Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System)

The Chicago Manual of Style documentation system is used in both the humanities and the social sciences. A bit more complex than either the MLA or the APA, it offers two approaches for documenting sources: 1) a notes system and, 2) an author/date system similar to the APA. This guide explains the Author/Date system. A separate guide explains the Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System).

Inserted at the point of reference, an in-text parenthetical citation containing the author's name and the date of publication interacts with the end documentation by pointing to a specific entry on the References List page.

Notes, similar to those used in the CMS Notes System, may be used in the Author/Date system, but only to provide further information about a particular idea. They do not replace entries found in the References List which contains the bibliographic information required to properly cite your sources. Check with your instructor on what is expected when you are asked to use this style.

This guide is largely based on style recommendations from the 14th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, however, you may also wish to consult the 6th edition of Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. In it you will find many corresponding or similar documentation patterns.

[Guide Updated Jul 2017]

Citing Sources within Your Document

The CMS Author/Date in-text citation system follows a parenthetical format rather than the superscripted numbers found in the CMS Notes system. Much like the APA, it emphasizes authors and dates of publication, both of which are important benchmarks denoting relevancy and validity in the social and the natural sciences.

In some cases, chapters, paragraphs and page numbers are required. Regardless of contents, the parenthetic citation should immediately follow the cited material within a sentence and before the period if it is at the end of the sentence. In the case of quoted material, the citation is placed between the final quotation mark and the period at the end of the sentence.

CMS In-Text Formatting Rules

CMS Author/Date in-text formatting rules are as follows:

  • A space, not a comma, should separate the author's name and the year of publication.
  • Page numbers are included only when part of a source or a direct quotation is cited. Abbreviations ("p." or "pp.") are not required.
  • Footnotes and endnotes are used only when there is a need to provide further information about a particular idea or when specific copyright permission needs to be documented.

Specific rules depend on whether part or all of a source is being cited as well as whether or not the author's name is mentioned in the sentence where the citation occurs.

Examples of In-Text Formatting Rules

Citing an Entire Source

When citing an entire work, document the last name of the author and the year of publication. No page numbers are necessary. The citation format will vary according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited.


1. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Not Included in Preceding Sentence

Format: Cite both the last name of the author and the publication date. The citation is placed in parentheses directly following the information being cited. When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (period). There is a space, not a comma, between the author's name and the date.

Example:

In a recent study of sustainable management techniques (Myers 1997)...


2. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Included in Preceding Sentence

Format: When the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, you may omit this name from the parentheses to avoid redundancy, using only the date. The date (in parentheses) should follow the author's name. In cases where the source itself is being cited rather than the author, the parentheses around the date may be omitted.

Example One:

Myers (1997) compared sustainable management techniques...

Example Two:

In Myers 1997, sustainable management techniques are compared to more conventional practices.

Citing Part of a Source

When citing a specific part of a source, document the last name of the author, the year of publication and the page numbers (or chapter, section, line numbers, etc.) where the cited material may be found.


3. Citing Part of a Source

Format: When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (period). One space separates the author's name from the date, and one comma separates the date from the page number (or chapter, etc.). Page abbreviations like "p." or "pp." are used only when their absence is likely to cause confusion. Abbreviations such as sec. (section), fig. (figure), app. (appendix), etc., should be used, however.

Example:

Because of the underdevelopment of the racial theme, Bright Skin was said to have "failed to feed the growing appetite for anti-establishment tracts while at the same time offering no new insights into the nature of Blue Brook Plantation" (Landess 1976, 121).

Examples of Variations to In-Text Formatting Rules

1. Citing Sources with No Date

Format: When you cite a source that has no date given, include in parentheses the name of the author and the abbreviation "n.d." ("no date").

Example:

This has occurred in previous experiments (Phelps & Gomez, n.d.).


2. Citing Sources with Unnamed, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors

Format: When no author is listed on the tile or copyright page, begin the entry with the title of the work. In the bibliography, alphabetize the entry by the first word other than A, An, or The.

Example One:

Letting Ana Go (New York: Simon Pulse, 2013), 118-20.

Example Two:

Letting Ana Go. New York: Simon Pulse, 2013.


3. Citing Electronic (Web site or Internet) Sources

Format: An electronic source is cited like any other source when the entire source is cited: Author's Last Name and Date of Publication are mentioned. However, in cases where specific parts of the electronic source are cited, documentation of the particular paragraph number or section heading where the cited material may be found is recommended.

Example:

Mendelson, Abby. “Roberto Clemente: A Form of Punishment.” Pittsburg Pirates. MLB.com. May 24, 2013. http://mlb.mlb.com/pit/history/pit_clemente.jsp.


