Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors (Name-Year System)

The Council of Science Editors scientific style of documentation is used primarily in the physical sciences, life sciences, and mathematics. CSE offers two systems for documenting sources: 1) a Citation-Sequence system, 2) a name-year system. This guide explains the CSE Name-Year system, which his very similar to the Author-Date system used by the APA (refer to APA guide for more information and specific formatting examples).

Inserted at the point of reference, an in-text parenthetical citation containing the author's name and the date of publication interacts with the end documentation by pointing to a specific entry in the References List.

This guide is based on Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (8th ed.) 2014, a publication of the Council of Science Editors. Formatting examples are also based upon the National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation Supplement: Internet Formats. 2nd Ed. 2007. [Updated Aug 2015].

[Guide Updated Jul 2017]

Citing Sources within Your Document

The CSE Name-Year in-text citation system follows a parenthetical format rather than the superscripted numbers found in the CSE Citation-Sequence system. It emphasizes authors' names and dates of publication, both of which are important benchmarks denoting relevancy and validity in the social and the hard sciences.

In some cases, chapters, paragraphs and page numbers are required. Regardless of contents, the parenthetic citation should immediately follow the cited material within a sentence and before the period if it is at the end of the sentence. In the case of quoted material, the citation is placed between the final quotation mark and the period at the end of the sentence.

CSE Name-Year In-Text Formatting Rules

CSE Name-Year in-text formatting rules are as follows:

  • One space should separate the author's name and the year of publication.
  • Page numbers are included only when part of a source or a direct quotation is cited. The abbreviation (p), without a period should precede the page number(s).
  • Place a comma and one space after the year of publication when including a page number.

Specific rules depend on whether part or all of a source is being cited as well as whether or not the author's name is mentioned in the sentence where the citation occurs.

Examples of Name-Year In-Text Formatting Rules

1. Citing an Entire Source

When citing an entire work, document the last name of the author and the year of publication. No page numbers are necessary. The citation format will vary according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited.

  • Author Name Not Included in Preceding Sentence

Format:
Cite both the last name of the author and the publication date. The citation is placed in parentheses directly following the information being cited. When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (the Period). One space separates the author's name and the date.

Example:

In one such study (Anderson 1997)...

  • Author Name Included in Preceding Sentence

Format:
When the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, you may omit this name from the parentheses to avoid redundancy, using only the date. The date (in parentheses) should follow directly after mention of the author's name.

Example:

Anderson (1997) determined that...


2. Citing Part of a Source

When you cite a specific part of a source, document the last name of the author, the year of publication, AND the page numbers (or chapter, section, line numbers) where the cited material may be found. The citation format varies according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited.

Format:
Cite all three elements (author name, date, and page numbers or chapter) in parentheses, directly following the information being cited. When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (the period). One space separates the author's name and the date, and one comma separates the date and the page number (or chapter, etc.). The abbreviation "p" or "pp" precedes the page number(s).

Example:

In one such study (Anderson 1997, p 27)...

Format:
Place the year of publication within parenthetical note directly after the author's name. In the case of a quote, paraphrase or specific piece of information, follow the date with a comma and page number(s). When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (the period).

Example:

Anderson (1997, p 312) determined that...

Examples of Variations to Name-Year In-Text Formatting Rules

1. Citing Anonymous Sources

Format:
The word "Anonymous" replaces an author's name in the parenthetic citation of a work authored by an anonymous source rather than the abbreviated title. The reference list entry begins the same way.

Example:

Critics occasionally mention the difficulty of interpreting findings like these (Anonymous 1995).


2. Citing Authors with Same Last Name in the References List

Format:
Include first name initials of all in-text cited authors when other authors in your References List have the same last name.

Example:

K.K. Sullivan (1962) and D. Sullivan (1996) came to similar conclusions about the effects of this treatment method.


3. Citing Sources with More than One Author

Format: Sources with Two Authors
Mention all names in the parenthesis. Do not use an ampersand (&) for "and" between names.

Example:

One study (Zoerner and Stephens 1994) is particularly notable.

Format: Sources with Three or More Authors:
Name only the first author followed by the words "and others". When two references with multiple authors shorten to the same "and others" form include as many names, separated by commas, as necessary to distinguish between the two references.

