How Writing Shapes Thinking: A Study of Teaching and Learning

  • secondary education, WAC, Student Writing, composition studies, cognitive studies

By Judith A. Langer and Arthur N. Applebee
Digitized by the Colorado State University Libraries

CoverIn this groundbreaking study, Langer and Applebee analyzed writing assignments and their teaching across the curriculum in U.S. secondary schools to see how they support learning. "To improve the teaching of writing, particularly in the context of academic tasks," they argue, "is also to improve the quality of thinking required of school children." But they further show here how differences in the kinds of writing students do lead students to do different kinds of thinking and learning.

Table of Contents

Open the entire book: 6.4 MB

Front Matter, Table of Contents, and List of Tables


Part I: Overview

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: The Project

Part II: Studies of Teaching

Chapter 3: The Participating Teachers

Chapter 4: Writing in Academic Classrooms

Chapter 5: Teachers in Transition: Changing Conceptions of Teaching and Learning

Part III: Studies of Learning

Chapter 6: Learning from Writing: An Initial Approach

Chapter 7: Learning from Writing: Study Two

Chapter 8: Learning from Writing: Study Three

Part IV: Conclusions

Chapter 9: Learning from Writing in the Secondary Schools: Accomplishing Our Goals


Appendix 1: The Analysis of Meaning Construction Coding Manual

Appendix 2: The Reading Passages: Synopses, Characteristics, and Tree Diagrams

About the Authors

Publication Information: Langer, Judith A., & , Arthur N., Applebee. (2007). How Writing Shapes Thinking: A Study of Teaching and Learning. The WAC Clearinghouse. (Originally published in 1987 by National Council of Teachers of English)

Publication Date: October 11, 2007

Contact Information:
Arthur N. Applebee's Home Page:
Arthur N. Applebee's Email:

Judith A. Langer's Home Page:
Judith A. Langer's Email:

Landmark Publications in Writing Studies

Series Editor: David R. Russell, Iowa State University


Books in this series are presented on the WAC Clearinghouse courtesy of the National Council of Teachers of English. This book is out of print and is presented here to support the WAC community. To view NCTE's complete catalog of available books, please visit their online book store.

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Copyright © 1987 National Council of Teachers of English. Used with Permission. You may view this book. You may print personal copies of this book. You may link to this page. You may not reproduce this book on another website. For permission to use materials from this book in other publications, please contact National Council of Teachers of English.