4. Citing Authors with Same Last Name in References List

Format: Include first name initials of all in-text cited authors when other authors in your References List have the same last name.

Example:

K.K. Sullivan (1962) and D. Sullivan (1996) came to similar conclusions about the effects of this treatment method.


5. Citing Sources Not Included in the References List

Format: Unpublished manuscripts, letters and newspaper articles, etc. may be cited within the in-text parenthetical citation or in the actual text itself.

Example One:

Paul Nesbitt (telephone interview, 19 August 2016) expressed his dissatisfaction with the proposed plan.

Example Two:

In a letter dated 12 August 2016, Nesbitt indicated to his daughter that a new plan was being presented to the County Commissioners.


6. Citing Sources with More than One Author

Format, Sources with Two or Three Authors: List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page. In a note, list the first name for each author first. In the bibliography, list the first author’s last name first and list the first names for each other author first.

Example:

Jerin, Robert A., and Laura J. Moriarty. The Victims of Crime. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.

Format, Sources with Four or More Authors: In a note, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (Latin for “and others”). In the bibliography, list all the authors that appear on the title page.

Example One:

Harry Markopolos et al., No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010). 179.

Example Two:

Markopolos, Harry, Frank Casey, Neil Chelo, Gaytri Kachroo, and Michael Ocrant. No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010.

Note: An alternative would be to include a shortened title following the "Author et al.", in every instance of the same "Author et al." occurring.

Example:

(Nesbitt et al., Neighborhood associations, 2015)

(Nesbitt et al., Zoning laws, 2015)


7. Citing Sources Authored by a Group or Corporation

Format: Use the group or corporation as the author; it may also be the publisher.

Example:

Where the References List entry looks like:

Bas Bleu Theatre Company. 2014. 2014 NEA Grant Application for

The first in-text citation will look like:

The grant proposal (Bas Bleu Theatre Company [BBTC] 2014) was an important effort to support the arts in the community.

And a subsequent in-text citation will look like:

The proposal requested new and increased salaries for theatre staff (BBTC 2014).


8. Citing Two or More Sources in the Same Parenthesis

Format, Two or More Sources by Same Author: When you are citing two or more works by the same author in one parenthetical note, list the name of the author only once, followed by the publication dates of the various works in order of year of publication.

Example:

Psychologists have arrived at this conclusion in the past (Tripp, 2004, 2010, 2016).

Format, Two or More Sources Published by Same Author in Same Year: When, in one parenthetical note, you are citing two or more works by the same author published in the same year, be sure to distinguish between the two by assigning them letter suffixes ("a," "b," etc.). These designations will be consistent with those you have given the works in the reference list.

Example:

Past research (Johnson 2013a, 2013b) has revealed interesting patterns.

Format, Two or More Sources by Different Authors: When you refer to works by different authors within the same parenthetical note, separate them by using semicolons.

Example:

Several studies (Evens 2005; Dorer 2014; Bundy 2014) have contributed to our current understanding of this phenomenon.

Citing Sources at the End of Your Document

The end documentation in the CMS Author/Date system is the References List page. It is located at the end of a document or book and contains all the bibliographic information needed to find out more about cited source material.

This list is a selective bibliography and does not include a full accounting of sources related to or consulted before you began writing your document, but only those actually cited.

Proper CMS documentation depends on the References List. Without it the in-text numbers would make little sense as they would no longer be pointing at any corresponding entries in the end documentation.

CMS Reference List Formatting Rules

CMS References List formatting rules call for the end documentation to begin on a new page at the end of your document and be numbered accordingly. If your document is 6½ pages long, the Notes page should begin on page 8.

Note: Unless informed otherwise, you can count on your instructor not counting the References List page in the total page count of an eight page assignment.

The page itself should be formatted in the following way:

  • The title-References List-should be centered one inch from the top of the page. This may also be called a Literature Cited or Works Cited page.
  • Double space between the title and first entry; all subsequent entries should be single spaced.
  • Arrange entries alphabetically, according to author, last names first.

Individual entries should be formatted in the following way:

  • The first line of each entry should be flush-left while any subsequent lines are indented five spaces.
  • The date of publication follows directly after the author's name. First names are often, though not always, abbreviated.
  • Use the "down" or "sentence style" for titles and subtitles, capitalizing only the first letter of the first word, as well as any proper nouns and adjectives that are included.