Example 1:

One study (Pelech and others) found that...

Example 2:

One study (Edmands, Wardrop, Thomas, and others (1993) found...

Another study (Edmands, Wardrop, Reid, and others (1993) argue that...

Note: The References entries for the above citations would be as follows:

Edmonds, Wardrop, Thomas, Nesbitt, Keifer, and Palmquist (1993)Edmonds, Wardrop, Reid, Thomas, LeCourt, and Russell (1993)


4. Citing Sources Authored by a Group

Format:
The names of group authors may be mentioned in full in texts with few citations, or they may be shortened in all citations subsequent to the first when there are many; however they must unequivocally point to the correct entry in the References list.

Example:

Where the References List entry looks like:

Bas Bleu Theatre Company. 1998. 1998 NEA Grant Application for…

The first in-text citation will look like:

The grant proposal (Bas Bleu Theatre Company [BBTC] 1998) was an important effort to support the arts in the community.

And a subsequent in-text citation will look like:

The proposal requested new and increased salaries for theatre staff (BBTC 1998).


5. Citing Two or More Sources in the Same Parentheses

Format: Two or More Sources by Same Author
When you are citing two or more works by the same author in one parenthetical note, list the name of the author only once, followed by the publication dates of the various works in order of year of publication.

Example:

Psychologists have arrived at this conclusion in the past (Tripp 1987, 1994, 1995).

Format: Two or More Sources Published by Same Author in Same Year
When, in one parenthetical note, you are citing two or more works by the same author published in the same year, be sure to distinguish between the two by assigning them letter suffixes ("a," "b," etc.). These designations will be consistent with those you have given the works in the reference list.

Example:

Past research (Johnson 1983a, 1983b) has revealed interesting patterns.

Format: Two or More Sources by Different Authors
When you refer to works by different authors within the same parenthetical note, separate them by using semicolons and arrange them according to their publication dates. Arrange alphabetically when publication years are identical.

Example:

Several studies (Evens 1992; Dorer 1994; Bundy 1996) have contributed to our current understanding of this phenomenon.


6. Citing a Source within a Source

Note: Include the phrase "cited in" when citing a "second-hand" source (i.e., by way of another source) and include an entry for both in the References list.

Example:

This process (Perina 1912, cited in Huges 1935) was instrumental in arriving at certain of the conclusions presented after the experiment.

Citing Sources at the End of Your Paper

The end documentation in the CSE Citation-Sequence system is called the References list. It is located at the end of a document or book and contains all the bibliographic information needed to find out more about each cited source within the text.

This page is a selective bibliography and does not include a full accounting of sources related to or consulted before you began writing your document, but only those actually cited. You may want to include sources that directly informed your thinking but aren't explicitly cited in the text on a separate page entitled Additional References. Further reading suggestions or a fuller bibliography should be placed on yet another page entitled Additional Reading or Bibliography.

Proper CSE documentation depends on the References page. Without it the in-text numbers would make little sense as they would no longer be pointing at any corresponding entries in the end documentation.

CSE References Formatting Rules

CSE References formatting rules call for the end documentation to begin on the last page of your document, not on a separate one. If your document is 6½ pages long, the References list should begin on page 7, directly below the concluding text of your document.

The References list formatting rules are as follows:

  • References is the most common title, however Cited References or Literature Cited are acceptable titles as well.
  • The title should be placed flush-left on the page and may appear Bold, Underlined, or capped in UPPERCASE letters.
  • Double space between title and first entry; single-space all other entries.
  • Set font-size one or two point (type) sizes smaller than the document text.
  • The first line of each entry is flush-left. Indent each subsequent line five spaces from the left margin (the normal tab-button default space).
  • Arrange entries alphabetically.

CSE Bibliography formatting rules differ slightly from the References rules:

  • The title--Bibliography--replaces the word References at the top of a separate page.
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically, last name first.

Examples of CSE Name-Year References Formatting

Books and Book Parts

Note: For consistency, book entries should be formatted with the initials of authors and editors first names when the References list includes journal article entries [for which the rule calls for using initials rather than the first names of authors and editors] as well.


