Writing assignments are often used to support the goals of Writing in the Disciplines (WID), also called writing to communicate. Writing assignments of this sort are designed to introduce or give students practice with the writing conventions of a discipline and to help them game familiarity and fluency with specific genres and formats typical of a given discipline. For example, the engineering lab report includes much different information in a format quite different from the annual business report.
Because WID is used by a large number of WAC programs, this guide presents a great deal of information on WID, including a detailed rationale, examples, and logistical tips.
WID assignments are typically, but not exclusively, formal documents prepared over a few weeks or even months. The final documents adhere to format and style guidelines typical of the professional genres they help students learn about and practice. Teachers comment primarily on the substance of these assignments, but teachers also expect students to meet professional standards of layout and proofreading (format and mechanical correctness).
Without doubt, the single most important reason for assigning writing tasks in disciplinary courses is to introduce students to the thinking and writing of that discipline. Even though students read disciplinary texts and learn course material, until they practice the language of the discipline through writing, they are less likely to learn that language thoroughly. In addition, teachers cite other specific advantages of WID tasks, large and small. Such writing helps students to:
Teachers need to decide which goals are most important for them and for the students they typically teach. For instance, if you ordinarily teach a freshman-level survey course that introduces students to the field, giving students practice in the conventions of writing for that field is generally inappropriate. Rather, you would probably want to give students opportunities to write about the new, foundational concepts they're being introduced to so that you can be sure they are learning the fundamental ideas they will need to take other courses in your discipline.
Teachers thinking about assigning writing in their courses also need to consider just how much time they'll have to review or respond to student writing. Assigning a 20-page term paper in a course with 200 students is unrealistic because teachers seldom have time to read and respond to such lengthy student writing.
As teachers determine goals for writing and their time commitment, they discover an entire spectrum of writing they might assign in their classes. You will base your decisions on complex factors, but the simplified grid below can point you toward additional materials that might be most useful to you as you plan your writing component for each class.
Use this grid to suggest which kinds of writing might be most appropriate in your classes:
|Goals||to help students learn foundational concepts to check students' understanding of material||to practice in critical thinking, reading and writing; to engage students in critical thinking||to practice writing conventions of the discipline; to gain familiarity with genres and design conventions|
|Students||mostly freshmen and sophomores||all students||mostly senior majors|
|Typical enrollment||can be used in the largest classes||varies depending on goals||fewer than 35|
|Possible assignments||• writing-to-learn prompts||• reading journals
• lab or field notebooks
• response papers
|• real writing tasks for audiences students will write to as professionals in field
• academic papers based on journals in the field
• library or other source-based writing
Think of alternate forms/formats. Although the research essay is the most common kind of WID assignment, it's not the only format that students can use to learn about disciplinary writing conventions. If professionals in your field use any of these types of writing, consider using these formats to help students understand the thinking and writing of your discipline:
In addition to discipline-specific formats, other kinds of writing assignments can help students learn the language and ways of thinking of a discipline, even though they may not mimic its professional writing. Any of these writing activities can provide the basis for a longer, more formal assignment, or can be used only to promote class discussion and/or thinking about course material:
In a discipline-specific context, teachers using a reading journal ask students to write summaries, responses, and syntheses as appropriate for the field. "Readings" might include not only assigned textbook material, but also lectures and outside reading of professional or popular articles relevant to the course material. Teachers might want to assign specific questions to be answered in entries about each reading, or they might link readings in other ways.
When you introduce new terms in your lectures or when students see them in readings, ask students to jot the terms down in a notebook or electronic file. Periodically, students then return to the list of terms and fill in or revise working definitions of each term. (Some terms will be easy to define immediately after they are introduced in a course; other terms might take more familiarity with the complexity of a concept to define accurately.) Build in some incentive for keeping the jargon journal by pointing out that students can refer to the definitions as they prepare for—and perhaps write—exam responses.
In addition to analyzing articles for content, as students might do in the reading journal, teachers can also ask students to look specifically at professional articles for rhetorical issues:
Small-group or full-class discussion of these analyses will help students understand the critical approaches professionals in the field typically adopt as well as the writing conventions accepted by major journals in the field.
