Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors (Citation-Sequence System)

CSE stands for the Council of Science Editors. CSE style is based on the eighth edition of Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.

CSE style, used primarily in the physical sciences, life sciences, and mathematics, recommends two systems.

  • a Citation-Sequence system, which lists sources in the references list according to the order in which they appear in the document
  • a Name-Year system, which is similar to the Author-Date system used by APA

This guide is based on Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (8th ed.), a publication of the Council of Science Editors. For more detailed formatting information, guides and examples, visit the Council of Science Editors website. Formatting examples also based on the National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation Supplement: Internet Formats. 2nd Ed. 2007. [Updated Aug 2015].

[Guide Updated Jul 2017]

Citing Sources within Your Paper (Using In-Text Numbering)

The CSE - Citation/Sequence in-text citation system is simple: It relies on numbers. Unlike the Name/Year system, no parenthetical information is required. All that's needed is a superscripted number: a raised numeral located at the end of a clause or sentence identifying the content as outside source material.

The superscripted number flags the reader's attention to a correspondingly numbered entry on a References list located at the end of a book or document.

In-Text Numbering Rules

CSE In-Text Numbering Rules are as follows:

  • In-text superscripted numbers appear after the punctuation and quotation marks at the end of a cited clause or sentence. There is no space between the punctuation and the numeral.
  • Source material located in the first part of a sentence separated by an em dash (two hyphens) is cited with the number placed before the dash begins.
  • Beginning with 1, each number follows in sequential order from page to page.
  • When citing a previously mentioned source, use the first number assigned to the source.
  • When referring to more than one source, separate the numbers using commas.
  • When referring to a source cited in another source, use the phrase "cited in":

The data12(cited in 8) collected in the third month of study...

  • Superscripted numbers can be created in Microsoft® Word.

How to Superscript Numbers with Microsoft® Word 2007 or later

  1. Select the number you want to superscript
  2. Click on the superscript icon located in the font box (x2)
  3. Click on the superscript icon again to return to normal font

How to Superscript Numbers with Microsoft® Word 2003 or earlier

  1. Select Font on the tool bar Format drop-down menu and open the Font tab.
  2. Select the same font and style used in the rest of your document.
  3. Select a font-size one or two points smaller than the body text.
  4. Select automatic (for black) or another color choice from the Font color menu.
  5. Check the Superscript option in the Effects section.
  6. Click OK, return to your document and insert your superscript number.
  7. Once inserted, you must return to the Font dialogue box and uncheck the Superscript selection before entering any more text.

Citing Sources at the End of Your Paper

The end documentation in the CSE Citation/Sequence system is called the References list. It is located at the end of a document or book and contains all the bibliographic information needed to find out more about each cited source within the text.

This page is a selective bibliography and does not include a full accounting of sources related to or consulted before you began writing your document, but only those actually cited. You may want to include sources that directly informed your thinking but aren't explicitly cited in the text on a separate page entitled Additional References. Further reading suggestions or a fuller bibliography should be placed on yet another page entitled Additional Reading or Bibliography.

Proper CSE documentation depends on the References page. Without it the in-text numbers would make little sense as they would no longer be pointing at any corresponding entries in the end documentation.

References Formatting Rules

CSE references list formatting rules call for the end documentation to begin on the last page of your document, not on a separate one. If your document is 6½ pages long, the References list should begin on page 7, directly below the concluding text of your document.

The references list formatting rules are as follows:

  • References is the most common title, however Cited References or Literature Cited are acceptable titles as well.
  • The title should be placed flush-left on the page and may appear Bold, Underlined, or capped in UPPERCASE letters.
  • Double space between title and first entry; single-space all other entries.
  • Set font-size one or two point (type) sizes smaller than the document text.
  • Page numbers are included when specific passages rather than entire sources are being cited and in the case of quotations.
  • Arrange entries numerically, following their initial in-text order of appearance. Each number should be followed by a period and one space.

Individual entries may be formatted in the following three ways:

  • No indentation. All lines in each entry flush-left.
  • Numbers flush-left. All lines in each entry indented one or two spaces.
  • Indent the first line of each entry five spaces from the left margin (the normal tab-button default space). Subsequent lines are flush-left.

Bibliography Formatting Rules

CSE bibliography formatting rules differ significantly from the References rules:

  • The title--Bibliography--replaces the word References at the top of a separate page.
  • Numbers are omitted altogether and entries are arranged alphabetically, last name first, instead of numerically.