1. Book with One or More Authors

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [Followed by Last Name and Initial(s) of Other Authors, if Any]. Year of Publication. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher. Number of Pages.

Example:

Bates B. 1992. Bargaining for life: a social history of tuberculosis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 435 p.


2. Edited Books

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Editor, [Followed by Last Names and Initials of Other Editors, if any], editors. Year of Publication. Title of book. Information about Edition (if applicable). Place of Publication: Publisher. Number of Pages.

Example:

Coovadia HM, Benatar SR, editors. 1991. A century of tuberculosis: South African perspectives. Cape Town: Oxford University Press; 319 p.


3. Books with Author, Editor, Translator and Note

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author. Year of Publication. Title of book. Last Name and Initial(s) of Translator, translator; Last Name and Initial(s) of Editor, editor. New York: Publisher. Number of Pages. Note.

Example:

Ferrand J. 1990. A treatise on lovesickness. Beecher A, Ciavolella M, translators and editors. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. 709 p. Translation of the 1623 edition.


4. Microform Books

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by Last Names and Initials of Other Authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of book [type of microtext]. Place of Publication: Microform Publisher. Number of reels. Type of Film.

Example:

Fortney S. 1986. Bedrest in healthy women [microfiche]. Springfield (VA): National Technical Information Service. 2 microfiches: negative.


5. Titled Book in Multivolume Work

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last name and initial(s) of other authors]. Year of Publication. Title of volume. Volume Number, Title of multivolume work. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Howard J, Strauss A. 1975. Humanizing health care. Volume 1, Health, medicine, and society. New York: Wiley.


6. Titled Book Chapter

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher. Part or chapter title; inclusive pages.

Example:

Lamartine de Assis J. 1900. Miastenia grave. Sao Paulo: Sarvier. Historia da miastenia grave; p 19-20.


7. Titled Book Chapter not Written by Book Author

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author of Chapter or Part, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of chapter or part. In: Last Name and Initial(s) of Author or Editor of Book [followed by last names and initials of other authors or editors, if any], editor(s). Title of book. Edition information. Place of Publication: Publisher. Inclusive Page Numbers.

Example:

Hansen B. 1991. New York City epidemics and history for the public. In: Harden VA, Risse GB, editors. Aids and the historian. Bethesda: National Institute of Health. p 21-8.

Scholarly and Professional Journals

Note: When there are between two and ten authors, list all authors in the entry. When there are more than ten, list only the first ten.


1. General Format for Journal Articles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any 7]. Year Month and Day of Publication. Article title. Journal title [abbreviated according to the National Information Standards Organization] Volume Number (Issue Number): Inclusive Page Numbers.

Example:

Wilton P. 1992 May 15. The Toronto Free Hospital for Consumptive Poor. Can Med Assoc J 146 (10): 1812-14.


2. Journal Article Specified by Type (i.e., Editorial)

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. New dangers in our field [type of article]. Title of Journal Volume: Inclusive Page Numbers.

Example:

Besho F, Kobayashi N. 1993. A historical sketch of pediatric hematology and oncology in Japan [editorial]. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 10(2): v-viii.


3. Journal Article Paginated by Issue

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume (Issue): Inclusive Page Numbers.

Example:

Besho F, Kobayashi N. 1993. A historical sketch of pediatric hematology and oncology in Japan Pediatr Hematol Oncol 10(2): v-viii.


4. Article Published on Non-Contiguous Journal Pages

Format:
Last Name and Initials of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume Number: First Set of Inclusive Pages, Second Set, etc.

Example:

Weisse AB. 1992. A plague in Philadelphia. The story of Legionnaires' disease. Hosp Pract (Off Ed) 27(6): 151-4, 157, 161-8.


5. Article Published in a Journal Supplement

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume (Issue Supplement Number): Inclusive Page Numbers.

Example:

Feindel W. 1991. Development of surgical therapy of epilepsy at the Montreal Neurological Institute. Can J Neurol Sci 18(4 Suppl): 549-53.


6. Article Published in a Volume Supplement

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume and Supplement Number: Inclusive Page Numbers.

