Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System)

The CMS style documentation system is used in both the humanities and the social sciences. A bit more complex than either the MLA or the APA, it offers two approaches for documenting sources: 1) a notes system and, 2) an author/date system similar to the APA. This guide explains the notes system. A separate guide explains the Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System). Inserted at the point of reference, superscripted numbers interact with sequentially numbered footnotes listed at the bottom of a page or endnotes listed at the end of the document.

These notes replace the types of end documentation found in both the MLA and APA systems, though it is advised that a bibliography accompany any document containing numerous notes regardless of their location. Check with your instructor on what is expected when you are asked to use this style.

This guide is largely based on style recommendations from the 14th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, however, you may also wish to consult the 6th edition of Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). In it you will find many corresponding or similar documentation patterns.

[Guide Updated Jul 2017]

Citing Sources within Your Document (Using In-Text Numbering)

The CMS - Notes in-text citation system is simple: It relies on numbers. Unlike the MLA and the APA, no parenthetical information is required. All that's needed is a superscripted number: a raised numeral located at the end of a clause or sentence identifying the content as outside source material.

The superscripted number flags the reader's attention to the existence of a citation note bearing the same number located either at the bottom of a page or the end of a book or document.

CMS In-Text Numbering Rules

CMS In-Text Numbering Rules are as follows:

  • In-text superscripted numbers appear after the punctuation and quotation marks at the end of a cited clause or sentence. There is no space between the punctuation and the numeral.
  • Source material located in the first part of a sentence separated by an em dash (two hyphens) is cited with the number placed before the dash begins.
  • Beginning with 1, each number follows in sequential order from page to page regardless of whether they are footnotes or endnotes.
  • Superscripted numbers can be created in Microsoft® Word.

Superscripting Numbers with Microsoft® Word

  1. Select Font on the tool bar Format drop-down menu and open the Font tab.
  2. Select the same font, size and style used in the rest of your document.
  3. Select automatic (for black) or another color choice from the Font color menu.
  4. Check the Superscript option in the Effects section.
  5. Click OK, return to your document and insert your superscript number.
  6. Once inserted, you must return to the Font dialogue box and uncheck the Superscript selection before entering any more text.

Examples of Notes & Bibliography Formatting Rules

1. Superscript Number Placed at the End of a Sentence

Note: In this case, superscript number 1 is an implied reference indicating that the origin of the source material will be found in a footnote or endnote.

Writing your way out is how you escape the Penguin Room.1


2. Superscript Number Placed after a Clause

Note: In this case, superscript number 3 is an express reference. It includes an author tag, or attribute, naming the origin of the source material.

Calderazzo's "Find the Penguin Room" solution,3 the curious and unexpected response to one of the basic questions many beginning writers ask, is introduced in the first chapter.


3. Superscript Number Placed before an em dash in a Sentence

Note: In this case, superscript number 5 implies a reference specific to that part of the sentence which precedes the em dash.

What kind of person brings a penguin collection to the broiling slickrock desert5-a simple enough question-is the type of thing that triggers the instinctual curiosity of a seasoned freelance writer.


4. Two or More Superscript Numbers in One Sentence

Note: In this case, superscript number 7 references the source indicated within the quotation marks whereas, superscript number 8 references an entire chapter.

Calderazzo's use of Annie Dillard's "write as if you were dying" notion,7 though a grim thought, conveniently closes the opening chapter on finding inspiration, following your curiosity and thinking like a freelancer.8

Documenting Sources Using Numbered Notes & A Bibliography

The end documentation in the CMS note system is called a Notes page. It is a list located at the end of a document or book containing all the bibliographic information needed to find out more about cited source material. Each note is called an endnote.

The Notes page is a selective bibliography and does not include a full accounting of sources related to or consulted before you began writing your document, but only those actually cited. In the case of a limited number of citations, footnotes at the bottom of each page may replace the endnotes.

In addition to bibliographic information, each note may contain content that is indirectly relevant to your topic, but which may be tangentially interesting or useful to your reader: your research challenges, conflicting evidence and disagreements among experts, for instance, would fall into this category.

Proper CMS documentation depends on the Notes page. Without it the in-text numbers would make little sense as they would no longer be pointing at any corresponding entries in the end documentation.

CMS Notes Page Formatting rules

CMS Notes Page formatting rules call for the end documentation to begin on a new page at the end of your document and be numbered accordingly. If your document is 6½ pages long, the Notes page should begin on page 8.

When footnotes replace endnotes, separate them from the body text with a triple-space or a twelve-space bar line beginning flush-left and then apply the same formatting rules as for endnotes.

Note: Unless informed otherwise, you can count on your instructor not counting the Notes page in the total page count of an eight page assignment.

The Notes page formatting rules are as follows:

  • The title-Notes-should be centered one inch from the top of the first page.
  • Double space between the title and first entry, and all subsequent entries.
  • Arrange entries numerically, not alphabetically.

Individual entries should be formatted in the following way:

  • Indent the first line of each entry five spaces from the left margin (the normal tab-button default space). Subsequent lines are flush-left.
  • Number each entry consecutively following their initial in-text order of appearance. Each number should be followed by a period and one space.
  • Page numbers are included only when specific passages rather than entire sources are being cited and in the case of quotations.
  • Common abbreviations used to make notes less redundant and cluttered should be identified in a separate list placed between the title and the first entry on the Notes page.

CMS Bibliography Formatting Rules

CMS Bibliography formatting rules differ significantly from the Notes rules:

  • The title-Bibliography-replaces the word Notes at the top of the page.
  • Numbers are omitted altogether and entries are arranged alphabetically, last name first, instead of numerically.
  • The five-space indentation rule is also reversed. The first line of each entry is flush-left while any subsequent lines are indented five spaces.
  • When a complete Bibliography is required, it follows the Notes page.

CMS Directory of Notes & Bibliography Formatting Rules

Books and Book Parts

1. Book with Unknown Authors

Notes Format:
Numeral. Book Title-in italics (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

1. Washington Post Guide to Washington (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013), 12.

Bibliography Format:
Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Washington Post Guide to Washington. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013.


2. Book with Group or Corporate Author

Notes Format:
Numeral. Group or Corporate Author, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

2. Time-Life Books, The Age of God Kings: Time Frame-3000-1500 B.C. (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Education, 1987), 17.

Bibliography Format:
Group or Corporate Author. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Time-Life Books. The Age of God Kings: Time Frame-3000-1500 B.C. Alexandria, VA: Little, Time-Life Education, 1987.


3. Book with with One Author

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

3. Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993), 54.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Takaki, Ronald. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993.