Bring in drafts of your own work or of someone else's professional work that you have permission to share with students. Show students:
Because the popular article is written to a general audience with little specialized knowledge, teachers often assign this writing task to be sure students understand material well enough to explain it in non-technical terms. If you're concerned about assigning a full-length article, you could assign this task as a group writing project, with different group members responsible for chunks of the final article. Or you might just assign the introduction and an outline for key ideas that would go into the remainder of the article.
One reason that students report feeling overwhelmed by WID tasks is that they aren't sure where to start and then how to proceed to produce a good project of the sort required by the assignment. You can help students—and get better final drafts to read—by setting up a sequence of tasks that build toward the final project.
Two approaches work well when designing a sequence:
You'll find more detailed advice about feedback in the sections under
A few points bear repeating here:
When professors are reluctant to assign research essays, they often claim that students cannot write clearly and logically, synthesizing sources and evaluating data to draw closely argued conclusions. Most often, these weaknesses are not the result simply of poor writing skills, but also of poorly defined criteria that students don't grasp. Fortunately, teachers can improve the research essay by clarifying goals for the assignment and keeping students' resources in mind.
Most university professors agree that research-based writing in college classes can and should meet these goals:
Students often view the research-based paper as an exercise in cutting and pasting rather than in carefully sifting and synthesizing key ideas that support their own thinking. So teachers get the best results from research-based assignments that they have revised after considering these questions:
If you've decided that a traditional research essay best meets your teaching goals, please consider three ideas that might make this assignment more useful for students:
Most students in upper-level courses (and even most freshmen) know how to find general sources. But many upper-division students may not yet be familiar with specific sources in your discipline. Make sure they know how to find these, and even consider arranging a session in the library to go over search techniques for databases in your field.
Students are remarkably reluctant to admit they have a hard time reading research-based texts. But if they don't know how to read professional articles in your field, they certainly won't know how to evaluate the data and conclusions in those articles. You can tackle this problem with some sequenced "mini"-writing tasks (like those described in the Combining WTL and WID section).
The Ag Econ assignment is a good example of breaking down a larger writing task so that the teacher can see if students need help with key elements of the larger writing task. If students, for example, don't know how to frame an adequate research question, you can head off this problem if you give students a mini-task that asks for a research question long before students begin their source work.
Similarly, if your experience with this course in the past suggests that students often struggle to analyze or synthesize data, you might want to set up sequenced writing tasks that give them some practice—and feedback—on these key writing skills.
The literature now available on writing in the disciplines or writing to communicate is deep and broad, encompassing far more than a brief bibliographic essay can accurately capture. Let me offer instead two pieces of advice—consult the general resources noted here and look at the journals in your discipline that take up teaching issues. Those journals are most likely to include articles that situate writing to communicate activities in the courses you might find yourself teaching. The articles themselves will glean from the robust resources to point you toward those titles that will best fill in background you might find helpful.
We collect below titles from across disciplines to offer some potential starting points. We have organized the resources in a table to cluster articles by discipline. Please note, however, that disciplinary titles here point to writing in the disciplines rather than writing to learn (or writing to engage) titles that are included in the WTL section of this resource. All titles refer to the list of Works Cited that follows the tables.