Example:

Rahe RH. 1990. Psychosocial stressors and adjustment disorder: van Gogh's life chart illustrates stress and disease. J Clin Psychiatry 51 Suppl: 13-9.

Newspaper and Magazine Articles

1. Signed Newspaper Articles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year Month Day of Publication. Title of article. Title of Newspaper; Section Information: Page Number (and Column Designation).

Example:

Condon G. 1996 Aug 4. Don't take those pills on an empty spirit. Dallas Morning News; Sect 5: 7.


2. Unsigned Newspaper Articles

Format:
[Anonymous]. Year Month Day of Publication. Title of article. Title of Newspaper; Section Designation: Page Number.

Example:

[Anonymous]. 1998 Jul 3. Dr. Paul O. Hagemann physician and professor. St. Louis Post-Dispatch;Sect B: 5.


3. Magazine Articles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year and Month of Publication. Title of article. Title of magazine: Inclusive Page Numbers.

Example:

Darson D, Milano MG, Barry C. 1996 Feb. Religion: the forgotten factor in health care. The World & I: 292.

Conference Proceedings, Papers and Abstracts

Formats for conference proceedings vary according to whether their titles are the same as the conference or not; formats for papers and abstracts presented at a conference vary according to whether they are published in the proceedings with an individual title or with the same title as the conference.


1. Proceeding Titles that Share Conference Titles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Editor, [followed by last names and initials of other editors, if any], editor(s). Year of Publication. Description of proceedings and Title of Conference; Year Month Days of Conference; Location of Conference. Place of Publication: Publisher. Number of Pages.

Example:

Powers JD, Powers TE, editors. 1984. Proceedings of the 10th annual food animal medicine conference: the use of drugs in food animal medicine; 1984 Sep 25-26; Columbus, Ohio. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press. 310 p.


2. Proceeding Titles that Do Not Share Conference Titles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Editor, [followed by last names and initials of other editors, if any], editor(s). Year of Publication. Title of proceedings. Title of Conference; Year Month Days of Conference; Place of Conference. Place of Publication: Publisher. Number of Pages.

Example:

Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, editors. 1981. Advances in the control of Theileriosis. International Conference held at the International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases; 1981 Feb 9-13; Nairobi. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 427 p.


3. Papers that Share Conference Proceeding Titles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of paper. In: Description of proceedings and Title of Conference; Year Month and Days of Conference; Location of Conference. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page Numbers.

Example:

Gingerich DA. 1984. Pharmacokinetics of drugs used for therapy of the mammary gland. In: Kalter RJ. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Food Animal Medicine Conference; 1984 Sep 25-26; Columbus, OH. Columbus: The Ohio State University. p 117-35.


4. Papers that Do Not Share Conference Proceeding Titles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of paper. In: Last Name and Initial(s) of Editor, [followed by last names and initials of other editors, if any], editor(s). Title of proceedings. Title of Conference; Year Month and Days of Conference; Conference Location. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page Numbers. (Series Information, if applicable.)

Example:

Walker AR, McKellar SB. 1981. Preliminary observations on the density of sporozoites of Theileria Annulata. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, editors. Advances in the control of Theileriosis. Proceedings of an International Conference held at the International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases; 1981 Feb 9-13; Nairobi. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p 125-26.


5. Abstracts

Format:
Last Name and Initials of Author [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. Title of abstract [abstract]. In: Title of proceedings/conference; Year Month and Days of Conference; Location of Conference. Place of Publications: Publisher. Page Numbers. Abstract Number [if available].

Example:

Willoughby E. 1995. A neglected treatise on headache [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of the Auckland Medical Historical Society; 1994 Aug; Auckland, New Zealand. Auckland: Pyramid Press. p 419.

Scientific and Technical Reports

Formats for scientific and technical reports vary according to the organization responsible for the report.


1. U.S. Government Report Authored by a Government Agency or Dept.

Format:
Name of Performing Organization (US) [Abbreviation of Name of Performing Organization]. Year and Month of Publication. Title and description of report. Place of Publication: Publisher. Number of Pages or Volumes. Availability Statement.

Example:

Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (US) [DOE]. 1993 Aug. Office of Occupational Medicine. Annual report. Washington, DC: DOE. 14 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; DE-93018387.