4. Book with Two Authors

Note: Names must always appear in the same order as found on the Title page of the work being cited.

Notes Format:
Numeral. First Author-First Name first and Next Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

4. Ira Schor and Paulo Freire, A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education (New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1987), 89.

Bibliography Format:
First Author-Last Name first, and Next Author-First Name first. Book Title-in italics, Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Schor, Ira, and Paulo Freire. A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1987.


5. Book with Three Authors

Note: Names must always appear in the same order, separated by commas, as found on the Title page of the work being cited.

Notes Format:
Numeral. First Author-First Name first, Next Author(s)-First Names first, Book Title-in italics, number ed.-when applicable. (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

2. Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu, The Business Writer's Handbook, 7th ed. (Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2003), 116.

Bibliography Format:
First Author-Last Name first. Next Author(s)-First Names first. Book Title-in italics. Number ed.-when applicable. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Alred, Gerald J., Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu. The Business Writer's Handbook. 7th ed. Boston and New York: Bedford/St.


6. Book with Four or More Authors

Note: Names must always appear in the same order as found on the Title page of the work being cited. Note entries use the first name first rule for the author and the Latin abbreviation "et al.," or its literal translation "and others" for all other author names. In the bibliography, use the last name first rule for the lead author's name and the first name first rule for all other authors. Separate names with commas.

Notes Format:
Numeral. First Author-First Name first, et al., Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

5. James L. Roark et al., The American Promise (Boston: Bedford, 1998).

Bibliography Format:
First Author-Last Name first. Next Author(s)-Initials or First Names first. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Roark, James L., M. Johnson, P. Cohen, S. Stage, A. Lawson, and S. Hartmann. The American Promise. Boston: Bedford, 1998.


7. Book with Author & Editor(s) or Translator(s)

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, ed. or trans. Editor(s) or Translator(s)-First Names first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

6. Martin Heidegger, On the Way to Language, trans. Peter D. Hertz (San Francisco: Harper Collins, HarperSanFrancisco, 1971), 32.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. Book Title-in italics. Edited or Translated by-First Name(s) first. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Heidegger, Martin. On the Way to Language. Translated by Peter D. Hertz. San Francisco: Harper Collins, HarperSanFrancisco, 1971.


8. Edited Book/Anthology/Collection

Notes Format:
Numeral. First Editor-First Name first, ed(s). Next Editor(s) or Translator(s)-Initials or First Names first, Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

7. Nancy Buffington, Marvin Diogenes, and Clyde Moneyhun, eds. Living Languages: Contexts for Reading and Writing (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Blair Press, 1997), 351.

Bibliography Format:
First Editor or Translator-First Name first. Next Editor(s) or Translator(s)-Initials or First Names first. ed. or trans. Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Buffington, N., M. Diogenes, and C. Moneyhun, eds. Living Languages: Contexts for Reading and Writing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Blair Press, 1997.


9. Chapter or Selection in Book Anthology/Collection

Notes Format:
Numeral. Chapter Author-First Name first "Chapter Title,"-in Quotation Marks, Book or Anthology Book Title-in italics, ed(s). Editor(s) Initials or First Names first, Page Number(s) (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis.

8. John McPhee, "The Search for Marvin Gardens," in The Next American Essay, ed. John D'Agata, 9-20 (St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003).

Bibliography Format:
Chapter Author-Last Name first "Chapter Title,"-in Quotation Marks, Book or Anthology Title-in italics, edited by Editor(s) First Names first, Page Number(s). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

McPhee, John. "The Search for Marvin Gardens." In The Next American Essay, edited by John D'Agata, 9-20. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003.


10. Chapter in an Unedited Book

Notes Format:
Author-First Name first. "Chapter Title,"-in quotation marks. Chap. Number-if applicable in Book Title-in italics. (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

9. Susan Millar Williams, "Cross Purposes," chap. 6 in A Devil and a Good Woman, Too: The Lives of Julia Peterkin. (Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1997).

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. "Chapter Title."-in quotation marks. Chap. Number-if applicable in Book Title-in italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Williams, Susan Millar. "Cross Purposes." Chap. 6 in A Devil and a Good Woman, Too: The Lives of Julia Peterkin. Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1997.


11. Book Editions (Second, Third, etc.)

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, Numbered ed. or rev. ed. (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

10. Stephen Reid, The Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers, 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998), 124.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first, Book Title-in italics, Numbered ed. or rev. ed. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Reid, Stephen. The Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998.


12. Republished (Republished) Book

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics, (Original Publication Year; repr., Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of New Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

11. Elsie Clews Parsons, Folk-Lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina (1923; repr., Chicago: Afro-Am Press, 1969), 135-136.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. Book Title-in italics. Original Publication Year. Reprint, Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of New Publication-no parenthesis.

Parsons, Elsie Clews. Folk-Lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. 1923. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press, 1969.


13. Sacred Texts

Note: Sacred texts such as the Christian Bible, Islam's Holy Qur'an and the Hebrew Torah are generally not included in the bibliography.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Book Title, Chapter: Verse (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year Publication)-in parenthesis, No page Number(s).

12. Qur'an, 57:4 (New York: Penguin Classics, 2004).


14. Untitled Volume in a Multivolume Work

Notes Format:
Numeral. Authors-First Names first, Multivolume Book Title-in italics, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

13. John M. Faragher et al., Out of Many: A History of the American People. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1994), 1:97-102.

Bibliography Format:
First Author-Last Name first, Other Authors-First Name first Volume Book Title-in italics, Vol. Number of Multivolume Work Title. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Faragher, John M., Mari Jo Buhle, Daniel Czitrom, and Susan H. Armitage. Out of Many: A History of the American People. Vol. 1. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1994.

Note: In cases where all volumes are used, substitute the total number of volumes in place of "Vol. 1." after the title.

Faragher, John M., Mari Jo Buhle, Daniel Czitrom, and Susan H. Armitage. Out of Many: A History of the American People. 2 vols. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1994.


15. Titled Volume in a Multivolume Work

Notes Format:
Numeral. Authors-First Names first, Volume Book Title-in italics, vol. Number of followed by Multivolume Work Title-in italics (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

14. Louis A. Garavaglia and Charles G. Worman, Firearms of the American West, 1803 - 1865, vol. 1 of Firearms of the American West (Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1998), 31-32.

Bibliography Format:
First Author-Last Name first. Volume Book Title-in italics. Vol. Number of Multivolume Work Title-in Italics. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Louis A. Garavaglia and Charles G. Worman. Firearms of the American West, 1803 - 1865. Vol. 1 of Firearms of the American West. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1998.