CMS Directory of Reference List Formatting Rules

Book and Book Parts

1. Book with Unknown Author(s)

References List Format:
When no author is listed on the title or copyright page, begin the entry with the title of the work. In the bibliography, alphabetize the entry by the first word other than A, An, or The.

Example:

Letting Ana Go. New York: Simon Pulse, 2013.


2. Book with Group or Corporate Author

References List Format:
Use the corporation or group as the author; it may also be the publisher.

Example:

International Monetary fund. Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2010.


3. Book with One Author

References List Format:
When citing a book, use the information from the title page and the copyright page (on the reverse side of the title page), not from the book’s cover or a library catalog.

Example:

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. The Bully Pulpit: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013.


4. Book with Two Authors

Note: Names must always appear in the same order as found on the Title page of the work being cited.

References List Format:
List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page. In a note, list the first name for each author first. In the bibliography, list the first author’s last name first and list the first names for each other author first.

Example:

Jerin, Robert A., and Laura J. Moriarity. The Victims of Crime. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.


5. Book with Three Authors

Note: Names must always appear in the same order, separated by commas, as found on the Title page of the work being cited.

References List Format:
First Author-Last Name first. Next Author(s)-First Names or initials first. Year of Publication. Book Title-in italics. Number ed.-when applicable. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Example:

Alred, Gerald J., Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu. 2003. The Business Writer's Handbook. 7th ed. Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's.


6. Book with Four or More Authors

Note: Names must always appear in the same order as found on the Title page of the work being cited. Use the last name first rule for the first author and the first name first rule for all other authors. Separate names with commas.

References List Format:
First Author-Last Name first. Next Author(s)- Initials or First Names first. Year of Publication. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Example:

Markopolos, Harry, Frank Casey, Neil Chelo, Gaytri Kachroo, and Michael Ocrant. No One Would Listen: A True Financial Thriller. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010.


7. Book with Author & Editor(s) or Translator(s)

References List Format (Editor):
List the author at the beginning of the citation and add the editor’s name after the title. In notes, use the abbreviation “ed.” before the editor’s name. In the bibliography, include the phrase “Edited by” before the editor’s name.

Example:

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Edited by Ira Dworkin. New York: Penguin Books, 2014.

References List Format (Translator):
List the author first and the translator after the title. Use the abbreviation “trans.” in a note, but spell out “Translated by” in the bibliography.

Example:

Ali, Nujood, and Delphine Minoui. I Am Nujood, Age 10 and Divorced. Translated by Linda Coverdale. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2010.


8. Edited Anthology or Collection

References List Format:
To cite an entire anthology or collection of articles, give the editor(s) before the title of the collection, adding a comma and the abbreviation “ed.” or “eds.”

Example:

Krausz, Michael, ed. Relativism: A Contemporary Anthology. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.


9. Chapter in a Book or Selection in an Anthology

References List Format:
Give the author and title (in quotation marks) for the chapter or selection. Then give the title, editor (if any), and publication data for the book or anthology. In the bibliography, give the inclusive page numbers before the publication data.

Example:

Dalrymple, William. “The Monk’s Tale.” In Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India (New York: Knopf, 2010).

10. Chapter in an Unedited Book

References List Format:
Author-Last Name first. Year of Publication. Chapter Title-No quotation marks-No italics. Chap. Number-if applicable. In Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Example:

Williams, Susan Millar. 1997. Cross Purposes. Chap. 6 in A devil and a good woman, too: The lives of Julia Peterkin. Athens and London: Univ. of Georgia Press,


11. Book Editions (Second, Third, etc.)

References List Format:
Give edition information after the title.

Example:

Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010.


12. Reprinted (Republished) Books

References List Format:
Place the original publication date before the publication information for the reprint.

Example:

James, King of England. The Political Works of James I. Edited by Charles Howard McIlwain. 1918. Reprint, Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2010.


13. Sacred Texts

Note: Citations of sacred texts such as the Christian Bible, Islam's Holy Qur'an and the Hebrew Torah generally occur only in the in-text citation and are not included in the References List. Please refer to the CMS Notes Examples of In-Text Formatting Rules for more information.


14. Untitled Volume in a Multivolume Work

References List Format:
In the notes, give the volume number and page number, separated by a colon, for the specific location of the information referred to in your text. In the bibliography, if you have used all of the volumes, give the total number of volumes after the title, using the abbreviation “vols.” (“2 vols.” or “4 vols.”). If you have used one volume, give the abbreviation “Vol.” and the volume number after the title.

Example:

Hanqi, Fang, ed. A History of Journalism in China. Vol 7. Singapore: Silkroad Press, 2013.