2. U.S. Government Report Authored by an Outside Organization

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any] (Name of Performing Organization). Year of Publication. Title and description of report. Place of Publication: Publisher or Sponsoring Organization. Report Number. Contract Number. Number of Pages. Availability Information.

Example:

Lenz TG, Vaughan JD, Cooper LN (Colorado State University). 1993. Study of improved methods for predicting chemical equilibria. Final Report 1 Jan 90-31 Mar 93. Washington: Department of Energy. Report nr DOE/ER/13582-T3. Contract nr FG02-86ER13582. 33 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfied, VA; DE-94001647.


3. Non U.S. Government Report

Format:
Name of Performing Organization [abbreviation of performing organization]. Year and Month of Publication. Title and description of report. Place of Publication: Publisher. Report Number. Number of Pages.

Example:

Gas Research Inst. [GRI], Institute of Gas Technology. 1992 Feb. Computerized operations management. Final report Feb 1992. Chicago (IL): Transport and Storage Research Dept. Report nr PB94-12203, PB94-122041. 1009 p. in 2 v.

Dissertations, Theses and Patents

1. Dissertation or Thesis

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author. Date of Degree. Title of dissertation or thesis [dissertation or thesis]. Place of Degree-Granting Institution: Degree-Granting Institution. Number of pages. Availability Information. Identifying Information.

Example:

Mangie ED. 1991. A comparative study of the perceptions of illness in New Kingdom Egypt and Mesopotamia of the early first millenium [dissertation]. Akron (OH): University of Akron. 160 p. Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor MI; AAG9203425.


2. Patent

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author. Date of Degree. Title of dissertation or thesis [dissertation or thesis]. Place of Degree-Granting Institution: Degree-Granting Institution. Number of pages. Availability Information. Identifying Information.

Example:

Umezawa H, Suzuki S, Ohkuma T, inventors; Zaidan Hojin Biseibutsu Kagaka, assignee. 1989 Oct 24. Medical composition for injection containing a spergualin as active ingredient and process for preparing the same notag [stabilizers of dextrans, cyclodextrins, and chodroitin sulfate; anticarcinogenic agents, immunomodulators]. US patent 4,876,244.

Legal Materials

Note: The NLM (National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation) does not offer its own guidelines for documenting legal references. The CSE instead defers to A Uniform System of Citation (HLRA 1992) and offers the formats below, based on their recommendations.


1. Court Cases

Format:
Title of Case, Volume Source Page Numbers (Court and Date)

Example:

Meyer v. State of Nebraska., 262 U.S. 390 (S.Ct. 625 1923)


2. Statutes

Format:
Title of Statute, Volume Number Source Section Number § (Year of Publication)

Example:

Farm Credit Act. 42 U.S.C.A. § 410 (1959


3. U.S. Senate Bills, Unenacted

Note: This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 663).

Format:
Senate Bill Number, Number of Congress, Number of Session Section Number § (Year).

Example:

S. 2830, 96th Cong., 2d Sess. § 8 (1980).


4. State Joint Resolutions, Enacted

Note: This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 663).

Format:
Resolution Number, Legislation Number, Session Number, Year Collection of Laws

Example:

H.R.J. Res 1, 40th Leg., 2d Spec. Sess., 1974 Utah Laws 7


5. U.S. Senate Hearings

Format:
Title of Hearing, Number of Congress, Session Number (Year)

Example:

U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: Hearing Before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 101st Cong., 2nd Sess. (1990)

Media Sources

1. Film or Video Recording

List the director and producer (if available), the date of release, the title, the medium in square brackets (“Motion picture,” “DVD,” or “Blu-Ray disc”), the country where the film was made, and the studio or distributor.

Example(s):

Nichols, J. (Director). (2016). Loving [Motion picture]. United States: Focus Features.


2. Sound Recording

List the author of the song; the date; the song title, followed by “On” and the recording title in italics; the medium in square brackets; and the production data. If the song was recorded by an artist other than the author, add “Recorded by” plus the artist’s name in square brackets after the song title and the recording year in parentheses after the production data.

Example(s):

Clapton, E. (2016). Catch the blues. On I still do [CD]. Encinitas, CA: Bushbranch/Surfdog Records.