16. Book in a Series

Notes Format:
Numeral. Authors-First Names first, Book Title-in italics, Name of Book Series, Editor-if applicable, vol. Number-if applicable. (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

15. Michael Levine, African Americans and Civil Rights: from 1619 to the Present, Social Issues in American History Series (Phoenix, AZ: Orynx Press, 1996), 42.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. Book Title-in italics. Name of Book Series. Editor-if applicable, vol. Number-if applicable. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Levine, Michael. African Americans and Civil Rights: from 1619 to the Present. Social Issues in American History Series. Phoenix, AZ: Orynx Press, 1996.


17. Book Without Publication InNotes Formation

Notes Format:
Numeral-period and one space, Author-First Name first, Book Title-in italics (n.p., n.d.)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

Note: N.p. and n.d. stand for no page, no date.

16. Roy G. Biv, On Learning the Color Spectrum (n.p., n.d.), 15.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first, Book Title-in italics. N.p., n.d.-no parenthesis.

Biv, Roy G. On Learning the Color Spectrum. N.p., n.d.


18. Book Introduction, Preface, Forward or Afterword

Notes Format:
Introduction Author-First Name first, introduction to Book Title-in Italics, by Book Author-First Name first, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

17. David Lodge, introduction to Emma, by Jane Austen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971), 5.

Bibliography Format:
Introduction Author-Last Name first. Introduction to Book Title-in italics, by Book Author-First Name first, Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication-in parenthesis

Lodge, David. Introduction to Emma, by Jane Austen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Journals, Magazines and Newspapers

1. Journal Article with Consecutive Pagination

Note: Consecutive Pagination means that each new issue of a Journal begins with the page number that follows the last page number in the previous issue. In other words, the page numbers run consecutively from issue to issue.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Article Title"-in quotation marks, Journal Title-in italics Volume Number (Year of Publication): Page Number(s).

1. Sterling Brown, "Arcadia, South Carolina." Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life 12 (1934): 59-60.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. "Article Title."-in quotation marks. Journal Title-in italics Volume Number, Issue Number-if available (Year of Publication): Article Page Number(s).

Brown, Sterling. "Arcadia, South Carolina." Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life 12 (1934): 59-60.


2. Journal Article with Non-Consecutive Pagination

Note: Non-Consecutive Pagination means that each new issue of a Journal begins with page 1 and not with the number that follows the last page number in the previous issue, as is the case with consecutive pagination.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Journal Title-in italics Volume Number, Issue Number (Year of Publication): Page Number(s).

2. James Clifford, "On Ethnographic Authority," Representations 1, no. 2 (1983): 118-46.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. "Article Title."-in quotation marks. Journal Title-in italics. Volume Number, Issue Number (Year of Publication): Article Page Number(s).

Clifford, James. "On Ethnographic Authority." Representations 1, no. 2 (1983): 118-46.


3. Article in a Weekly Magazine

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Magazine Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

3. Pete Axthelm, "Up Front: America's First Poet Laureate, Robert Penn Warren, Was A Wise and Eloquent Son of the South," People Weekly, 2 October 1989, 46.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. "Article Title."-in quotation marks. Magazine Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Article Page Numbers.

Note: Include page numbers in the bibliography except in the case where an article begins at one point in the magazine and jumps to a different part of the magazine.

Axthelm, Pete. "Up Front: America's First Poet Laureate, Robert Penn Warren, Was a Wise and Eloquent Son of the South." People Weekly, 2 October 1989. 45-48.


4. Article in a Monthly or Seasonal Magazine

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Magazine Title-in italics, Month and Year of Publication, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

4. Brad Lemley, "The Underground Architect," New Age, January/February 1995, 10.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Magazine Title-in italics, Month and Year of Publication, Article Page Numbers.

Lemley, Brad. "The Underground Architect." New Age, January/February 1995, 10-15.


5. Article in a Magazine with Volume and Issue Numbers

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Magazine Title-in italics, Volume Number, Issue (Year of Publication): Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

5. "A Passing Race," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.

Note: When no author by-line exists, begin with the "Article Title" and proceed as shown above and below. This case also illustrates a magazine with a volume number but not an issue number.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Magazine Title-in italics, Volume Number and or Issue (Year of Publication): Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

"A Passing Race." Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.


6. Article in a Newspaper

Notes Format:
Numeral. By-line Author-First Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Newspaper Title- in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Edition if more than one each day.-no page numbers.

6. Fred J. Eckert, "An Island of Black Culture," Minneapolis Star Tribune, 2 February 1997.

Note: When no author by-line exists, begin with the "Article Title" and proceed as shown above and below.

Bibliography Format:
By-line Author-Last Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Newspaper Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Edition when applicable.-no page numbers.

Eckert, Fred J. "An Island of Black Culture." Minneapolis Star Tribune, 2 February 1997.

Note: When not part of the newspaper title, include name of American city, in italics, along with the rest of the title, as shown here:

Denver Rocky Mountain News

Note: When city name is not well known, or there is more than one city in America with the same name, include the state abbreviation, in parenthesis and not italicized, as shown here:

Ashtabula, (OH) Star-Beacon

Note: Follow the title of foreign newspapers with its hometown name, in parenthesis and not italicized, as shown here:

Sunday Times (London)


7. Letter to the Editor (Magazine or Newspaper)

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Article Title,"-in quotation marks, Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

Note: The example below illustrates the cases of a letter to the editor without a title.

7. Peter Connor, "letter to the editor," The Fort Collins Coloradoan, 16 January 2005, 7B.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. "Article Title."-in quotation marks. Publication Title-in italics. Day Month Year of Publication, Letters Page Number.

Connor, Peter. "Letter to the Editor." The Fort Collins Coloradoan, 16 January 2005, 7B.


8. Book Review (Magazine or Newspaper)

Notes Format:
Numeral. Review Author-First Name first, review of Book Title-in italics, by Book Author-First Name first, Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s).

8. John Chamberlain, review of Bright Skin, by Julia Peterkin, New York Times, 10 April 1932, 7.

Bibliography Format:
Review Author-Last Name first. Review of Book Title-in italics, by Book Author-First Name first. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication, Page Number(s).

Chamberlain, John. Review of Bright Skin, by Julia Peterkin. New York Times, 10 April 1932, 7.


9. Stage/Theatre Review (Magazine or Newspaper)

Notes Format:
Numeral. Review Author-First Name first, Review Title-in italics, review of Stage Piece Title-in italics, by Playwright-First Name first, as performed by Theatre Company Name, Location. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation.

