace, genre, best-practices, academic, research-method, future, trend, National Survey of Student Engagement’s (NSSE), WPA Committee on Research and Committee on Professional Visibility and Databases, CCCC, data repository, digital, rhetorical-analysis, interdisciplinary, trend
8. Anonymous. (1991). Journal publishes research by high school science students. Composition Chronicle Newsletter 04.2, 8.
Keywords: student publishing, high-school, science-course, WAC
9. Apostel, Shawn. (2003). 'Oh that wonderful stuff': Selected poetry by college and middle school students. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2. https://wac.colostate.edu/llad/v6n2/apostel.pdf
Annotation: When students use poetry to imagine and explore academic subjects, they examine the topic in new, creative ways, resulting in interesting and lively writings that stimulate thought and class discussions. The following poems presented in this article are examples of student poetry written in a variety of classes throughout the curriculum. I am pleased to showcase student writing in this section, and I hope reading these poems will suggest possibilities and adaptations for teachers and students elsewhere.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, middle-school, school-college, poetry
10. Applebee, Arthur N.; Anne Auten; Fran Lehr. (1981). Writing in the secondary school: English and the content areas (NCTE Research Report No. 21). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Keywords: high-school, survey, data, curriculum, pedagogy, WAC, research-report
11. Ashby, Sara C.; Melvyn Lawson. (1943). A school-wide program in communication. In Roberts, Holland De Witte; Walter Vincent Kaulfers; Grayson Neikirk Kefauver (Eds.), English for a social living, a program including 25 statements of practice by teachers in the field; New York; London: McGraw-Hill (pp. 309-316).
Keywords: WAC, school, communications, interdisciplinary, comskills
12. Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.). (1999). Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Annotation: A collection of essays on the changing relationship between Writing Centers and WAC programs. The essays raise many issues: The expanding role of Writing Centers on campuses. The ""housing"" question - should WAC run the Writing Center? Or be run by it? The Writing Center as a site for uniting disciplinary writing projects. Writing Centers as ambassdors for WAC. Writing Centers and WAC research. 'Taking WAC away' from the English Department and housing it in the Writing Center. English faculty's concept of Writing Centers. A Center's role in a school without WAC. High-school Writing Centers. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: wcenter, WAC, interdisciplinary, program-design
13. Barr, Mary A.; Mary K. Healy. (1988). School and university articulation: Different contexts for writing across the curriculum. In McLeod, Susan H. (Ed.), Strengthening programs for writing across the curriculum; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass (pp. 43-54).
Keywords: WAC, articulation
14. Barrett, Dan. (2012). An old-school notion: Writing required. Chronicle of Higher Education. http://chronicle.com/article/What-If-Students-Even-Math/135106/
Keywords: survey, WAC, write-to-learn, Partnership for the Study of Writing in College, NSSE, pedagogy
15. Bergman, Charles A. (1982). An inclusive literacy: U. S. schools are teaching and writing in all the subject disciplines. American Association of Higher Education Bulletin 35 (December), 3-5.
Keywords: WAC, school, pedagogy, inclusion
16. Bernhardt, Stephen A.; G. Bedokis; L. Stevens; S. Ludwig; B. Harris. (1986). Writing across the curriculum: Exemplary projects from the Illinois Humanities Council's Summer Institutes for Secondary School Teachers. Illinois English Bulletin 74.1, 14-24.
Keywords: WAC, project, summer institute, school-college, institute
17. Bernhardt, Stephen A.; withGenelle Bedokis; Linda Stevens; Barbara Wilson; Suzanne Ludwig. (1986). Writing across the curriculum: Exemplary projects from the Illinois Humanities Council's Summer Institutes for second school teachers. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 277 004 (pp. 14-31). Illinois English Bulletin 74.1, 14-31.
Keywords: WAC, program, school, teacher-training, summer institute
18. Blau, Sheridan. (2010). Academic writing as participation: Writing your way in. In Sullivan, Patrick; Tinberg, Howard; Blau, Sheridan (Eds.), What is “college-level” writing? Volume 2: Assignments, Readings and Student Writing Samples; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English (pp. 29-56).
Annotation: Blau describes and models his methodology and classroom practice of a genre-specific approach that purports to enable the transition of high school, community college and first-year college students into the university academic discourse community. Blau bases his claims of efficacy on anecdotal reports, observations done in New York City community colleges and high school classrooms as well as the application of research and theory. Blau suggests that students ought to write share and discuss literary commentary so they can concretely enact the formation of genuine academic discursive practices. These student commentaries are used for longer papers where students read, respond to and cite each other’s work. Blau contends that this 'genre-creating program' promotes the 'critical thinking' that is essential to the reading and writing involved in 'college-level discourse' because it lends students academic authority, in that they are originators and evaluators of a shared classroom disciplinary textual [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Keywords: school-college, two-year, research-method, New York City, discourse-community, genre-specific, disciplinary, convention, WAC, critical-thinking, research-practice, theory-practice, discursive, praxis
19. Blumner, Jacob & Childers, Pamela. (2011). Building Better Bridges: What Makes High School-College WAC Collaborations Work?. The WAC Journal, 22(1), 92-101. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2011.22.1.07
Keywords: school-college, WAC, articulation, needs-analysis, program, survey, data, teacher-opinion
20. Blythe, Stuart; Laura Gonzales. (2016). Coordination and Transfer across the Metagenre of Secondary Research. College Composition and Communication 67.4.