15. Titled Volume in a Multivolume Work

References List Format:
Give the title of the volume to which you refer, followed by the volume number and the general title for the entire work.

Example:

Atkinson, Rick. The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945. Vol 3 of The Liberation Trilogy. New York: Henry Holt, 2013.


16. Book in a Series

References List Format:
The series name follows the title and is capitalized as a title but is not italicized. If the series numbers its volumes, include that information as well.

Example:

Holt, Michael F. Franklin Pierce. American Presidents Series 14. New York: Times Books/Henry Holt, 2010.


17. Book Without Publication Information

References List Format:
Author-Last Name first, Book Title – in italics. N.p., n.d

Example:

Biv, Roy G. On learning the color spectrum. N.p., n.d.


18. Book Introduction, Preface, Foreword or Afterword

References List Format:
Give the name of the writer of the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword followed by the appropriate phrase (“introduction to,” “preface to,” and so on) before the title of the book. If the writer of the introduction or other part differs from the writer of the book, after the title insert the word “by” and the author’s name.

Example:

Stannard, Martin. Preface to Muriel Spark: The Biography, xv-xxvi. New York: Norton, 2010.

Journals, Magazines and Newspapers

1. Journal Article with Consecutive Pagination

Note: Consecutive Pagination means that each new issue of a Journal begins with the page number that follows the last page number in the previous issue. In other words, the page numbers run consecutively from issue to issue.

References List Format:
Give the author (last name first) followed by the year of publication then the article title. Include the name of the journal (in italics) followed by the volume number, the issue number (if available) and end with the page number(s).

Brown, Sterling. 1934. Arcadia, South Carolina. Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life 12:59-60.


2. Journal Article with Non-Consecutive Pagination

Note: Non-Consecutive Pagination means that each new issue of a Journal begins with page 1 and not with the number that follows the last page number in the previous issue, as is the case with consecutive pagination.

References List Format:
Begin with the author (last name first) followed by the year of publication, the article title and the name of the journal (in italics). Include the volume number, the issue number and end with the article page number(s).

Clifford, James. 1983. On Ethnographic Authority. Representations 1, no. 2:118-46.


3. Article in a Weekly Magazine

References List Format:
Cite like a monthly magazine (see next format), but provide the day of publication.

Makary, Marty. “the cost of Chasing Cancer.” Time, March 10, 2014, 24.


4. Article in a Monthly or Seasonal Magazine

References List Format:
Magazines are cited by their dates rather than by volume and issue.

Huber, Peter. “Better Medicine.” Reason, March 2014, 22-30.


5. Magazine Article with Volume and Issue Numbers

Note: When no author by-line exists, begin with the Article Title and proceed as shown above. This case also illustrates a magazine with a volume number but not an issue number.

References List Format:
Begin with the author (last name first) followed by the year of publication, the article title, the magazine title (in italics), the volume number and or issue. End with the page number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

A passing race. 1929. Canadian Magazine, 71:34.


6. Article in a Newspaper

Note: In most cases, newspaper articles are cited in running text and are not included in the References List; however, when you do, follow the example below. When no author by-line exists, begin with the Article Title rather than the author's name.

References List Format:
If the name of the newspaper does not include the city, insert the city before the name (and italicize it). If an American city is not well known, name the state as well (in parentheses, abbreviated). Identify newspapers from other countries with the city in parentheses (not italicized) after the name of the newspaper. Page number may be omitted, since separate editions of the same newspaper may place articles differently. If a paper comes out in more than one edition, identify the edition after the date.

Zito, Kelly. “Cities Key Source of Toxins in Bay, Study Finds.” San Francisco Chronicle, October 5, 2010, Bay Area Edition.

Note: When not part of the newspaper title, include name of American city, in italics, along with the rest of the title, as shown here:

Denver Rocky Mountain News

Note: When city name is not well known, or there is more than one city in America with the same name, include the state abbreviation, in parenthesis and not italicized, as shown here:

Ashtabula, (OH) Star-Beacon

Note: Follow the title of foreign newspapers with its hometown name, in parenthesis and not italicized, as shown here:

Sunday Times (London)


7. Book, Stage/Theater, Movie, Concert/Music Review (Magazine or Newspaper)

References List Format:
Give the author of the review title, if any, and then the words “review of” followed by the title and the author of the work reviewed and the author or editor (for books) or director or performer (for movies, plays, and similar productions).

Holden, Stephen. “Students Caught in the School Squeeze.” Review of Waiting for Superman, directed by Davis Guggenheim. New York Times, September 23, 2010.