9. Jana J. Monji, 'Brief' Pokes Fun at Barristers' Profession. Review of Dock Brief, by John Mortimer, as performed by the Fremont Centre Theatre, South Pasadena, CA. Los Angeles Times, 31 January 1998, Home Edition, Calendar, 10.

Bibliography Format:
Review Author-Last Name first. Review Title-in italics. Review of Stage Piece Title- in italics, by Playwright-First Name first. Theatre Company Name, Location. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation.

Monji, Jana J. 'Brief' Pokes Fun at Barristers' Profession. Review of Dock Brief, by John Mortimer. Fremont Centre Theatre, South Pasadena, CA. Los Angeles Times, 31 January 1998, Home Edition, Calendar, 10.


10. Movie Review (Magazine or Newspaper)

Notes Format:
Numeral. Review Author-First Name first, "Review Title,"-in quotation marks, review of Movie Title- in italics (Production Company Name)-in parenthesis, Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation.

10. Jack Garner, "Private Life Is an Open Book in 'Enemy of the State,'" review of Enemy of the State (Touchstone Pictures movie), Fort Collins Coloradoan, 20 November 1998, Ticket Section 7.

Bibliography Format:
Review Author-Last Name first. "Review Title."-in quotation marks. Review of Movie Title-in italics (Production Company Name)-in parenthesis, Publication Title- in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation.

Garner, Jack. "Private Life Is an Open Book in 'Enemy of the State.'" Review of Enemy of the State (Touchstone Pictures movie). Fort Collins Coloradoan, 20 November 1998, Ticket Section 7.


11. Music/Concert Review (Magazine or Newspaper)

Notes Format:
Numeral. Review Author-First Name first, "Review Title,"-in quotation marks, review of concert performance of Concert Title- in italics, by Name of composer-First Name first, Perfomance Location, Performance Company. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation.

11. Mark Swed, "Bartok Quartet Honors Its Namesake," review of concert performance of The 6 String Quartets, by Bela Bartok, Schoenberg Hall (UCLA), Bartok Quartet. Los Angeles Times, Home Edition, 27 February 1998, 20.

Bibliography Format:
Review Author-First Name first, "Review Title,"-in quotation marks. Review of concert performance of Concert Title- in italics, by Name of composer-First Name first, Perfomance Location, Performance Company. Publication Title-in italics, Day Month Year of Publication: Page Number(s) and Section Designation.

Swed, Mark. "Bartok Quartet Honors Its Namesake." Review of concert performance of The 6 String Quartets, by Bela Bartok, Schoenberg Hall (UCLA), Bartok Quartet. Los Angeles Times, Home Edition, 27 February 1998, 20.

Dissertations and Theses

1. Published Dissertation or Thesis

Note: Include the phrase, "Ph.D. diss." or "Master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, Dissertation Title-in italics (Ph.D. diss., Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted)-in parenthesis, Institution Location: Dissertations Abstracts International information-if appropriate, Page Number(s).

1. Marcia Marvin Lavely, A Study of American Literature which Incorporates the Use of the Gullah Dialect (Sea Islands) (Ph.D. diss., University of Mississippi, 1991), 22.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. Dissertation Title-in italics. Ph.D. diss., Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted-no parenthesis. Institution Location: Dissertations Abstracts International information-if appropriate.

Lavely, Marcia Marvin. A Study of American Literature which Incorporates the Use of the Gullah Dialect (Sea Islands). Ph.D. diss., University of Mississippi, 1991.


2. Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

Note: Include the phrase, "Ph.D. diss." or "Master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Thesis Title"-in quotation marks (Master's thesis, Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s).

2. Annie Catherine Hughey, "The Treatment of the Negro in South Carolina Fiction" (Master's thesis, University of South Carolina, 1933), 61.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. "Thesis Title."-in quotation marks. Master's thesis, Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted.

Hughey, Annie Catherine. "The Treatment of the Negro in South Carolina Fiction." Master's thesis, University of South Carolina, 1933.


3. Abstract of Dissertation or Thesis

Note: Format like a Journal Article. Include the phrase, "Ph.d. diss." or "master's thesis" before the name of the degree granting institution.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Dissertation Title"-in quotation marks (Ph.d. diss., Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted)-in parenthesis, abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International Volume Number (Volume Date): Page Number(s).

3. Marcia Marvin Lavely, "A Study of American Literature which Incorporates the Use of the Gullah Dialect (Sea Islands)" (Ph.D. diss., University of Mississippi, 1991), abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 53 (1992): 1501A.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first. Dissertation Title-in quotation marks. Ph.D. diss., Degree Granting Institution, Year Granted-no parenthesis. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International Volume Number (Volume Date): Page Number(s).

Lavely, Marcia Marvin. "A Study of American Literature which Incorporates the Use of the Gullah Dialect (Sea Islands)." Ph.D. diss., University of Mississippi, 1991. Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International 53 (1992): 1501A.

Unpublished Manuscripts and Papers

1. Unpublished Document in a Manuscript Collection

Notes Format:
Numeral. Description of Document-First Name first if Author included, Document Date, Collection Name, Depository Name, Depository Location.

1. Letter from Julia Peterkin to George Shively, 18 October 1930, Bobbs-Merrill Papers, Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Bibliography Format:
Document Author-Last Name first. Description of Document including Document Date. Collection Name. Depository Name, Depository Location.

Peterkin, Julia. Letter to George Shively dated 18 October 1930. Bobbs-Merrill Papers. Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington.

Note: Make a bibliographic entry for the entire manuscript collection when more than one document is cited. Include Collection name, Depository and Location as in the example below. More specific bibliographic information should appear within the individual citation notes.

Peterkin Papers. South Caroliniana Library. Columbia, South Carolina.


2. Unpublished Papers Read at Meetings

Note: Papers appearing in the Published Proceedings of Meetings may be formatted in the same manner as a book.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first, "Paper Title"-in quotation marks (paper presented at Meeting Name, Location, Month and Year), Page Number(s).

2. M. Montgomery, "Lorenzo Dow Turner's Early Work on Gullah" (paper presented at the 9th Annual Symposium on Language and Culture, Columbia, SC, April 1985), 3-4.

Bibliography Format:
Author-Last Name first, "Paper Title."-in quotation marks. Paper presented at Meeting Name, Location, Month and Year.

Montgomery, M. "Lorenzo Dow Turner's Early Work on Gullah." Paper presented at the 9th Annual Symposium on Language and Culture, Columbia, SC, April 1985.