Carter, Ferzli & Wiebe, 2007
Hocks, Lopez & Grabill, 2000
Kaufer & Young, 1993
Young & Fulwiler, 1986
Ford & Newmark, 2011
Hotchkiss & Hougan, 2012
Addams, Woodbury, Allred & Addams, 2010
Nelson & MacLeod, 1993
Planken & Kreps, 2006
Sin, Jones & Petocz, 2007
Williams & Reid, 2010
Elliot, Daily, Fredricks & Graham, 2008
Gallavan, Bowles & Young, 2007
Street & Stang, 2008
Wheeler & Wheeler, 2009
Bressette & Breton, 2001
Buzzi, Grimes & Roll, 2012
Carlson & Berry, 2008
Carroll & Seeman, 2001
Cass & Fernandes, 2008
Chiang, et al., 2012
Craig, Lerner &Poe, 2008
Crisp & Jensen, 2007
Deese, Ramsey, Walczyk & Eddy, 2000
Elberty & Romey, 1991
Falk & Yarden, 2011
Froese, Gantz & Henry, 1998
Halsor & Faul-Halsor, 1991
Hosten, Talanova & Lipkowitz, 2011
Jalali, Hanlan & Canal, 2009
Klein & Aller, 1998
Kokkala & Gessell, 2003
Linsdell & Anagnos, 2011
Luthy, Petertson, Lassitter & Callister, 2009
McDermott & Kuhn, 2011
McGovern & Hogshead, 1990
McMillan & Raines, 2010
Meyer & Munson, 2005
Moni, Hryciw, Poronnik & Moni, 2007
Motavalli, Patton & Miles, 2007
Niemitz & Potter, 1991
Paretti & McNair, 2008
Polizzotto & Ortiz, 2008
Prothero & Kelly, 2008
Roberts-Kirchoff & Caspars, 2001
Robinson, Stoller, Horn & Grabe, 2009
Sivey & Lee, 2008
Smosna & Bruner, 2007
Turner & Broemmel, 2006
Vest, Long & Anderson, 1996
Vest, Long, Thomas & Palmquist, 1995
Wald, Davis, Reis, Monroe & Borken, 2009
Wallner & Latosi-Sawin, 1999
Wheeler & McDonald, 2000
Whelan & Zare, 2003
Zimmerman & Palmquist, 1993
Zimmerman, Palmquist, Kiefer, Long, Vest, Tipton & Thomas, 1993
Zimmerman, Palmquist, Vest, Boiarsky, Long, Tajchman, Anderson, Criswell & Crim, 1995
Zlatic, Nowak & Sylvester, 2000
Carlson, Chizmar, Seeborg & Walbert, 1998
Kahn & Holody, 2012
Santos & Lavin, 2004
Abbate-Vaughn, J. (2007). The graduate writing challenge: A perspective from an urban teacher education program. Action in Teacher Education, 29(2), 51-60.
Addams, L.H., Woodbury, D., Allred, T., & Addams, J. (2010). Developing student communication skills while assisting nonprofit organizations. Business Communication Quarterly, 73(3), 282-290.
Allwardt, D.E. (2011). Writing with wikis: A cautionary tale of technology in the classroom. Journal of Social Work Education, 47(3), 597-605.
Bahls, P. (2012). Student writing in the quantitative disciplines: A guide for college faculty. Indianapolis, IN: Jossey Bass.
Bank, C. (2006). Reading and writing taught in a sophomore course on plate tectonics. Journal of Geoscience Education, 54(1), 25-30.
Becker, S.F. (1995). Guest comment: Teaching writing to teach physics. American Journal of Physics, 63(7), 587.
Beiersdorfer, R.E. (1991). An integrated approach to geologic writing for non-science majors based on study of a California river. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 196-198.
Beins, B.C. (1993). Writing assignments in statistics classes encourage students to learn interpretation. Teaching of Psychology, 20(3),161-164.
Blevins-Knabe, B. (1987). Writing to learn while learning to write. Teaching of Psychology, 14(4), 239-241.
Bourelle, T. (2012). Bridging the gap between the technical communication classroom and the internship: Teaching social consciousness and real-world writing. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 42(2), 183-197.
Bressette, A.R; & Breton, G.W. (2001). Using writing to enhance the undergraduate research experience. Journal of Chemical Education, 78(12), 1626-1627.
Brumberger, E.R. (2004). The "corporate correspondence project": Fostering audience awareness and extended collaboration. Business Communication Quarterly, 67(3), 349-358.
Buddington, A.M. (2006). A field-based, writing intensive undergraduate course on
Buzzi, O., Grimes, S., & Rolls, A. (2012). Writing for the discipline in the discipline? Teaching in Higher Education, 17(4), 479-484.