Examples of CSE Citation-Sequence References Formatting

Books and Book Parts

Note: For consistency, book entries should be formatted with the initials of authors and editors first names when the References list includes journal article entries [for which the rule calls for using initials rather than the first names of authors and editors] as well.


1. Book with One Author

Format:
Give the author’s last name and first initial with no comma. Next, include the title, capitalizing only the first word and proper nouns, followed by publication information. Include the state abbreviation in parentheses after the city.

Example:

1. Leonard, C. The meat racket: the secret takeover of America’s food business. New York (NY): Simon Schuster; 2014.


2. Book with Two or More Authors

Format:
List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page, each of them last name first. (If there are more than 10 authors, list the first ten followed by a comma and “et al.”) Note that periods are not used after initials. Separate authors with commas. When using CSE style, abbreviate “United Kingdom” as “GB.”

Example:

2. Willis KJ, McElwain JC. The evolution of plants. 2nd ed. Oxford (GB): Oxford University Press; 2014.


3. Edited Books or a Work in an Anthology

Format:
List the author and title of the section; then include the word “In” followed by a colon, the editor’s name (last name followed by initials) and the word “editor.” Include the book title, place, and publisher, and note the inclusive pages of the section. Note that page range numbers are given in full.

Example:

3. Rothenberg M, Clarke MF. Cancer stem cells, In: Carlson BM, editor. Stem cell anthology. London (GB): Academic Press; 2010. p. 221-236.


4. Books with Author, Editor, Translator and Note

Format:
Identify the editor(s) before the publication. Identify the translator after the title, giving the last name first.

Example:

4a. Einstein, A. The cosmic view of Albert Einstein: writings on art, science, and peace. Martin W, Ott M, editors. New York (NY): Sterling Publishing; 2013.

4b. Schoeps KH. Literature and film in the Third Reich. Dell’Orto KM, translator. Columbia (SC): Camden House; 2010.


5. Microform Books

Format:
Entry number. Last name and initial(s) of author, [followed by last names and initial(s) of other authors, if any]. Title of book [type of microtext]. Place of publication: microform publisher; year of publication. Number of reels. Type of film.

Example:

5. Fortney, S. Bedrest in healthy women [microfiche]. Springfield (VA): National Technical Information Service; 1986. 2 microfiches: negative.


6. Multivolume Work

Format:
Include the total number of volumes if you are making a reference to all volumes in the work, or “Vol.” followed by the specific volume number followed by the title of that volume (if that volume is separately titles).

Example:

6. Serway RA, Jewett JW. Physics for scientists and engineers. Vol. 5. 8th ed. Pacific Grove (CA): Brooks-Cole; 2010.


7. Titled Book Chapter

Format:
If you wish to refer to a chapter of a book, identify the chapter of the book after the publication information. End with the inclusive pages of the chapter.

Example:

7. Pendergrast M. Inside the outbreaks: the elite medical detectives of the Epidemic Intelligence Service. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; 2010. Chapter 7, Fighting pox, pandemics, and special pathogens; pg. 72-90.


8. Titled Book Chapter not Written by Book Author

Format:
Entry number. Last name and initial(s) of author of chapter or part, [followed by last names and initial(s) of other authors, if any]. Title of chapter or part. In: last name and initial(s) of author or editor of book [followed by last names and initial(s) of other authors or editors, if any]. Title of book. Edition information. Place of publication: publisher; year of publication. Inclusive page numbers.

Example:

8. Hansen B. New York City epidemics and history for the public. In: Harden VA, Risse GB, editors. Aids and the historian. Bethesda: National Institute of Health; 1991. p 21-8.


9. Corporate or Group Author

Format:
Identify the organization as the author.

Example:

9. National Geographic. EarthPulse. 2nd ed. New York (NY): Wiley; 2010.


10. Unknown Author

Format:
Begin with the title.

Example:

10. The first 100,000 prime numbers. Lenox (MA): Hard Press; 2007. 215 p.


11. Book in an Edition Other Than the First

Format:
Note the edition (for instance “2nd ed.” or “New rev. ed.”) after the title and with a separating period.

Example:

11. Roberts N. The holocene: an environmental history. 3rd ed. Oxford (GB): Wiley Blackwell; 2014.


12. Anthology or Collection with an Editor

Format:
To cite an anthology of essays or a collection of articles, treat the editor’s name as you would an author’s name but identify with the word “editor.”