Interviews, Letters and Personal Communications

1. Published Interviews

Note: Consult The Chicago Manual of Style to format interviews appearing in other print and non-print mediums.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Interview Subject-First Name first, "Interview Title,"-in quotation marks, interviewed by-First Name first, Publication Title- in italics, Month and Year of Publication: Page Number(s).

1. Dr. Robert Bullard, "Dr. Robert Bullard: Some People Don't Have the Complexion for..." interviewed by Jim Motavelli. E Magazine, July/August 1998: 10-13.

Bibliography Format:
Interview Subject-Last Name first. "Interview Title,"-in quotation marks, interviewed by-First Name first, Publication Title-in italics, Month and Year of Publication: Page Number(s).

Bullard, Dr. Robert."Dr. Robert Bullard: Some People Don't Have the Complexion for...," interviewed by Jim Motavelli, E Magazine, July/August 1998: 10-13.


2. Unpublished Interviews

Notes Format:
Numeral. Interview Subject-First Name first, interview by-First Name first, type of interview, Interview Location, Day Month Year of Interview.

2. Christine S. Neuhoff, interview by author, tape recording, Fort Collins, CO., 29 September 1998.

Bibliography Format:
Interview Subject-Last Name first. Interview by-First Name first, type of interview. Interview Location, Day Month Year of Interview.

Neuhoff, Christine S. Interview by author, tape recording. Fort Collins, CO, 29 September 1998.


3. Published Letters

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first to Recipient-First Name first, Day Month Year of Letter, Collection Title- in italics, ed. Editor Name if applicable-First Name first, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

3. Flannery O'Connor to Maryat Lee, 20 May 1960, In the Habit of Being, Letters Edited and with an Introduction by Sally Fitzgerald (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995), 396.

Bibliography Format:
Author-First Name first. Letter to Recipient-First Name first, Day Month Year of Letter. Collection Title-in italics, Page Number(s). ed. Editor Name if applicable-First Name first, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

O'Connor, Flannery. Letter to Maryat Lee, 20 May 1960. In The Habit of Being, Letters Edited and with an Introduction by Sally Fitzgerald, 396. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995.

Note: Make a bibliographic entry for the entire letter collection when more than one letter is cited. Include collection name, editor if applicable, Place of Publication: Publisher and Year of Publication as in the example below. More specific bibliographic information should appear within the individual citation notes.

O'Connor, Flannery. The Habit of Being, Letters Edited and with an Introduction by Sally Fitzgerald. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995.


4. Unpublished Letters

Notes Format:
Unpublished letters (and any other such forms of personal communications) are generally unavailable for public consumption and so a bibliography entry will serve no useful purpose. Instead, document these types of sources in your notes with an informal description.

4. In a letter to the author dated 25 March 1995, Sandra Nesbitt expressed....

or

4. Nesbitt, Sandra. Letter to the author, 25 March 1995.

Electronic Sources

1. Portable Sources (CD-ROM's, Diskettes, Magnetic Tapes, etc.)

Note: Unlike online sources which exist on a computer service or network and are subject to continual revision, portable electronic sources are published and released at fixed points in time. The following example is for a non-periodical portable source. The format for a periodical source is slightly different.

Bibliography Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. "Title."-in quotations (italics if book title). Volume, edition, etc. -if appropriate. [Medium]. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Sheehy, Donald, ed. "Robert Frost: Poems, Life, Legacy." [CD-ROM]. New York: Holt, 1997.


2. Computer Programs and Software

Bibliography Format:
Program/Software Name: Identifying Version, level or release number and date-if available. Abbreviated Program/Software Name.-if applicable. Organization or Individual holding Property Rights, Location.

Electronic Supplements for Real Writing: 1. Interactive Writing Software Ver. 1. Bedford, Boston.

Digital Sources

All digital sources should include either a publication date, a revision or “last modified” date, or an access date. After the date, include a DOI (digital object identifier) or, if the source does not have a DOI, a stable URL. For a source accessed through a database, include the name of the database and any number assigned to the source.

1. Online Computer Services

Note: The following source was obtained through the computer service "Dialog."

Bibliography Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. "Title."-in quotations (italics if book title). Print Publication Information. Online Publication Information including Computer Service Name and Accession Number. Note the Italics.

Wever, Katharine. "In a Painting, Gershwin Packed the House." New York Times 30 Aug. 1998, late ed.: sec. 2, p. 30. Dialog, New York Times Fulltext 03819774.


2. Online Documents

Bibliography Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. "Title."-in quotations (italics if book title). [Source Type]. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Publication Date-or other relevant information if not a book. Accessed Day Month Year. Available from Source Name: URL link. Medium.

Bierce, Ambrose. Can Such Things Be True? [book online]. New York: Johnathan Cape and Harrison Smith, 1993. Accessed 28 September 1998. Available from gopher: //wiretap.spies.com:70/00/Library/Classic/cansuch.txt. Internet.


3. Online Databases

Bibliography Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. "Title."-in quotations (italics if book title). In Database Name [database online]. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Publication Date [update and access dates-Day Month Year]. Accession Number-or other necessary access information Number of Screens. Available from Source Name, Location.

"Abbott Announces First Treatment for AIDS-related Infection." In Businesswire [database online]. Abbott Park, Ill.: Business Wire, 1986- [updated 28 December 1993; cited 20 November 1998]. Accession no. 0376540, NO=BW6540. 1 screen. Available from DIALOG Information Services, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif.


4. Article from a Database (Note Example)

4. Alessandro, Pes, “Becoming Imperialist: Italian Colonies in Fascist Textbooks for Primary Schools.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 18, no. 5 (2013): 609-11, Academic Search Premier (92017350), doi: 10.1080/1354571X.2013.839519.


5. Article from an Online Journal(Note Example)

5. Gary Fields, “Palestinian Landscape in a ‘Not-too-Distant-Mirror,’” Journal of Historical Sociology 23, no. 2 (June 2010), doi: 10.111/j.1467-6443.2010.01373.x.


6. Article in an Online Magazine (Note Example)

6. Jacob Siegel, “The History and Logic of Military Ultimatums, From Suez to Crimea.” The Daily Beast, March 3, 2014. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/03/03/the-history-and-logic-of-military-ultimatums-from-suez-to-crimea.html


7. Article from a Nonperiodical Website (Note Example)

7. Abby Mendelson, “Roberto Clemente: A Form of Punishment,” Pittsburg Pirates, MLB.com, May 24, 2013. http://mlb.mlb.com/pit/history/pit_clemente.jsp.


8. Citing an Online Book (Note Example)

8. Gary Ruskin, Spooky Business: Corporate Espionage against Nonprofit Organizations (Washington, DC: Essential Information, 2013), http://www.corporatepolicy.org/spookybusiness.pdf.