8. Citing an Unsigned Article in a Newspaper or Magazine

References List Format:
If not author is given, begin the note with the title of the article; begin the bibliography entry with the title of the periodical.

Boston Globe. “NYC May Ban Smoking in Parks, on Beaches.” Boston Globe September 16, 2010.


9. Citing a Letter to the Editor

References List Format:
Treat as a newspaper article. If not title is provided, place “Letter to the editor” in the title position.

Levi, Jason. Letter to the editor. Smithsonian, June 2016.


Dissertations and Theses

1. Published Dissertation or Thesis

Note: Include the phrase, "Ph.D. diss." or "Master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.

References List Format:
Give the author and title, the phrase “PhD diss.” or “master’s thesis,” followed by the information about the institution that granted the degree and the year. Include the publication number from ProQuest if appropriate.

Colello, Anthony. Affirmative Action Bans and Minority Employment: Washington State’s Initiative 200. PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2011, 41-2, ProQuest (AAT 1491319).


2. Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

Note: Include the phrase, "Ph.D. diss." or "Master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.

References List Format:
Give the author and title, in quotation marks. Then include the phrase “PhD diss.” or “master’s thesis,” information about the institution that granted the degree, and the date.

Iddings, Joshua Glenn. “Writing at One Appalachian High School.” PhD diss., Purdue University, 2013.


3. Abstract of a Dissertation or Thesis

Note: Format like a Journal Article. Include the phrase, "Ph.D. diss." or "Master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.

References List Format:
Provide information as you would for an article in a journal. Add information about Dissertation Abstracts International.

Mou, Yi. “Social Media and Risk Communication: The Role of Social Networking Sites, in Food-safety Communication.” PhD Diss., University of Connecticut, 2012. Abstract, Dissertation Abstracts International 74 (2013).

Unpublished Manuscripts and Papers

1. Unpublished Document in a Manuscript Collection

References List Format:
Include the document author (last name first), the document date (when available) followed by a description of the document including the collection name, the depository name and the depository location.

Peterkin, Julia. 1930. Letter to George Shively dated 18 October. Bobbs-Merrill Papers. Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington.


2. Unpublished Papers Read at Meetings

Note: Papers appearing in the Published Proceedings of Meetings may be formatted in the same manner as a book.

References List Format:
List the author (last name first), the year the paper was read, and the paper title. Include the phrase “Paper read” followed by the meeting name, the location, the day and month of the meeting.

Montgomery, M. Lorenzo. 1985. Dow Turner's early work on Gullah. Paper read at 9th Annual Symposium on Language and Culture, Columbia, SC, 27 April.

Interviews, Letters and Personal Communications

1. Published Interviews

Note: Consult The Chicago Manual of Style to format interviews appearing in other print and non-print mediums.

References List Format:
Give the location and date in a note.

Rachel Stein, interview by author, Pittsburgh, June 2, 2014.


2. Unpublished Interviews

References List Format:
Do not include unpublished interviews in the bibliography.


3. Unpublished Letters, Phone & Personal Communications

References List Format:
Do not include personal communications such as letters or phone calls in the bibliography. In a note, give the name of the person with whom you communicated, the form of communication, and the date.

Megahn McKennan, conversation with author, March 5, 2014.

Sangita Thakore, letter to author, November 12, 2014

Electronic Sources

1. Portable Sources (CD-ROM's, Diskettes, Magnetic Tapes, etc.)

Note: Unlike online sources which exist on a computer service or network and are subject to continual revision, portable electronic sources are published and released at fixed points in time. Generally, these types of citations are done in running text within the document; however, they can be included in the References List. The following example is for a non-periodical portable source. The format for a periodical source is slightly different.

References List Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. Year of Publication. Title-in italics if book title. Volume, edition, etc.-if appropriate. [Medium]. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Sheehy, Donald, ed. 1997. Robert Frost: Poems, life, legacy. [CD-ROM]. New York: Holt.


2. Computer Programs and Software

References List Format:
Program/Software Name: Identifying Version, level or release number and date-if available. Abbreviated Program/Software Name.-if applicable. Organization or Individual holding Property Rights, Location.

Electronic Supplements for Real Writing: 1. Interactive Writing Software Ver. 1. Bedford, Boston.

Digital Sources

All digital sources should include either a publication date, a revision or “last modified” date, or an access date. After the date, include a DOI (digital object identifier) or, if the source does not have a DOI, a stable URL. For a source accessed through a database, include the name of the database and any number assigned to the source.

1. Online Computer Services

References List Format:
List the author or editor (last name first). List the title (italicize if it is a book title), the print publication information, the online publication information (including the computer service name), and finish with the accession number.