Carlson, J.L., Chizmar, J.F., Seeborg, M.C., & Walbert, M.S. (1998). Using undergraduate journals and peer pressure to improve undergraduate writing in economics. The Journal of Economics, 24(2), 77-86.
Carlson, P.A., & Berry, F. C. (2008). Using computer-mediated peer review in an engineering design course. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 51(3), 264-279.
Carroll, F.A., & Seeman, J.I. (2001). Placing science into its human context: Using scientific autobiography to teach chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 78(12), 1618-1622.
Carson, R.J. (1991). Land-use-planning writing assignment for an environment-geology course. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 206-210.
Carter, M., Ferzli, M., & Wiebe, E.N. (2007). Writing to learn by learning to write in the disciplines. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 21(3), 278-302.
Cass, A.G., & Fernandes, C.S.T. (2008). Simulated conference submissions: A technique to improve student attitudes about writing. 2008 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Vols. 1-3; pp. 1535-1540.
Centellas, M. (2010). Pop culture in the classroom: "American Idol," Karl Marx, and Alexis de Tocqueville. PS: Political Science and Politics, 43(3), 561-565.
Chamely,Wiik, D.M., Kaky, J.E., & Galin, J. (2012). From Bhopal to cold fusion: A case-study approach to writing assignments in honors general chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 89(4), 502-508.
Cheng, C.K., Pare, D.E., Collimore, L., & Joordens, S. (2011). Assessing the effectiveness of a voluntary online discussion forum on improving students' course performance. Computers & Education, 56(1), 253-261.
Chiang, C. D., Lewis, C. L., Wright, M. D. E., Agapova, S., Akers, B., Azad, T. D., Banerjee, K., Carrera, P., Chen, A., Chen, J., Chi, X., Chiou, J., Cooper, J., Czurylo, M., Downs, C., Ebstein, S. Y., Fahey, P. G., Goldman, J. W., Grieff, A., Hsiung, S., Hu, R., Huang, Y., Kapuria, A., Li, K., Marcu, I., Moore, S. H., Moseley, A. C., Nauman, N., Ness, K. M., Ngai, D. M., Panzer, A., Peters, P., Qin, E. Y., Sadhu, S., Sariol, A., Schellhase, A., Schoer, M. B., Steinberg, M., Surick, G., Tsai, C. A., Underwood, K., Wang, A., Wang, M. H., Wang, V. M., Westrich, D., Yockey, L. J., Zhang, L., & Herzog, E. D. (2012). Learning Chronobiology by improving Wikipedia. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 27(4), 333-336.
Colabroy, K.L. (2011). A writing-intensive, methods-based laboratory course for undergraduates. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education: A Bimonthly Publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 39(3), 196-203.
Collins, J. (2010). Engineers learn to write: Coaching the art of noticing with writing samples. 2010 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference; 80-86. New York: IEEE Press.
Conrad, S.H. (1991). Balancing teaching and learning geology on the writing fulcrum. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 230-231.
Craig, J.L., Lerner, N., & Poe, M. (2008). Innovation across the curriculum: Three case studies in teaching science and engineering communication. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 51(3), 280-301.
Crisp, K.M., Jensen, M.M., & Moore, R.R. (2007). Pros and cons of a group webpage design project in a freshman anatomy and physiology course. Advances in Physiology Education, 31(4), 343-346.
Cunningham, K. (2007). Applications of reaction rate. Journal of Chemical Education, 84(3), 430-433.
Davis, L.E. (1991). Student abstract writing as a tool for writing across the curriculum in large introductory-geology courses. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 178-180.
Deese, W.C., Ramsey, L.L., Walczyk, J., & Eddy, D. (2000). Using demonstration assessments to improve writing. Journal of Chemical Education, 77(11), 1511-1516.
DeWolf, J.T. (2002). Incorporation of writing into a steel design course. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 128(2), 71-74.
Dickovick, J.T. (2009). Methods in the madness: Integrative approaches to methodology in introductory comparative politics. Journal of Political Science Education, 5(2), 138-153.