9. Article Posted on a Wiki (Note Example)

9. “Native Americans,” Davis Wiki, accessed March 4, 2014, http://daviswiki.org/Native_Americans.


10. Citing an Entire Blog (Note Example)

10. Pat McNamara, McNamara’s Blog: Musings of a Catholic Church Historian from Queens, New York, http://www.patheos.com/blogs/mcnamarasblog/.


11. Citing an Entry or Comment on a Blog (Note Example)

11. Donna Haisty Winchell, “In Arizona, Is It Ethics or Economics?” Argument and the Headlines (blog), Bits: Ideas for Teaching Composition, March 3, 2014, http://blogs.bedfordstmartins.com/bits/author/donnaonbitsgmail-com/.


12. Citing a Email Message (Note Example)

12. Brysa H. Levy, e-mail message to author, January 4, 2014.


13. Citing an Online Posting to a Discussin Group (Note Example)

13. Alessandro Busà to URBANTH-L discussion group, December 1, 2009, http://lists.cc.ysu.edu/pipermail/urbanth-l/2009-December/002761.html.

Audio and Video Recordings

1. Musical Recordings

Note: The elements in the following format (particularly composer and director) may be rearranged to suit your particular purposes. See Chicago Manual of Style for more examples.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Composer-First Name first, Composition Title-in italics, (Editing Information when available)-in parenthesis, Orchestra Name, Conductor Name, Recording Company Medium Recording Number.

1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Requiem Mass, K626 (Edited by Franz Beyer), Academy and Chorus of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Neville Mariner, London compact disk 417 746-2.

Bibliography Format:
Composer-Last Name first. Composition Title-in italics. (Editing Information when available-in parenthesis). Orchestra Name. Conductor Name. Recording Company-when available, Medium Recording Number.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Requiem Mass, K626. (Edited by Franz Beyer). Academy and Chorus of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. Neville Mariner. London compact disk 417 746-2.


2. Dramatic Performance Recordings

Notes Format:
Numeral. Playwright-First Name first, Performance Title-in italics, directed by name, performed by performance artist names-First Names first, Recording Company Recording Number, Medium

2. William Shakespeare, Othello, directed by Howerd Sackler, performed by Frank Silvera, Celia Johnson, Cyril Cusack, Anna Massey, and others, Caedmon CDG 225, audiotape.

Bibliography Format:
Playwright-Last Name first, Recording Title-in italics, directed by name, performed by performance artist names-First Names first, Recording Company Recording Number, Medium

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Directed by Howerd Sackler. Performed by Frank Silvera, Celia Johnson, Cyril Cusack, Anna Massey, and others. Caedmon CDG 225. Audiotape.


3. Poetry and Prose Recordings

Notes Format:
Numeral. Poet or Prose Writer-First Name first, Recording Title-in italics, read by author or reader name-First Name first, Recording Company Recording Number, Medium

3. T.S. Eliot, Poems and Choruses, read by author, Caedmon TC1045, record album.

Bibliography Format:
Poet or Prose Writer-Last Name first, Recording Title-in italics, read by author or reader name-First Name first, Recording Company Recording Number, Medium

Eliot, T.S. Poems and Choruses. Read by author. Caedmon TC1045. Record album.


4. Lecture Recordings

Notes Format:
Numeral. Lecture Recorder-First Name first, Recording Title-in italics, Description of Lecture presented by lecturer name-First Name first at Institution Name, Location, Month Year of Lecture, Publication Information-if applicable.

49. L.M.N. Nesbitt, Censorship, audiotape of a lecture presented by Louann Reid at Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado, October 1995.

Bibliography Format:
Lecture Recorder-Last Name first. Recording Title-in italics. Description of Lecture presented by lecturer name-First Name first at Institution Name, Location, Month Year of Lecture, Publication Information-if applicable.

Nesbitt, L.M.N., Censorship. Audiotape of a lecture presented by Louann Reid at Colorado State University, Fort Collins Colorado, October 1995.


5. Slides

Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Slide Show Producer-First Name first, Slide Show Title-in italics, (Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production)-in parenthesis, Slides.

4. John Nesbitt, Europe by Train (Knoxville, TN: Fabricated Production Company, 1991, slides.

Bibliography Format:
Numeral. Slide Show Producer-Last Name first. Slide Show Title-in italics. Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production-no parenthesis. Slides.

Nesbitt, John. Europe by Train. Knoxville, TN, Fabricated Production Company, 1991. Slides.


6. Films

Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Film Title-in italics, media format, film length, Production Company, Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production.

5. The Feast, 16 mm, 29 min., U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Springfield, VA, 1970.

Bibliography Format:
Film Title-in italics. Media format, film length. Production Company, Place of Production: Production Company Name, Year of Production.

The Feast. 16 mm, 29 min. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Springfield, VA, 1970.


7. Videocassettes

Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Videocassette Title-in italics, Producer and or Director-First Name first, videocassette length, Production Company Name, Year of Production, videocassette.

6. Sam Shepherd: Fool for Love, dir. Robert Altman, 108 min., MGM, 1985, videocassette.

Bibliography Format:
Videocassette Producer-Last Name first. Videocassette Title-in italics. Directed by Director-First Name first. Videocassette length. Production Company Name, Year of Production. Videocassette.

Shepherd, Sam. Sam Shepherd: Fool for Love. Dir. by Robert Altman. 108 min. MGM, 1985. Videocassette.

Legal Materials

1. State and Federal Court Cases/Decisions

Notes Format:
Numeral. Case Name-in italics, volume of reporter name of reporter opening page of decision, Cited Page Number (Court Name-abbreviated Year of Decision).

Note: For state court cases include both official and commercial reporters separated by a comma.

1. Meyer v. State of Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390, 43 (S.Ct. 625 1923).

Bibliography Format:
Case Name-in italics, volume of reporter name of reporter opening page of decision, Cited Page Number (Court Name-abbreviated Year of Decision)-in parenthesis.

Meyer v. State of Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390, 43 (S.Ct. 625 1923)


2. State and Federal Constitutions

Notes Format:
Numeral. State or Country Name,-abbreviated without a period, Article or Amendment Number-in Roman, § Subdivision Number-in Arabic.

2. Wis Const, Art IX, § 1.

Bibliography Format:
State or Country Name-abbreviated without a period, Article or Amendment Number-in Roman, § Subdivision Number-in Arabic.

Wis Const, Art IX, § 1.

Publications of Congress

1. Congressional Record/General Citation

Notes Format:
Numeral. Congressional Record-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Volume Number-numeral only, part Number:-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate.