Example:

12. Carlson BM, editor. Stem cell anthology. London (GB): Academic Press; 2010.


13. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword of a Book

Format:
If the part is written by someone other than the author of the book, treat it as you would a chapter in an edited book, identifying the author or editor of the book before the book title.

Example:

13. Groopman J. Introduction. In: Cohen J, editor. The best of the best American science writing: ten years of the series. New York (NY): Ecco; 2010; p. ix-xv.


14. Published Proceedings of a Conference

Format:
List the editors of the proceedings as authors or, if there are no editors, begin with the name and year of the conference. Then give the title of the publication; the date of the conference; the place of the conference; and the place of publication, publisher, and date.

Example:

14. Platts H, Barron C, Lundock J, Pearce J, Yoo J, editors. TRAC 2013. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference; 2013; London. Oxford (GB): Oxbow Books; c2014; 160 p.


15. Published Dissertation or Thesis

Format:
Use the general format for a book, adding the word “dissertation” or “thesis” in square brackets after the title. Treat the institution granting the degree as the publisher. If the place is not listed on the dissertation but can be inferred, use brackets around the place as shown here.

Example:

15. Prescott JW. Computer-assisted discovery and characterization of imaging biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment planning [dissertation]. [Columbus (OH)]: Ohio State University; 2010; 191 p.


16. Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

Format:
Use the general format for a book, adding the word “dissertation” or “thesis” in square brackets as a final element of the title. Treat the institution granting the degree as the publisher.

Example:

16. Wagner KP. A generalized acceptance urn model [dissertation]. Tampa (FL): University of South Florida; 2010.

Scholarly and Professional Journals

Note: When there are between two and ten authors, list all authors in the entry. When there are more than ten, list only the first ten.


1. General Format for Journal Articles

Format:
Abbreviate and capitalize all of the major words in a journal’s title; omit articles, conjunctions, and prepositions. The CSE manual includes specific guidelines for citing journal titles. A semicolon separates the year of publication followed by a semicolon and the volume number. If there is an issue number, include it in parentheses, followed by a colon and the page numbers. There are no spaces between the year, volume number, and page numbers.

Example:

1. Gauthier S, Leuzy A, Racine E, Rosa-Neto P. Diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease; past present and future ethical issues. Prog Neurobiol. 2013;110:102-113.


2. Journal Article Specified by Type (i.e., Editorial)

Format:
List the entry number, the last name and initial(s) of author, followed by last names and initial(s) of other authors, if any]. List the article title and include the type of article in square brackets along with the title of the journal, the year of publication followed by a semicolon, the volume (issue number) followed by a colon and inclusive page numbers.

Example:

2. Besho F, Kobayashi N. A historical sketch of pediatric hematology and oncology in Japan [editorial]. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1993; 10(2): v-viii.


3. Journal Article Paginated by Issue

Format:
List the entry number, last name and itiatial(s) of the author, followed by the last names and initial(s) of other others (if any). List the article title, the title of the journal, the year of publication followed by a semi colon, the volume (issue number) followed by a colon and inclusive page numbers.

Example:

3. Besho F, Kobayashi N. A historical sketch of pediatric hematology and oncology in Japan. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1993; 10(2): v-viii.


4. Article Published on Non-Contiguous Journal Pages

Format:
List the entry number, the last name and initials of the author, followed by the last names and initials of other authors (if any). List the title of the article, the title of the journal, the year of publication, volume number followed by a colon and the the first set of inclusive page numbers, second set, and so on.

Example:

4. Weisse AB. A plague in Philadelphia. The story of Legionnaires' disease. Hosp Pract. (Off Ed). 1992; 27(6):151-4,157,161-8.


5. Article Published in a Journal Supplement

Format:
List the entry number, the last name and initial(s) of the author, followed by the last names and initial(s) of other authors (if any). List the title of the article, the title of the journal, the year of publication followed by a semicolon, the volume (issue number and supplement) followed by a colon and inclusive page numbers.

Example:

5. Feindel W. Development of surgical therapy of epilepsy at the Montreal Neurological Institute. Can J Neurol Sci. 1991;18(4 Suppl): 549-53.


6. Article Published in a Volume Supplement

Format:
List the entry number, the last name and initial(s) of the author, followed by the last names and initial(s) of other authors (if any). List the title of the article, the title of the journal, the year of publication followed by a semicolon, the volume and supplement number followed by a colon and inclusive page numbers.

Example:

6. Rahe RH. Psychosocial stressors and adjustment disorder: Van Gogh's life chart illustrates stress and disease. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51 Suppl: 13-9.