Doty, L.L. (2012). A mathematician learns the basics of writing instruction: An immersion experience with long-term benefits. Primus, 22(1), 14-29.
Elberty, W.T., & Romey, W.D. (1991). "What are you interested in" as a writing assignment theme. Journal of geological education, 39: 237-239.
Elliot, L., Daily, N.L., Fredricks, L., & Graham, M.S. (2008). Transitioning from students to professionals: Using a writing across the curriculum model to scaffold portfolio development. Teacher Educator, 43(1), 46-58.
Falk, H., & Yarden, A. (2011). Stepping into the unknown: Three models for the teaching and learning of the opening sections of scientific articles. Journal of Biological Education, 45(2), 77-82.
Fencl, H.S. (2010). Development of students' critical-reasoning skills through content-focused activities in a general education course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 39(5), 56-62.
Ford, J.D. (2004). Knowledge transfer across disciplines: Tracking rhetorical strategies from a technical communication classroom to an engineering classroom. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 47(4), 301-315.
Ford, J.D., & Newmark, J. (2011). Emphasizing research (further) in undergraduate technical communication curricula: Involving undergraduate students with an academic journal's publication and management. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 41(3), 311-324.
Fredrick, T. (2008). Practicing professional communication principles by creating public service announcements. Business Communication Quarterly, 71(1), 58-63.
Froese, A.D., Gantz, B.S., & Henry, A.L. (1998). Teaching students to write literature reviews: A meta-analytic model. Teaching of Psychology, 25(2), 102-105.
Galer-Unti, R.A. (2002). Student perceptions of a writing-intensive course in health education. Health Educator: Journal of Eta Sigma Gamma, 34(2), 35-40.
Gallavan, N.P., Bowles, F.S., & Young, C.T. (2007). Learning to write and writing to learn: Insights from teacher candidates. Action in Teacher Education, 29(2), 61-69.
Goma, O.D. (2001). Creative writing in economics. College teaching, 49(4), 149-152.
Goodman, R.E. (2005). Using letter-writing to enhance a calculus course. PRIMUS, 15(4), 298-302.
Guildford, W.H. (2001). Teaching peer review and the process of scientific writing. Advances in Physiology Education, 25(3), 167-175.
Halsor, S.P., & Faul-Halsor, C.L. (1991). Enhanced student learning through writing in a physical-geology class. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 181-184.
Harding, B.A. (2005). "A simple mechanism to teach a complex practitioner knowledge set." Innovations in Engineering Education 2005; pp. 479-486. ASME.
Hocks, M.E., Lopez, E.S., & Grabill, J.T. (2000,. Praxis and institutional architecture: Designing an interdisciplinary professional writing program. Academic Writing. Accessed at https://innovationtest2.colostate.edu/aw/articles/hocks2000.pdf
Hosten, C.M., Talanova, G., & Lipkowitz, K.B. (2011). Introducing undergraduates to the role of science in public policy and in the service of the community. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 12(3), 388-394.
Hotchkiss, K., & Hougen, M. (2012): Writing like a historian: What teacher candidates should know and be able to teach, The Social Studies, 103(4), 149-157.
Howell, P.R. (2007). "Writing to specification: An approach to teaching scientific literacy, and a prelude to writing 'The World of Materials' essays." In J.E.E. Baglin (Ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium and Forum Education in Materials Science, Engineering and Technology; pp. 247-289.
Irish, R. (1999). Engineering thinking: Using Benjamin Bloom and William Perry to design assignments. Language and Learning across the Disciplines, 3(2), 83-102.
Jalali, H., Hanlan, L., & Canal, J.P. (2009). "The use of writing-intensive learning as a communication and learning tool in an inorganic chemistry laboratory course." In M. GuptaBhowon, S. JhaumeerLauloo, H.L.K. Wah, and P. Ramasami (Eds.), Chemistry Education in the ICT Age; pp. 153-160.
Jebb, J.F. (2005). The crisis posting: Scenarios for class discussion and creation. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(4), 457-478.