Note: The following source was obtained through the computer service "Dialog."

Wever, Katharine. 1998. In a painting, Gershwin packed the house. New York Times 30 August, late ed.: sec. 2, p. 30. Dialog, New York Times Fulltext 03819774.


2. Article from an Online Journal

Fields, Gary. “Palestinian Landscape in a ‘Not-too-Distant-Mirror,’” Journal of Historical Sociology 23, no. 2 (June 2010). doi: 10.111/j.1467-6443.2010.01373.x.


3. Article from an Online Database

Pes, Alessandro. “Becoming Imperialist: Italian Colonies in Fascist Textbooks for Primary Schools.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 18, no. 5 (2013): 599-614. Academic Search Premier (92017350), doi: 10.1080/1354571X.2013.839519.

4. Article in an Online Magazine

Seigel, Jacob. “The History and Logic of Military Ultimatums, From Suez to Crimea.” The Daily Beast, March 3, 2014, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/03/03/the-history-and-logic-of-military-ultimatums-from-suez-to-crimea.html.


5. Article from a Nonperiodical Websit

Mendelson, Abby. “Roberto Clemente: A Form of Punishment.” Pittsburg Pirates. MLB.com. May 24, 2013. http://mlb.mlb.com/pit/history/pit_clemente.jsp.


6. Article from an Online Book

Ruskin, Gary. Spooky Business: Corporate Espionage against Nonprofit Organizations. Washington, DC: Essential Information, 2013. http://www.corporatepolicy.org/spookybusiness.pdf.


7. Article Posted on a Wiki

“Native Americans,” Davis Wiki, accessed March 4, 2014. http://daviswiki.org/Native-Americans.


8. Citing an Entire Blog

References List Format:
Put the word “blog” in parentheses following the name of the blog, if it is not already part of the name. If the blog is part of a larger publication, include the name of the publication as well.

McNamara, Pat. McNamara’s Blog: Musings of a Catholic Church Historian from Queens, New York. http://patheos.com/blogs/mcnamarasblog/.


9. Citing an Entry or Comment on a Blog

References List Format:
Put the word “blog” in parentheses following the name of the blog, if it is not already part of the name. If the blog is part of a larger publication, include the name of the publication as well.

Winchell, Donna Haisty. “In Arizona, Is It Ethics or Economics?” Argument and the Headlines (blog). Bits: Ideas for Teaching Composition, March 3, 2014, http://blogs.bedfordstmartins.com/bits/author/donnaonbitsgmail-com/.


10. Citing an E-mail Message

References List Format:
Chicago recommends that personal communication, including email, not be included in the bibliography, although it can be cited in your text. Note that the Chicago Manual prefers the hyphenated version of the word “e-mail.”

Brysa, H. Levy, e-mail message to author, January 4, 2014


10. Citing an Online Posting to a Discussion Group

References List Format:
Like email, online postings are considered personal communication and are therefore listed in the text only, not in the bibliography. Include a URL for archived postings.

Alessandro, Busà to URBANTH-L discussion group, December 1, 2009, http://lists.cc.ysu.edu/pipermail/urbanth-l/2009-December/002761.html.


Audio and Video Recordings

1. Sound or Musical Recordings

Note: The elements in the following format (particularly composer and director) may be rearranged to suit your particular purposes. See Chicago Manual of Style for more examples.

References List Format:
Give the composer and title of the recording, the performers and conductor, the label and identifying number.

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich. Symphony No. 5, Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Daniele Gatti. Harmonia Mundi, MU907381, compact disc.


2. Dramatic Performance Recordings

References List Format:
List the playwright (last name first), the title of the recording (in italics), director’s name, the performers’ or artists’ names, (first names first), the label and identifying number.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Directed by Howerd Sackler. Performed by Frank Silvera, Celia Johnson, Cyril Cusack, Anna Massey, and others. Caedmon CDG 225. Audiotape.


3. Poetry and Prose Recordings

References List Format:
List the poet or prose writer (last name first), the recording title (in italics), the name of the reader (first name first) or the phrase “Read by Author”, the label and the recording number.

Eliot, T.S. Poems and Choruses. Read by author. Caedmon TC1045. Record album.


4. Lecture Recordings

References List Format:
List the lecture recorder (last name first), the year, the recording title (in italics), a brief description of the lecture, the phrase “presented by” followed by the name of the lecturer. Include the institution name, the location, the month and year of the lecture and any publication information (if applicable).

Nesbitt, L.M. 1995. Censorship. Audiotape of a lecture presented by Louann Reid at Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO, October 1995.