1. Congressional Record, 104th Cong., 1st sess., 1995, 141, pt. 26.

Or

1. Cong. Rec. 104th Cong., 1st sess., 1995. 141, pt. 26.

Bibliography Format:
Congressional Record-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year. Volume Number-numeral only, Part Number:-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate.

Congressional Record. 104th Cong., 1st sess., 1995. Vol. 141, pt. 26.


2. Congressional Record/Speaker Citation

Notes Format:
Numeral. Congressional Body Name. Speaker Name and Description of Remarks. Resolution Number-if appropriate. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Congressional Record-in italics. (Day Mnth. Year), volume number, part number-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate.

2. U.S. Senate. Senator Kennedy of Massachusetts reintroducing the Equal Remedies Act. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Congressional Record (30 Jan. 1995), vol. 141, pt. 10.

Bibliography Format:
Congressional Body Name. Speaker Name and Description of Remarks. Resolution Number-if appropriate. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Congressional Record-in italics. (Day Mnth. Year), volume number, part number-abbreviated pt.: Page Number(s)-if appropriate.

U.S. Senate. Senator Kennedy of Massachusetts reintroducing the Equal Remedies Act. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Congressional Record (30 Jan. 1995), vol. 141, pt. 10.


3. Congressional Records and Documents

Notes Format:
Numeral. Congressional Body or Committee Name, Report or Document Title-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Document Number, Serial Number-if available, Page Number(s).

3. U.S. Congress, South Dakota Water Resource Development, 97th Cong., 2d sess., 1982, S. Doc. 514, Serial 13452.

Bibliography Format:
Congressional Body or Committee Name. Report or Document Title-in italics Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year. Document Number. Serial Number-if available.

U.S. Congress. South Dakota Water Resource Development. 97th Cong., 2d sess., 1982. S. Doc. 514. Serial 13452.


4. Congressional Journals

Notes Format:
Numeral. Journal Name-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year, Page Number(s).

4. Senate Journal, 104th Cong., 2d sess., 20 February 1996, 7-17.

Bibliography Format:
Congressional Body Name. Journal Name-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year.

U.S. Congress. Senate Journal. 104th Cong., 2d sess., 20 February 1996.

Or

U.S. Senate Journal. 104th Cong., 2d sess., 20 February 1996.


5. Congressional Hearings

Notes Format:
Numeral. Committee Name, Hearing Title-in italics Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year, Number(s).

5. U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations, 101st Cong., 2d sess., 4-5 December 1990, 42-43.

Bibliography Format:
Committee Name. Hearing Title-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year.

U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations. 101st Cong., 2d sess., 4-5 December 1990.


6. Congressional Committee Prints

Notes Format:
Numeral. Committee Name, Report Title-in italics, report prepared by name of agency department person(s), Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Committee Print Number, Page Number(s).

6. Senate Committee on Public Works, Effects and Methods of Control of Thermal Discharges, report prepared by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, 93rd Cong., 1st sess., 1973, Committee Print 14, 19.

Bibliography Format:
Committee Name. Report Title-in italics. Report prepared by name of agency department person(s), Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Committee Print Number.

Senate Committee on Public Works. Effects and Methods of Control of Thermal Discharges. report prepared by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, 93rd Cong., 1st sess., 1973, Committee Print 14.


7. Congressional Bills and Resolutions

Notes Format:
Numeral. Bill or Resolution Title-in italics, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Bill or Resolution Number, Congressional Record-in italics record information-if applicable.

7. Interstate Child Support Enforcement Act, 104th Cong., 1st sess., H.R. 195, Congressional Record, 241, no. 4, daily ed. (9 January 1995): H168.

Bibliography Format:
Congressional Body Name. Bill or Resolution Title-in italics. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Year, Bill or Resolution Number. Congressional Record,-in italics record information-if applicable.

Note: The Chicago Manual of Style notes that bills and resolutions are cited in text or notes, but not always in the bibliography. When they are they should follow this format.

U.S. House. Interstate Child Support Enforcement Act. 104th Cong., 1st sess., H.R. 195. Congressional Record, 241, no. 4, daily ed. (9 January 1995): H168.


8. Laws and Statutes Published as Slip Laws

Notes Format:
Numeral. U.S. Public Law Numbers, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, (Day Month Year)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s).

8. U.S. Public Law 105-258, 105th Cong., 2d sess. (14 October 1998), 12-13.

Bibliography Format:
U.S. Public Law Numbers. Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, Day Month Year-no parenthesis.

U.S. Public Law 105-258. 105th Cong., 2d sess., 14 October 1998.


9. Laws and Statures Collected in Statutes at Large

Notes Format:
Numeral. U.S. Statutes at Large-in italics Volume Number (Year)-in parenthesis: Page Number(s).

9. U.S. Statutes at Large 25 (1888): 476.

Bibliography Format:
U.S. Statutes at Large-in italics Volume Number (Year)-in parenthesis: Page Number(s).

U.S. Statutes at Large 25 (1888): 476.


10. Laws and Statutes Incorporated Into the U.S. Code

Notes Format:
Numeral. Law, Statute or Act Title-in italics, U.S. Code-in italics, Volume Number, Section Number-abbreviated (Year)-in parenthesis.

64. Farm Credit Act, U.S. Code Annotated, vol. 42, sec. 410 (1959).

Bibliography Format:
Law, Statute or Act Title-in italics. U.S. Code-in italics. Volume Number, Section Number-abbreviated (Year)-in parenthesis

Farm Credit Act. U.S. Code Annotated. Vol. 42, sec. 410 (1959).

Presidential Documents

1. Proclamations and Executive Orders

Notes Format:
Numeral. President, Proclamation or Executive Order, "Proclamation or Executive Order Title,"-in quotation Marks, Federal Register-in italics, Volume Number, Issue Number (Day Month Year)-in parenthesis: Page Number(s), medium-if applicable.

1. President, Proclamation, "Display of the Flag of the United States of America at Half-Staff Upon the Death of Certain Officials and Former Officials," Federal Register 19, no. 3 (1 March 1954): 1235, microfiche.

Bibliography Format:
President. Proclamation or Executive Order. "Proclamation or Executive Order Title."-in quotation Marks, Federal Register-in italics, Volume Number, Issue Number (Day Month Year)-in parenthesis: Page Number(s), medium-if applicable.

President. Proclamation. "Display of the Flag of the United States of America at Half-Staff Upon the Death of Certain Officials and Former Officials." Federal Register 19, no. 3 (1 March 1954): 1235. Microfiche.