Kahn, J.M., & Holody, R. (2012). Supporting field instructors' efforts to help improve student writing. Journal of Social Work Education, 48(1), 65-73.
Kasman, R. (2006). Critique that! Analytical writing assignments in advanced mathematics courses. PRIMUS, 16(1), 1-15.
Kaufer, D., & Young, R. (1993). Writing in the content areas: Some theoretical complexities. In L. Odell (Ed.), Theory and practice in the teaching of writing: Rethinking the discipline. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Kebede, A. (2009). Practicing sociological imagination through writing sociological autobiography. Teaching Sociology, 37(4), 353-368.
Killingbeck, K. (2006). Field botany and creative writing: Where the science of writing meets the writing of science. Journal of College Science Teaching, 35(7), 26-28.
Klein, B., & Aller, B. M. (1998). Writing across the curriculum in college chemistry: A practical bibliography. Language and Learning Across the Discipilines, 2(3), 25-35.
Kokkala, I., & Gessell, D. A. (2003). Writing science effectively: biology and English students in an author-editor relationship. Journal of College Science Teaching, 32(4), 252-257.
Kroen, W. (2004). Modeling the writing process: Using authentic data to teach students to write scientifically. Journal of College Science Teaching, 34(3), 50-53.
Kreth, M.L. (2005). A small-scale client project for business writing students: Developing a guide for first-time home buyers. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(1), 52-59.
Lavelle, E. (2006). Teachers' self-efficacy for writing. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 4(1), 73-84.
Lewis, M. (2004). Reflections: 'This class will write a book': An experiment in environmental history pedagogy. Environmental History, 9(4), 604-619.
Libarkin, J., & Ording, G. (2012). The utility of writing assignments in undergraduate bioscience. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 11(1), 39-46.
Lillig, J.W. (2008). Writing across the semester: A non-standard term paper that encourages critical data analysis in the upper-division chemistry classroom. Journal of Chemical Education, 85(10), 1392-1394.
Linsdell, J., & Anagnos, T. (2011). Motivating technical writing through study of the environment. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 137(1), 20-27.
Lord, S.M. (2009). Integrating effective "writing to communicate" experiences in engineering courses: Guidelines and examples. International Journal of Engineering Education, 25(1), 196-204.
Luthy, K.E., Peterson, N.E., Lassetter, J.H., & Callister, L.C. (2009), Successfully incorporating writing across the curriculum with advanced writing in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(1), 54-59.
Macdonald, R.H. (1991). Writing assignments challenge students in a physical-geology course. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 199-201.
Martin, A.M. (2010). "Astronomy and writing: A first-year cosmology course for nonmajors." In J. Barnes, D.A. Smith, M.G. Gibbs, and J.G. Manning (Eds.), Science Education and Outreach: Forging a Path to the Future. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, Vol. 431; pp. 368-371. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McDermott, M., & Kuhn, M. (2011). Using writing for alternative audiences in a college integrated science course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 41(1), 40-45.
McGovern, T.V., & Hogshead, D.L. (1990). Learning about writing, thinking about teaching. Teaching of Psychology, 17(1), 5-9.
McMillan, L.R., & Raines, K. (2010). Headed in the "write" direction: Nursing student publication and health promotion in the community. Journal of Nursing Education, 49(7), 418-421.
Meyer, N.J., & Munson, B.H. (2005). Personalizing and empowering environmental education through expressive writing. Journal of Environmental Education, 36(3), 6-15.
Mirsky, A. (1991). Writing assignments as a continuum in geosciences education. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 232-236.
Mizrahi, J. (2003). Teaching technical writing to university students using the medical report. STC's 50th Annual Conference Proceedings; 190-193.
Moni, R.W., Hryciw, D.H., Poronnik, P., & Moni, K.B. (2007). Using explicit teaching to improve how bioscience students write to the lay public. Advances in Physiology Education, 31(2), 167-75.
Motavalli, P.P., Patton, M.D., & Miles, R.J. (2007). Use of web-based student extension publications to improve undergraduate student writing skills. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 36: 95-102.