Newspaper and Magazine Articles

1. A Signed Article in a Newspaper

Format:
Treat newspaper articles as you would magazine articles, identifying their pages by section, page, and column on which they begin (in parentheses).

Example:

1. Jalonick MC. Suit says toys in Happy Meals break the law. Boston Globe. 2010 June 23;Sect. B:11 (col. 1).


2. An Unsigned Article in a Newspaper

Format:
Begin the entry with the title of the article. “Anonymous” is not permitted in CSE style.

Example:

2. A mouse to save your wrist and hand. Boston Globe. 2010 Nov 29;Sect. B:8 (col. 3).


3. An Article in a Magazine

Format:
Magazines are not identified by volume. Give only the date (year, month, day for weekly magazines; year and month for monthly magazines). Abbreviate all months to their first three letters.

Example:

3. Milius S. In field or backyard, frogs face threats. Sci News. 2010 Sep 11:28-29.

Conference Proceedings, Papers and Abstracts

1. Published Proceedings of a Conference

Format:
List the editors of the proceedings as authors or, if there are no editors, begin with the name and year of the conference. Then give the title of the publication; the date of the conference; the place of the conference; and the place of publication, publisher, and date.

Example:

1. Platts H, Barron C, Lundock J, Pearce J, Yoo J, editors. TRAC 2013. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference; 2013; London. Oxford (GB): Oxbow books; c2014; 160;.


2. A Paper Published in the Proceedings of a Conference

Format:
Format the citation as you would a chapter in an edited book.

Example:

2. Paten B, Diekhans M, Ear D, St. John J, Ma J, Suh BB, Haussler D. Cactus graphs for genome comparisons. In: Berger B, editor. RECOMB 2010. Research in computational molecular biology, 14th annual international conference proceedings; 2010 Apri 25-28; Lisbon, Portugal. Berlin (DE): Springer-Verlag; c2010; p. 410-425.


3. Abstracts

Format:
List the entry Number, the last name and initial(s) of the author, followed by the last names and initial(s) of other authors (if any). List the title of the abstract followed by “abstract” in square brackets. List “In:” followed by the title of the proceedings or conference; the year month and number of days of the conference; and the location of the conference. List the place of publication: the publisher (capitalized); and the year of publication. List the page numbers and include the abstract number [if available].

Example:

21. Willoughby E. A neglected treatise on headache [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of the Auckland Medical Historical Society; 1994 Aug; Auckland, New Zealand. Auckland: Pyramid Press; 1995. p 419.

Scientific and Technical Reports

Formats for scientific and technical reports vary according to the organization responsible for the report. Follow the examples in formatting listed below.


1. U.S. Government Report Authored by a Government Agency or Dept.

Format:
Entry Number. Name of Agency or Department (US) [Abbreviation of Agency or Department]. Title and description of report. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year and Month of Publication. Number of Pages or Volumes. Availability Statement.

Example:

1. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (US) [DOE]. Office of Occupational Medicine. Annual report. Washington, DC: DOE; 1993 Aug. 14 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; DE-93018387.


2. U.S. Government Report Authored by an Outside Organization

Format:
Entry Number. Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initial(s) of other authors, if any] (Name of Responsible Organization). Title and description of report. Place of Publication: Publisher or Sponsoring Organization; Year Month and Day of Publication. Report Number. Contract Number. Number of Pages. Availability Information.

Example:

2. Lenz TG, Vaughan JD, Cooper LN. (Colorado State University). Study of improved methods for predicting chemical equilibria. Final Report 1 Jan 90-31 Mar 93. Washington: Department of Energy; 1993 Sep. Report nr DOE/ER/13582-T3. Contract nr FG02-86ER13582. 33 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfied, VA; DE-94001647.


3. Non U.S. Government Report

Format:
Entry Number. Name of Responsible Organization [abbreviation of performing organization]. Title and description of report. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year and Month of Publication. Report Number. Number of Pages.

Example:

3. Gas Research Inst. [GRI], Institute of Gas Technology. Computerized operations management. Final report Feb 1992. Chicago (IL): Transport and Storage Research Dept; 1992 Feb. Report nr PB94-12203, PB94-122041. 1009 p. in 2 v.

Dissertations, Theses and Patents

1. Published Dissertation or Thesis

Format:
Use the general format for a book, adding the word “dissertation” or “thesis” in square brackets after the title. Treat the institution granting the degree as the publisher. If the place is not listed on the dissertation but can be inferred, use brackets around the place as shown below.