 


3. Television or Radio Program

List the director, writer, producer, host, or reporter (if available); the broadcast date; the title, followed by “Television” or “Radio” and “broadcast” or “series episode” in square brackets; the name of the series; and the city and name of the broadcaster.

Example(s):

Bee, S. (Host). 2016, February 15). Episode 2 [Television series episode]. In Full Frontal with Samantha Bee. Atlanta, GA TBS.

Digital Sources

Note: CSE lists formats for a variety of digital sources. For more specific formatting examples, visit the Council of Science Editors website.


1. Online Journal Articles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors]. Year of Publication. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title [medium]; Volume (Issue): Inclusive Page Numbers [if available]. Availability Information. Date of Access.

Example:

Loker WM. 1996. "Campesinos" and the crisis of modernization in Latin America. Jour of Pol Ecol [serial online]; 3(1). Available: http://www.library.arizona.edu/ej/jpe/volume_3/ascii-lokeriso.txt via the INTERNET. Accessed 1996 Aug 11.


2. E-Books (Monographs)

Format:
[Abbreviated Name of Corporate Author, if appropriate] Name of Corporate Author. Year of Publication. TITLE OF MONOGRAPH [monograph online]. Place of Publication: Publisher; [Update Information, if appropriate]. Availability Information. Date of Access.

Example:

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Services. 1998. RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PERIMENOPAUSAL PATIENT IN CLINICAL PRACTICE [monograph online]. Available from: Femhealth, http: //peri-menopause.com. Accessed 1999 May 20.


3. Computer Program with an Author

This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 669).

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. NAME OF PROGRAM [medium]. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher. Physical Description. System Requirements.

Example:

Rosenberg V, Ghalambor C, Rycus P, Thomas R. 1988. PRO-CITE [computer program]. Version 1.4. Ann Arbor (MI): Personal Bibliographic Software. 3 computer disks: color, 5 1/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual. System requirements: IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2 or any 100% compatible computer; 320K RAM; DOS 2.0 or higher.


4. Computer Program without an Author

Note: This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 668).

Format:
[Abbreviated Name of Corporate Author] Corporate Author. Year of Publication. NAME OF PROGRAM [medium]. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher. Physical Description. Accompanying material. System requirements.

Example:

[NLM] National Library of Medicine. 1990. GRATEFUL MED [computer program]. Version 5.0. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine. 5 computer disks: 5 1/4 in.; or 2 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's guide; 1 troubleshooting guide. System requirements: IBM PC family or fully compatible computer; DOS 2.0 or higher; Hayes Smartmodem or fully compatible modem; 384K RAM required, 512K RAM recommended; 1 or more floppy drives; hard disk with a minimum of 2 MB of free space strongly recommended.


5. Online Databases

Note: This example was taken from the National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation Supplement: Internet Formats. (p 49).

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Title of Database. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date of Publication [Date of Update/Revision; Date of Citation].

Example:

Prevention News Update Database [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(US), National Prevention Information Network. 1988 Jun - [cited 2001 Apr 12]. Available from:
http://www.cdcnpin.org/db/public/dnmain.htm


6. Website

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author ; Title of Webpage [Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [Date of Update/Revision; Date of Citation]. Available from: (Insert URL)

Example:

British Medical Journal [Internet]. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ; 2004 July 10; Available from: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/


7. Email Messages

Format:
Author of Message. Title of Message. Message to: Message Recipient. Date of Publication [Date of Citation].

Example:

Harris JP. RE: determining rH factor [Internet]. Message to: Adam Zacharias. 1998 Feb 23, 12:08 pm [cited 1998 Feb 28].


8. Email Discussion List Message

Format:
Author of Message. Title of Message. In: Title of List. [Place of Publication: Publisher]; Date of Publication; Date of [Citation date]. Numeration of Message. Available from: Insert URL


Example:

Kennedy J. AMA Physician Characteristics. In: Medlib. [NY: Univ of Buffalo]; 2001 December week 3, [Cited 2004 July 10]. 1. Available from: http://listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A1=ind0112c&L=medlib-l

9. Web Document

Format:
For a stand-alone Web source such as a report, or a section within a larger website, cite as much of the following information as possible: author, publication date, document title, and URL. If the content is likely to be changed or updated, include your retrieval date.