Mulnix, A.B. (2003). Investigations of protein structure and function using the scientific literature: An assignment for an undergraduate cell physiology course. Cell Biology Education, 2(4), 248-255.
Nelson, S.J., & MacLeod, L. (1993). Development of cases for business report writing classes: The analytical report. Business Education Forum, 36-38.
Niemitz, J.W., & Potter, N. (1991). The scientific method and writing in introductory landscape-development laboratories. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 190-195.
Paretti, M.C., & McNair, U.D. (2008). Introduction to the special issue on communication in engineering curricula: Mapping the landscape. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 51(3), 238-241.
Patterson, R.T. (1997). Assignment of World Wide Web virtual museum projects in undergraduate geoscience courses. Computers & Geosciences, 23(5), 581-585.
Patton, M.D. (2008). Beyond WI: Building an integrated communication curriculum in one department of civil engineering tutorial. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 51(3), 313-327.
Pennock, A. (2011). The case for using policy writing in undergraduate political science courses. PS: Political Science and Politics, 44(1), 141-146.
Planken, B., & Kreps, A.J. Raising Students' Awareness of the Implications of Multimodality for Content Design and Usability: The Web Site Project. Business Communication Quarterly, 69(4), 421-425.
Polizzotto, K., & Ortiz, M.T. (2008). Design projects in human anatomy & physiology. American Biology Teacher, 70(4), 230-234.
Pollard, E.A. (2008). Raising the stakes: Writing about witchcraft on Wikipedia. History Teacher, 42(1), 9-24.
Powell, V. (2012). Revival of the position paper: Aligning curricula and professional competencies. Communication Teacher, 26(2), 96-103.
Pressman, J. (2008). The Arab-Israeli conflict and the case of the lemon tree. International Studies Perspective, 9(4), 430-441.
Prothero, W.A., & Kelly, G.J. (2008). Earth data, science writing, and peer review in a large general education oceanography class. Journal of Geoscience Education, 56(1), 61-72.
Reynolds-Keefer, L. (2010). Rubric-referenced assessment in teacher preparation: An opportunity to learn by using. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 15(8).
Roberts-Kirchoff, E.S., & Caspers, M.L. (2001). Dialogues as teaching tools in the biochemical sciences. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 29(6), 225-228.
Robinson, M.S., Stoller, F.L., Horn, B., & Grabe, W. (2009). Teaching and applying chemistry-specific writing skills using a simple, adaptable exercise. Journal of Chemical Education, 86(1), 45-49.
Russell, D.R. (2007). Rethinking the articulation between business and technical communication and writing in the disciplines: Useful avenues for teaching and research. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 21(3), 248-277.
Russell, D. R. (1991). Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870-1990: A Curricular History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Ruswick, B.J. (2011). Teaching historical skills through JSTOR: An online research project for survey courses. History Teacher, 44(2), 285-296.
Santi, P. (2000). Ethics exercises for civil, environmental, and geological engineers. Journal of Engineering Education, 89(2), 151-159+253.
Santos, J., & Lavin, A.M. (2004). Do as I do, not as I say: Assessing outcomes when students think like economists. Journal of Economic Education, 35(2), 148-161.
Shaver, L. (2007). Eliminating the shell game: Using writing assignment names to integrate disciplinary learning. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 21(1), 74-90.
Shaver, L. (2011). Using key messages to explore rhetoric in professional writing. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 25(2), 219-236.
Sin, S., Jones, A., & Petocz, P. (2007). Evaluating a method of integrating generic skills with accounting content based on a functional theory of meaning. Accounting and Finance, 47(1), 143-163.
Sivey, J.D., & Lee, C.M. (2008). Using popular magazine articles to teach the art of writing for nontechnical audiences. Journal of Chemical Education, 85(1), 55-58.
Smosna, R., & Bruner, K.R. (2007). Toward the improvement of reasoning and writing skills in sedimentary geology. Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(1), 17-21.
Snow, R.S. (1991). Early writing in the research mode via digital modeling of rivers. Journal of Geological Education, 39: 227-229.