Example:

1. Prescott JW. Computer-assisted discovery and characterization of imaging biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment planning [dissertation]. [Columbus (OH)]: Ohio State University; 2010; 191 p.


2. Upublished Dissertation or Thesis

Format:
Use the general format for a book, adding the word “dissertation” or “thesis” in square brackets as a final element of the title. Treat the institution granting the degree as the publisher.

Example:

2. Wagner KP. A generalized acceptance urn model [dissertation]. Tampa (FL): University of South Florida; 2010.

3. Patent

Format:
Entry Number. Last Name and Initial(s) of Inventor, [followed by last names and initials of other inventors, if any], inventor(s). Assignee. Title of Patented device or process. Patent descriptor. Year Month Day the Patent Was Issued.

Example:

3. Umezawa H, Suzuki S, Ohkuma T, inventors; Zaidan Hojin Biseibutsu Kagaka, assignee. Medical composition for injection containing a spergualin as active ingredient and process for preparing the same notag [stabilizers of dextrans, cyclodextrins, and chodroitin sulfate; anticarcinogenic agents, immunomodulators]. US patent 4,876,244. 1989 Oct 24.

Legal Materials

Note: The NLM (National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation) does not offer its own guidelines for documenting legal references. The CSE instead defers to A Uniform System of Citation (HLRA 1992) and offers the formats below, based on their recommendations.


1. Court Cases

Format:
Entry Number. Title of Case, Volume Source Page Numbers (Court and Date).

Example:

1. Meyer v. State of Nebraska., 262 U.S. 390 (S.Ct. 625 1923).


2. Statutes

Format:
Entry Number. Title of Statute, Volume Number Source Section Number § (Year of Publication)

Example:

2. Farm Credit Act. 42 U.S.C.A. § 410 (1959)


3. U.S. Senate Bills, Unenacted

Note: This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 663).

Format:
Entry Number. Senate Bill Number, Number of Congress, Number of Session Section Number § (Year).

Example:

3. S. 2830, 96th Cong., 2d Sess. § 8 (1980).


4. State Joint Resolutions, Enacted

Note: This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 663).

Format:
Entry Number. Resolution Number, Legislature Number, Session Number, Year Collection of Laws

Example:

4. H.R.J. Res 1, 40th Leg., 2d Spec. Sess., 1974 Utah Laws 7


5. U.S. Senate Hearings

Format:
Entry Number. Title of Hearing, Number of Congress, Session Number. (Year)

Example:

5. U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: Hearing Before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 101st Cong., 2nd Sess. (1990)

Media Sources

1. Sound Recording

Format:
Cite as you would a film or video recording (listed below)

Example:

1. Howler monkeys: singing into the night [sound recording]. Carroll B, sound recordist. Keene (NH): Belize Bruce; 2013.


2. Film or Video Recording

Format:
Give the title, then the type of medium identified in square brackets, followed by individuals listed as authors, editors, performers, conductors, and so on. Identify the producer if different from the publisher. Provide publication information, including a physical description of the medium.

Example:

2. Great migrations [DVD]. Hamlin D, Serwa C, producers. Washington (DC): National Geographic; 2010. 3 DVDs: 200 min.


3. Television Program

Format:
CSE style does not provide guidance on citing television programs. Cite the title of the program, with the medium designator in brackets, followed by information about the series (if any), including individuals such as the producer, writer, director, and the place and date of broadcast at the end.

Example:

3. Mt. St. Helens: back from the dead [television program]. Barret M, executive producer. Nova. New York (NY): Thirteen/WNET; 2010 May 4.


4. Radio Program

Format:
CSE style does not provde guidance on citing radio programs. Cite the title of the program, with the medium designator in brackets, followed by information about the series (if any), including individuals such as the producer, writer, director, and the place and date of broadcast at the end.

Example:

4. Mental exercise and dementia [radio program]. Flatow I, host. Talk of the Nation Science Friday. New York (NY): National Public Radio; 2010 Sep 3.

Digital Sources

Note: The following CSE style formats demonstrate citations for various digital sources.


1. Online Journal Article

Example:

1. Pitaval A, Tseng Q, Bornens M, Thery M. Cell shape and contractility regulate ciliogenesis in cell cycle – arrested cells. J Cell Biol. 2010 [accessed 2013 Aug 23]; 191(2):303-312. http//jcb.rupress.org/content/191/2/303.full?sid=d87c638dc-4082-99a8-ca19a37d72fe. doi:10.1083/jcb.201004003.