5. Slides

Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.

References List Format:
Slide Show Producer-Last Name first. Year. Slide Show Title-in italics. Place of Production: Production Company Name. Slides.

Nesbitt, John. 1991. Europe by train. Knoxville, TN: Fabricated Production Company. Slides.


6. Film or Video Recording

Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.

References List Format:
Provide the title first, the name of the director, the company, the year it was filmed, the medium (film, videocassette, DVD).

Michael Jackson’s This Is It. Directed by Kenny Ortega. 2009 (2009; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures, 2010) DVD.


Legal Materials

1. State and Federal Court Cases/Decisions

Note: State and federal court cases and decisions are normally cited in the running text of a document as in the example below. The Chicago Manual of Style provides no guidance for a References List entry.

Format:

In the 1923 case, Meyer v. State of Nebraska (262 U.S. 390), the Court handed down a decision that...


2. State and Federal Constitutions

Note: State and federal constitutions are normally cited in the running text of a document as in the example below

Format:
Give the state or country name. the article or amendment number and the subdivision number.

In the Wisconsin Constitution, art. 9, sec. 1...

Publications of Congress

1. Congressional Record/General Citation

References List Format:
List the Congressional Record (in italics), the year, the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the volume number (numeral only) and the abbreviated pt. number. Include the page number(s) (if appropriate).

Congressional Record. 1995. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Vol. 141, pt. 26.


2. Congressional Record/Speaker Citation

References List Format:
List the Speaker’s name (last name first), the year, a brief description of the remarks, the resolution number (if appropriate), the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the phrase “Cong Rec” (abbreviated and in italics), the day, month, volume number, pt. number and page number(s) (if appropriate).

Kennedy, Edward. 1995. Senator Kennedy of Massachusetts reintroducing the Equal Remedies Act. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Cong. Rec., 30 Jan., vol. 141, pt. 10.


3. Congressional Records and Documents

References List Format:
Congressional Body or Committee Name. Year. Report or Document Title-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated,. Document Number. Serial Number-if available.

U.S. Congress. 1982. South Dakota Water Resource Development. 97th Cong., 2d sess. S. Doc. 514. Serial 13452.


4. Congressional Journals

References List Format:
List the Congressional body name, the name of the journal (in italics), the year, number of Congress (abbreviated), the number of session (abbreviated), the day, month and year. .

U.S. Congress. Senate Journal. 1996. 104th Cong., 2d sess., 20 February.

Or

U.S. Senate Journal. 1996. 104th Cong., 2d sess., 20 February.


5. Congressional Hearings

References List Format:
List the Congressional body name, the year, the Committee name, the title of the Hearing (in italics), the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the day and month.

U.S. Senate. 1990. Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations. 101st Cong., 2d sess. 4-5 December.


6. Congressional Committee Prints

References List Format:
List the Congressional body name, the year, the Committee name, the title of the report (in italics), the phrase “Report prepared by” followed by the name of the agency or department person(s), the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, and the Committee Print number.

U.S. Senate. 1973. Committee on Public Works. Effects and methods of control of thermal discharges. Report prepared by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. 93rd Cong., 1st sess. Committee Print 14.


7. Congressional Bills and Resolutions

Note: Congressional bills and resolutions are normally cited in the running text of a document, however, when included in the References List, follow the example below.

References List Format:
List the Congressional body name, the year, the Bill or Resolution title (in italics), the abbreviated number of Congress, abbreviated number of session, the Bill or Resolution number, the phrase “Congressional Record” (in italics), and record information (if applicable).

U.S. House. 1995. Interstate Child Support Enforcement Act. 104th Cong., 1st sess., H.R. 195. Congressional Record, 241, no. 4, daily ed. (9 January): H168.


8. Laws and Statutes Published as Slip Laws

References List Format:
List the name of Law (when available; in italics), the U.S. Public Law numbers, the abbreviated number of Congress, the abbreviated number of session, the day, month and year.

U.S. Public Law 105-258. 105th Cong., 2d sess., 14 October 1998.


9. Laws and Statures Collected in Statutes at Large

References List Format:
List U.S. Statutes at Large (in italics), the year, the volume number, the page number(s) and the name of the law (when available; in italics).

U.S. Statutes at Large. 1888. Vol. 25, p. 476.


10. Laws and Statutes Incorporated Into the U.S. Code

References List Format:
List the law, statute, or act title (in italics), U.S. Code (in italics), the volume number and the section number.

Farm Credit Act. 1959. U.S. Code Annotated. Vol. 42, sec. 410.