Street, C., & Stang, K. (2008). Improving the teaching of writng across the curriculum: A model for teaching in-service secondary teachers to write. Action in Teacher Education, 30(1), 37-49.
Sulewski, R. (2003). Integrating communication and technical material in the first-year engineering curriculum: The role of the laboratory. STC's 50th Annual Conference Proceedings; 176-178.
Tilstra, L. (2001). Using journal articles to teach writing skills for laboratory reports in general chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 78(6). 762-764.
Tomaska, L. (2007). Teaching how to prepare a manuscript by means of rewriting published scientific papers. Genetics, 175(1), 17-20.
Trepagnier, B. (2004). Teaching sociology through student portfolios. Teaching Sociology, 32(2), 197-205.
Turner, T., & Broemmel, A. (2006). Fourteen writing strategies. Science Scope, 30(4), 27-31.
Vega, G. (2010). The undergraduate case research study model. Journal of Management Education, 34(4), 574-604.
Vest, D., Long, M., & Anderson, T. (1996.) Electrical engineers' perceptions of communication training and their recommendations for curricular change: Results of a national survey. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 39, no. 1: 38-42.
Vest, D., Long, M., Thomas, L., & Palmquist, M. (1995.) Relating communication training to workplace requirements: The perspective of new engineers. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 38, no. 1:1-7.
Wald, H.S., Davis, S.W., Reis, S.P., Monroe, A.D., & Borkan, J.M. (2009). Reflecting on reflections: Enhancement of medical education curriculum with structured field notes and guided feedback. Academic Medicine, 84(7), 830-837.
Wallner, A.S., & Latosi-Sawin, E. (1999). Technical writing and communication in a senior-level chemistry seminar. Journal of Chemical Education, 76(10), 1404-1406.
Walvoord, B.E. (1992.) Getting started. In S.H. McLeod and M. Soven (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum: A guide to developing programs. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Wandersee, J.H., Clary, R.M., & Guzman, S.M. (2006). A writing template for probing students' botanical sense of place. American Biology Teacher, 68(7), 419-422.
Ward, M., Sr. (2009). Squaring the learning circle: Cross-classroom collaborations and the impact of audience on student outcomes in professional writing. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 23(1), 61-82.
West, V.L. (2006). Teaching written communication skills in professional selling: The cover letter. Journal of Marketing Education, 28(3), 205-217.
Wheeler, E., & McDonald, R. L. (2000). Writing in engineering courses. Journal of Engineering Education, 89(4), 481—486+507+509.
Whelan, R. J. & Zare, R.N. (2003). Teaching effective communication in a writing-intensive analytical chemistry course. Journal of Chemical Education, 80(8), 904-906.
White, H.B. (2007). The eyes have it: A problem-based learning exercise in molecular evolution. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 35(3), 213-218.
Williams, J.A.S., & Reid, R.C. (2010). Developing problem solving and communication skills through memo assignments in a management science course. Journal of Education for Business, 85(6), 323-329.
Williams, L.S. (2008). Strengthening the ethics and visual rhetoric of sales letters. Business Communication Quarterly, 71(1)44-52.
Young, A., & Fulwiler, T. (1986.) Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Zimmerman, D.E., & Palmquist, M. (1993.) Enhancing electrical engineering students' communication skills. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, Philadelphia: 428-431.
Zimmerman, D.E., Palmquist, M., Kiefer, K., Long, M., Vest, D., Tipton, M., & Thomas. L. (1994.) Enhancing electrical engineering students communication skills-the baseline findings. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, Banff, Canada: 412-417.
Zimmerman, D.E., Palmquist, M., Vest, D., Boiarsky, G., Long, M., Tajchman, R., Anderson, T., Criswell, K., & Crim, C. (1995.) Developing online writing aids for electrical engineering majors: A progress report. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, Savannah, Georgia: 230-233.
Zlatic, T.D., Nowak, D.M., & Sylvester, D. (2000). Integrating general and professional education through a study of herbal products: An intercollegiate collaboration. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 64(1), 83-94.