2. E-Book (Monographs)

Example:

2. Gliklich RE, Dreyer NA, editors. Registries for evaluating patient outcomes: a user’s guide. 2nd ed. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2010 [cited 2010 Nov 1]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK49444.


3. Material From an Online Database

Example:

3. Chen M, Schlief M, Willows RD, Cai Z-L, Neilan BA, Scheer H. A red-shifted chlorophyll. Science. 2010 Sep 10 [accessed 2014 Feb 1]:1318-1319. Expanded Academic ASAP. Farmington Hills (MI): Thomson Gale; c2010. http://web4.infotrac.galegroup.com. doi:10.1126/science.1191127.


4. Online Newspaper Article

Example:

4. Kolata G. Stem cell biology and its complications. New York Times. 2010 Aug 24 [accessed 2010 Dec 15]. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/25/health/research/25cell.html.


5. Website

Example:

5. US Geological Survey. Washington (DC): US Department of the Interior; [updated 2010 Sep 28; accessed 2010 Dec 16]. http://www.usgs.gov.


6. Document on a Website

Example:

6. Lavelle M. National Geographic Daily News. Washington (DC): National Geographic Society. Forcing gas out of rock with water. 2010 Oct 17 [accessed 2010 Dec 16]. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news-old/2010/10/101022-energy-marcellus-shale-gas-science-technology-water.


7. Email Message

Note:
Email messages are considered personal communication. Cite them in the text only; do not cite them in the reference list.


8. Email Discussion List Message

Example:

8. Williams JB. Re: Tomato seed question. In: BIONET. [London (GB); Medical Research Council]; 2010 Nov 1, 7:57 am [accessed 2010 Nov 15]. http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/plantbio/2010-November/027780.html.


9. Article Posted on a Wiki

Example:

9. Epidemic and pandemic spread. In: Influenza [updated 2014 Mar 1; accessed 2014 Mar 25]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza#Epidemic_and_pandemic_spread.


10. Entire Blog

Example:

10. Orth JF. Invasive species weblog. c2002-2010 [updated 2011 Jan 22; accessed 2010 Jan 25]. http://invasivespecies.blogspot.com.


11. Entry or Comment on a Blog

Example:

11. Reynolds G. Phys Ed: Brains and Brawn. In: Well. 2011 Jan 19 [accessed 2011 Jan 22.]. http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/19/phys-ed-brains-and-brawn.


12. Dissertation Accessed Online

Example:

12. Yang, H. Topics in gravitational-wave science: macroscopic quantum mechanics and black hole physics [dissertation]. Pasadena (CA): California Institute of Technology; 2013; 339 p. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Ann Arbor (MI): ProQuest; c2013. http://search.proquest.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/docview/1496774506?accountid=11311.

 

Unpublished Work

1. Letters

Format:
Entry number. Last name and initial(s) of letter author(s). [Description and date of letter]. Located at: repository and location of repository.

Example:

1. Bacon F. [Letters to various Tudor notables, ca. 1630]. Located at: The James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection, Yale University Beineke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New Haven, Connecticut.


2. Manuscripts

Format:
Entry number. Title of document. [Description and date of document]. Located at: repository and location of repository.

Example:

2. Box account book. [Accounts of wholesale druggist Henry Box, 1629-42]. Located at: The James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection, Yale University Beineke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New Haven, Connecticut.


3. Forthcoming Documents

Format:
Entry number. Last name and initial(s) of author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Title of forthcoming document. Abbreviated title of journal and year of forthcoming publication (if known). Forthcoming.

Example:

3. Pohl PS, Winstein C. Practice effects on the less-affected upper extremity after stroke. J Am Cong Rehab Med. Forthcoming.

Additional CSE Resources

Printed Resources:

Council of Science Editors. Scientific style and format: The CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 6th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press; 1994. 825 p.

National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation/Pb 91182030. United States Government Printing Office; 1991.

Electronic Resources:

The official Council of Science Editors web site, updated regularly, is the comprehensive guide to all things CSE: the organization, its journals, products and services.

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center, CSE Documentation

Citation Information

Will Allen, Ellen Palmquist, Peter Connor, Heidi Scott, and Laurel Nesbitt. (1994-2021). Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors (Citation-Sequence System). The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at https://wac.colostate.edu/resources/writing/guides/.

Copyright Information

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