Annotation: Screencast videos were used to study the work of undergraduates enrolled in biology. Students were able to adapt to the writing requirements in biology because they implicitly understood the metagenre of ""research from sources."" Students coordinated multiple texts simultaneously to engage in processes akin to what Howard has called ""patchwriting"" but also similar to the habits of professional writers. The authors suggest that instructors spend more time helping students develop effective networks of information, including experts and organizations in addition to published sources.
Keywords: WAC, biology, transfer, metagenre, genre, research, patchwriting, professional-writing, FYC, WID
21. Briggs, James; Jame Kraft; Greg Venne. (1981). Survey: Writing In the content area. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 207 062.
Annotation: As a follow-up to the Central Wisconsin Writing Project, a writing survey was prepared to (1) introduce the concept of writing across the curriculum to high school faculty in the district, (2) determine the district's need for inservice in writing across the curriculum, (3) establish the validity of the data, (4) collect information about writing expectations in high school courses other than English, and (5) use the information as a basis for creating strategies and inservice specially designed to meet the needs of non-English teachers. The survey was administered during October 1980 to departments of social studies, science, business education, driver education, physical education, home economics, industrial arts, and agriculture. The results indicated that 62% of the teachers did not connect the learning of course concepts to the ability to explain them in writing. Seventy-six percent felt that all written work should be read and evaluated by the teacher, but while 50% indicated that writing ability had some effect on grade, no more than 10% said it had a major role in grading. Over 50% said that little or no teaching time was spent on activities to improve writing, and most teachers had their students taking notes on a daily basis. No other type of written assignment received much attention other than short answers on worksheets. [ERIC]
Keywords: high-school, WAC, survey, Central Wisconsin Writing Project, needs-analysis, data, grading, assignment, note-taking, worksheet
22. Britton, James. (1971). What's the use? A schematic account of language functions. Educational Review 23, 205-219.
Annotation: [Not seen]. According to Wilkinson, Barnsley, Hanna, and Swan (1979, p. 62), Britton creates a scale for the rhetorical mode of transactional writing that will measure writing development in the school years, which "requires a single global judgement to be made on each piece of writing." [Britton, of course, had been an enthusiastic supporter of pooled-rater rapid-impression or holistic marking: Britton, 1963; Britton, Martin, and Rosen, 1966.] RHH [Rich Haswell & Norbert Elliot, Holistic Scoring of Written Discourse to 1985, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 27]
Keywords: language, functional, transactional, expressive, poetic, WAC, utility, schema, systematic, holistic, pooled-rater
23. Burnham, Christopher C. (1981). Tapping non-English faculty resources in the literacy crusade. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 202 022.
Annotation: [Not seen]At Stockton State College (New Jersey), as part of training for faculty across the campus who volunteered for basic writing courses, teachers were taught holistic scoring. "Stockton's basic writing courses are staffed with volunteer faculty members from across the college. . . . They participate in a one-day workshop in which they complete a holistic exercise that involves reading papers and ranking them by the overall quality of writing. The holistic scoring used in the workshop session provides the 'rotating faculty' with an understanding of the elements of good writing. The third stage of training occurs in another one-day workshop the week before school begins, during which the faculty members must write under the same circumstances that students often must write under" [from the ERIC abstract]. [This is an early writing-across-the-campus initiative. The basic idea is that holistic scoring gives scorers experience with an even breadth of criteria by which student writing can be analyzed.] RHH [Rich Haswell & Norbert Elliot, Holistic Scoring of Written Discourse to 1985, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 27]
Keywords: WAC, Stockton State College (NJ), retraining, volunteer, not-English, faculty-workshop, holistic, teacher-training, criteria
24. Carson, Jay, Sipple, William, Yahr, Mike, Marshall, Thomas, & O'Banion, John. (2000). A New Heuristic for Planning WAC Programs: Ensuring Successful Collaboration from All Stakeholders. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines, 3(3), 3-35. https://doi.org/10.37514/LLD-J.2000.3.3.02
Annotation: In this article, we focus on the one problem we believe is most crucial for the survival and effectiveness of our modern incarnation of writing across the curriculum: planning. This essay argues that Young, Becker and Pike's tagmemic discovery heuristic procedure is an ideal tool for planning a school-wide reform.
Keywords: WAC, WID, stakeholder, collaboration, tagmemics, reformist heuristics
25. Childers, Pamela B. (2002). WAC/CAC in Secondary Schools: Taking Risks Across the Curriculum. Academic.Writing: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Communication Across the Curriculum, 3(1), 1-1. https://doi.org/10.37514/AWR-J.2002.3.1.05
Keywords: high-school, WAC, CAC, risk-taking
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