2. Messages and Papers of the Presidents

Notes Format:
Numeral. Document Title, Number of Congress-abbreviated, Number of Session-abbreviated, in Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897. Edited by Name of Editor-First Name First (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Volume Number: Page Number(s).

2. House Miscellaneous Document no. 210, 53rd Cong., 2d sess, in Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897. Edited by J.D. Richardson (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907), 4:16.

Bibliography Format:
Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897. Edited by Name of Editor-First Name First. Volume Number. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897. Edited by J.D. Richardson. Vol. 10. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907.


3. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States

Notes Format:
Numeral. President-First Name first, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: President-First Name first, Term in Office, vol. Number. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s).

3. Jimmy Carter, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1980-81, vol. 1. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1981), 151.

Bibliography Format:
President-Last Name first. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: President-First Name first, Term in Office. Vol. Number. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

Carter, Jimmy. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1980-81. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1981.

Government Documents and Publications

1. Executive Department Publications

Notes Format:
Numeral. Issuing Departmental Body, Document Title-in italics, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s).

1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives, Attorney-client Privilege and the Right of Congressional Access to Documents for Oversight Purposes in the Case of the Suspension of the Telephone Loan Programs by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1991), 14-17.

Bibliography Format:
Issuing Departmental Body. Document Title-in italics. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives. Attorney-client Privilege and the Right of Congressional Access to Documents for Oversight Purposes in the Case of the Suspension of the Telephone Loan Programs by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1991.


2. Government Commission Publications

Notes Format:
Numeral. Commission Name, Publication Title-in italics, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s).

2. U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Annual Report of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1977/78), 10.

Bibliography Format:
Commission Name. Publication Title-in italics. Washington, D.C.: GPO, Year of Publication-no parenthesis.

U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Annual Report of the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1977/78.


3. Treaties

Notes Format:
Numeral. Department or Issuing Body. "Treaty Title."-in Quotation Marks. Day Month Year of Treaty. TIAS Number. Publication Name-in italics. Vol. Number, Part Number-if bound and not microtext.

3. U.S. Department of State. "Tourism." 3 October 1989. TIAS no. 12403. United States Treaties and Other International Agreements.

Bibliography Format:
Department or Issuing Body. "Treaty Title."-in Quotation Marks. Day Month Year of Treaty. TIAS Number. Publication Name-in italics. Vol. Number, Part Number-if bound and not microtext.

U.S. Department of State. "Tourism." 3 October 1989. TIAS no. 12403. United States Treaties and Other International Agreements.


4. Administrative and Legislative Reports

Note: Administrative or Legislative Reports should be cited only in the text or notes.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Issuing Body, Report Title-in italics, (Place, Year of Report)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s).

72. Colorado General Assembly, Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 1996 Legislative Report on Higher Education Admission Standards (Denver, 1996), 11.


5. State Laws and Municipal Ordinances

Note: State laws or municipal ordinances should be cited only in the text or the notes, although compilations of state laws (codes) or municipal ordinances may be cited in the bibliography.

Notes Format:
Numeral. State or Municipal Name, State Laws or Municipal Compilation Title-in italics, (Editor Name, Year)-in parenthesis, Section Number(s).

5. Colorado Revised Statutes, Annotated (Michie Co., 1974), sec. 2.

Examples of How to Arrange Notes & Bibliography Entries

1. Unknown, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors

Note: Organize alphabetically and avoid using "Anonymous". When a work is of unknown origin, use the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles which may be transposed to the end of the title.

When the author's name is known but does not appear on the title page place it before the title as you would normally, but in [brackets]. When the author's name is uncertain, indicate so with a question mark inside the [brackets?].

Notes Example:

4. "Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.

4. [Joe Schmoe?], "Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.

Bibliography Example:

Parsons, Elsie Clews. Folk-Lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. 1923. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press, 1969.

"Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.

Peterkin, Julia. Black April. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1927.

[Joe Schmoe?], "Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.


2. Author Name Included in Source Title

Notes Example:
Note: Autobiographies, Collected Letters and Editions of Complete Works often include the author's name in the title. In such cases, the citation can begin with the title of the work. Both the author name and title must be included in the bibliography.

5. The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats (New York: Macmillan, 1977), 31.

Bibliography Example:

Yeats, W. B. The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats. New York: Macmillan, 1977.


3. Author of One Work is First Co-Author of Another

Notes Example:
Note: Single author works always precede co-authored works.

Shor, Ira. Culture Wars: School and Society in the Conservative Restoration, 1969-1982. (Boston: Routledge and K. Paul, 1986), 55.

Shor, Ira. and Paul Friere. A Pedagogy of Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. (New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1987), 112- 115.


4. Multiple Works by Same Author: Using "three em" (---) Dashes

Notes Example:
Note: The three-em dash serves the same purpose as "ditto" marks. When an author appears consecutively, associated with different titles, a three-em dash (---) may replace the name after the first entry.

7. Julia Peterkin. Black April. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1927), 48.

8. ---. Scarlet Sister Mary. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1928), 92.


5. Source Quoted in another Source

Note: Both sources are cited in the same note. In this case, the format combines both the elements for citing a Book Review with elements for citing a book with one author. The source of the quote itself does not require a bibliographic entry.

Notes Example:

6. Annie Dillard, "Write Till You Drop," New York Times Book Review, 28 May 1989, 1, quoted in John Calderazzo, Writing from Scratch: Freelancing (Savage, MD: Littlefield Adams Quality Paperbacks, 1990), 6.


6. Using "Ibid" and Shortened Citations

Note: "Ibid.," the Latin abbreviation meaning "in the same place", may replace a full citation in consecutively ordered notes referencing the same piece of work. A shortened version of the note may then be substituted for all non-consecutive citations.

Notes Example:

5. Julia Peterkin. Scarlet Sister Mary. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1928), 56.

6. Ibid., 113.

7. __________(Unrelated Full Citation)____________.

8. __________(Unrelated Full Citation)____________.

9. Peterkin, Scarlet, 225.


7. Cross-Referencing Notes

Note Example:
Note: All things being equal, a note referencing an identical previous note may replace a full citation.

10. See note 5 above.

Additional CMS Notes Resources

Printed Resources:

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Turabian, K. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Electronic Resources:

The official Chicago Manual of Style website, updated regularly, is the comprehensive guide to all things CMS: the organization, its journals, products and services.

Citation Information

Will Allen, Peter Connor, Heidi Scott, and Laurel Nesbitt. (1994-2019). Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System). The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at https://wac.colostate.edu/resources/writing/guides/.

Copyright Information

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