Example(s):

Matz, M. (2016, March 24). Five reasons to protect the Cherokee National Forest. Retrieved from http://www.pewtrusts.org/.


10. Blog Post or Comment

Format:
To cite an entry on a blog, give the author (or screen name, if available), the date the material was posted, and the title of the entry. Include the description “Blog post” or “Blog comment” in square brackets and provide the URL.

Example(s):

Wade, L. (2016, March 10). Does your vote affect public policy? [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2016/03/10/does-your-vote-affect-public-policy/.


11. Facebook Post

Format:
Start with the author’s name exactly as it appears and the date of the post. Give the first few words of the post in place of the title, and include the label “Facebook post” in square brackets. Include the retrieval date and the URL. If the Facebook page is private and will not be accessible to readers, cite it as you would cite personal communication within the body of your text, not in the reference list.

Example(s):

Macmillan Learning. (2016, April 28). College readiness and remediation go hand in hand [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/MacmillanLearn/


12. Twitter Post

Format:
Use the author’s real name, if possible, followed by the screen name in brackets. Include the entire tweet in place of the title, followed by the label “Tweet” in square brackets. End with the URL.

Example(s):

Applebaum, Y. (2016, March 29). I can say as a historian, with a fair amount of confidence, that scholars will certainly mine social media in the future – they already are [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/YApplebaum/status/714822912172285952


13. Podcast

Format:
Give the name of the producer, the date of the podcast, and the title. Include a description in square brackets and the URL.

Example(s):

Blumberg, A. (Host). (2015, November 15). The Secret Formula. StartUp [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://gimletmedia.com/episode/16-the-secret-formula/


14. Online Video

Format:
Give the name of the creator, the date it was posted, and the title. Include a description in square brackets and the URL.

Example(s):

Neistat, C. (2012, November 3). Staten Island hurricane destruction [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Wr9594oKZNQ#


15. Computer Software or Game

Format:
Sometimes a person is named as having rights to the software or game: in that case, list that person as the author, followed by the date in parentheses. Identify the source in square brackets as “Computer software” or “Computer game.” End with the place of publication and the publisher, or list the URL if the software is available online. If the creator is unknown, begin with the name of the software or game, followed by the label in square brackets and the date in parentheses. End with the locatin and publisher or URL. If you are referring to a specific version that isn’t included in the name, put this information last.

Example(s):

Rosetta Stone Spanish (Latin America) Level 1 [Computer software]. (2010) Arlington, VA: Rosetta Stone.

Unpublished Work

1. Letters

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Letter Author(s). [Description and Date of Letter]. Located at: Repository and Location of Repository.

Example:

Bacon F. [Letters to various Tudor notables, ca. 1630]. Located at: The James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection, Yale University Beineke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New Haven, Connecticut.


2. Manuscripts

Format:
Title of Document. [Description and Date of Document]. Located at: Repository and Location of Repository.

Example:

Box account book. [Accounts of wholesale druggist Henry Box, 1629-42]. Located at: The James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection, Yale University Beineke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New Haven, Connecticut.


3. Forthcoming Documents

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Title of Forthcoming Document. Abbreviated Title of Journal and Year of Forthcoming Publication (if known). Forthcoming.

Example:

Pohl PS, Winstein C. Practice effects on the less-affected upper extremity after stroke. J Am Cong Rehab Med. Forthcoming.

Additional CSE Resources

Printed Resources:

Council of Science Editors. Scientific style and format: The CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 8th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press; 2014. 825 p.

National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation Supplement: Internet Formats. 2nd Ed. 2007. [Updated Aug 2015].

Electronic Resources:

The official Council of Science Editors web site, updated regularly, is the comprehensive guide to all things CSE: the organization, its journals, products and services.

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center, CSE Documentation

Citation Information

Will Allen, Ellen Palmquist, Peter Connor, Heidi Scott, and Laurel Nesbitt. (1994-2019). Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors (Name-Year System). The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at https://wac.colostate.edu/resources/writing/guides/.

Copyright Information

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