Presidential Documents

1. Proclamations and Executive Orders

References List Format:
President. Year. Proclamation or Executive Order. Proclamation or Executive Order Title. Federal Register-in italics Number, Issue Number (Day Month):-in parenthesis: Page Number(s). Medium-if applicable.

President. 1954. Proclamation. Display of the flag of the United States of America at half-staff upon the death of certain officials and former officials. Federal Register 19, no. 3 (1 March): 1235. Microfiche.


2. Messages and Papers of the Presidents

References List Format:
Document Title-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated. In Compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents, 1789-1897-in italics. Edited by Name of Editor-First Name First. Vol. Number. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication.


3. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States

References List Format:
President-Last Name first. Year. Public papers of the presidents of the United States: President-First Name first, Term in Office. Vol. Number. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Carter, Jimmy. 1981. Public papers of the presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1980-81. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: GPO.

Government Documents and Publications

1. Executive Department Publications

References List Format:
In general, give the issuing body, then the title and any other information (such as report numbers) that would help your readers locate the source. Follow with the publication data and the page numbers if relevant. You may abbreviate “Government Printing Office” as GPO.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives. 1991. Attorney-client privilege and the right of congressional access to documents for oversight purposes in the case of the suspension of the telephone loan programs by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: GPO.


2. Government Commission Publications

References List Format:
Commission Name. Year. Publication Title-in italics. Washington, D.C.: GPO.

U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1977/78. Annual report of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Washington, D.C.: GPO.


3. Treaties

References List Format:
Department or Issuing Body. Year of Treaty. Treaty Title. Day Month of Treaty. TIAS Number. Publication Name-in italics. Vol. Number, Part Number-if text instead of microform.

U.S. Department of State. 1989. Tourism. 3 October. TIAS no. 12403. United States treaties and other international agreements.


4. Administrative and Legislative Reports

References List Format:
Name of Issuing Body. Year. Report Title-in italics. Place.

Colorado General Assembly, Colorado Commission on Higher Education. 1996. 1996 Legislative report on higher education admission standards. Denver.


5. State Laws and Municipal Ordinances

Note: State laws or municipal ordinances are normally cited in the running text, although compilations of state laws (codes) or municipal ordinances may be cited in the References List.

References List Format:
State or Municipal Name, Year. State Laws or Municipal Compilation Title-in italics. (Editor Name)-in parenthesis.

Colorado. 1974. Revised Statutes, Annotated (Michie Co.).

Examples of How to Arrange Reference List Entries

1. Unknown, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors

Note: Organize alphabetically and avoid using "Anonymous". When a work is of unknown origin, use the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles which may be transposed to the end of the title.

When the author's name is known but does not appear on the title page place it before the title as you would normally, but in [brackets]. When the author's name is uncertain, indicate so with a question mark inside the [brackets?].

Example

Parsons, Elsie Clews. [1923] 1969. Folk-lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press.

Passing Race, A. 1929. Canadian Magazine.

Peterkin, Julia. 1927. Black April. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co.

[Joe Schmoe?]. Passing Race, A, 1929. Canadian Magazine.


2. Author of One Work is First Co-Author of Another

Note: Single author works always precede co-authored works.

Shor, Ira. 1986. Culture wars: School and society in the conservative restoration, 1969-1982. Boston: Routledge and K. Paul.

Shor, Ira. and Paul Friere. 1987. A pedagogy of liberation: Dialogues on transforming education. New York: Bergin and Garvey.


3. Multiple Works by Same Author: Using "three em" (---) Dashes

The three-em dash serves the same purpose as "ditto" marks. When an author appears consecutively, associated with different titles, a three-em dash (---) may replace the name after the first entry.

Each work is then organized in chronological order, by publication date. In the event of two works being published in the same year, add a lowercase letter following the date and alphabetize the entries by title.

Nesbitt, P.B. 1998a. Zoning laws and neighborhood crises. Knoxville, TN: Wachese Press.

---. 1998b. The role of neighborhood associations in urban development battles. Knoxville, TN: Wachese Press.

Additional CMS Author/Date Resources

Printed Resources:

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Electronic Resources:

The official Chicago Manual of Style website, updated regularly, is the comprehensive guide to all things CMS: the organization, its journals, products and services.

Citation Information

Will Allen, Peter Connor, Heidi Scott, and Laurel Nesbitt. (1994-2019). Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System). The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at https://wac.colostate.edu/resources/writing/guides/.

Copyright Information

Copyright © 1994-2019 Colorado State University and/or this site's authors, developers, and contributors. Some material displayed on this site is used with permission.