WAC Bibliography

Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

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Category: WAC and Second-Language Writing

Your search found 61 citations.

1. Abasi, Ali R.; Nahal Akbari; Barbara Graves. (2006). Discourse appropriation, construction of identities, and the complex issue of plagiarism: ESL students writing in graduate school. Journal of Second Language Writing 15.2, 102-117.
Annotation: Drawing on case studies of five L2 graduate students – two MA students in a Second Language Education program, a PhD student in Counseling, a PhD student in Educational Administration, and a PhD student in Education – the authors examine how L2 graduate students make choices about appropriating discourse when writing, how they identify their voices in source-based writing, and how choices of appropriation and voice relate to a student’s identities. They found that the less experienced graduate students were less likely to be aware of textual choices as rhetorical and as creating identity in writing in contrast to the more experienced graduate student writers. After analyzing participants’ writing, the authors discovered that the less experienced graduate students also plagiarized more and tied this practice to their educational histories and assumptions about their roles as writers. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, plagiarism, identity, constructivist, graduate, appropriation, case-study
2. Andra-Miller, Jean. (1991). Integrating 'writing to learn' and foreign language proficiency concepts. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 386 922.
Keywords: WAC, L2-requirement, L2 proficiency, testing, French literature-course, journal-writing, freewriting, pedagogy, integrated, language proficiency, proficiency
3. Birch, Gary; Enju Norris; Himiko Negishi; Griffith University [Nathan, Australia]. (1995). The effect of explicit teaching of learning strategies on students' reading and writing in a Japanese partial immersion program, immersion. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 398 727.
Keywords: WAC, L1-L2, English-Japanese, write-to-learn, think-aloud, protocol-analysis, interview, data, explicit teaching, immersion, learner-strategy
4. Blakesley, David; Erin J. Harvey; Erica J. Reynolds. (2003). Southern Illinois University Carbondale as an institutional model: The English 100/101 Stretch and directed self-placement program. In Royer, Daniel; Roger Gilles (Eds.), Directed self-placement: Principles and practices; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press (pp. 207-241).
Annotation: Outlines implementation of a Stretch model concurrently with directed self-placement (DSP). The authors report that as administrators, they had to train their Graduate Assistants (GAs) in depth so they understood and could explain the new system (pre-semester workshop; detailed script on what to cover about Stretch and DSP during the first two weeks of class, etc.). Authors report that students, because they had more agency through the DSP model, were not as resistant to being placed into Stretch; the morale of GAs also was improved, as their students were happier about taking the basic writing class [Gregory Glau, Stretch Courses, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No.2]. David Blakesley, Eric Harvey, and Erica Reynolds' stretch program implementation at Southern Illinois University Carbondale is guided by Gregory Glau's research at Arizona State University (1996; 2007). Their decision to use DSP in the SIUC stretch program was guided by the initial research of Royer and Gilles (2003), and then confirmed as a valid placement procedure after subsequent readings on the topic of self-efficacy, confidence, and choice. The dilemma that the authors faced, and which they share in hopes that other writing program administrators may more easily overcome it, is the means by which a stretch and DSP program can be thoroughly and beneficially implemented within a complex bureaucracy. The authors see four major groups of stakeholders who need to be convinced. First are students who need access to program information. Second are the student advisors who need to disseminate information and choices to students. Third are university administrators who make financial decisions. And last are the personnel who teach in the classrooms, because they become de facto advisors. Blakesley et al. show brochures, testing procedures, and convincing analytical studies to help others implement a stretch and DSP program. Not content to rely on past research, they also produce research of their own, pointing out the need for future adopters of stretch or DSP programs to continue to collect data as the primary means of justifying adoption. Their stretch program was justified by data that showed a 9% higher pass rate for students who enrolled in the stretch program. Further figures show that while only 48% of students were aware of DSP, of those who were aware, 21% chose to enroll in the stretch program, and 93% valued their right to choose. [Asao B. Inoue, et al., Directed Self-Placement; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 16]
Keywords: placement, directed self-placement, self-placement, self-assessment, stretch, self-efficacy, data, stakeholder, student-opinion
5. Bloch, Joel, Condon, Bill, Hickey, Dona, McCleary, Leland, Matsuda, Paul Kei , Rilling, Sarah, & Palmquist, Mike. (2001). Connecting WAC and ESL?. Academic.Writing: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Communication Across the Curriculum, 2(1), 1-1. https://doi.org/10.37514/AWR-J.2001.2.1.03
Annotation: This Forum builds on an article by Paul Kei Matsuda and Jeff Jablonski, "Beyond the L2 Metaphor: Towards a Mutually Transformative Model of ESL/WAC Collaboration." Published in Academic.Writing in 2000, the article provided a thoughtful challenge to current thinking about relations between the two fields. This Forum opens with statements from four scholars whose primary focus is ESL and responses to those statements from two scholars whose primary focus is writing across the curriculum. The participants then engage in a discussion built around two follow-up and one closing question. Members of this Forum communicated with each other via electronic mail and the Web over a period of roughly two months. Their interactions are represented here using links among and beyond the texts that they produced.
Keywords: wac, esl, L2, ESL, l1-l2
6. Braine, George. (1989). Writing in the natural sciences and engineering: Implications for ESL composition courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 304 881.
Keywords: science-course, engineering-course, WAC, ESL, LEP, University of Texas, text-analysis, taxonomy, genre, laboratory-report, textbook, summary-writing, paraphrase, natural-science, implication
7. Bustamante, Isabel. (1991). The role of reading in teaching business writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 345 549.
Keywords: bizcom, business Spanish, L1-L2, English-Spanish, letter-writing, write-to-learn, University of Toledo [Ohio], WAC, contrast-group, gain, data
8. Courchene, Robert. (1994). Dialogue journals and teacher education: A window on the past, present, and future. Mosaic 01.4, 1, 3-5.
Keywords: teacher-training, journal-writing, WAC, dialogue journal, University of Ottawa, L2-teaching, content-analysis
9. Cox, Michelle. (2010). Identity, second language writers, and the learning of workplace writing. In Cox, Michelle; Jay Jordan; Christina Ortmeier-Hooper; Gwen Gray Schwartz (Eds.), Reinventing identities in second language writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English (pp. 75-95).
Annotation: Drawing from case studies of graduate students in a Communication Science and Disorders masters program, Cox compares the writing experiences of a L2 writer with native English speaking writers in the same program, concluding that the ways in which the L2 writer was identified as ‘ESL’ by faculty had negative consequences for this student’s progress through the master’s program. However, the same student’s bilingualism was seen more positively by supervisors in off-campus internships. Cox calls on WAC administrators to learn more about how L2 writers fare in the workplace in order to work more productively with faculty preparing students for different professions. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 2: Studies Focused on L2 Writers in Specific Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, WID, graduate, workplace, case-study, native-nonnative, evaluation, faculty-opinion, worker-opinion
10. Cox, Michelle. (2010). WAC/WID and second language writers (WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8). CompPile database [filed in the Annotation Field--enter: WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8].
Annotation: In his 2009 article, 'WAC/WID in the Next America: Redefining Professional Identity in the Age of the Multilingual Majority,' Jonathon Hall argues for WAC/WID administrators to be inclusive of second language (L2) students in WAC/WID programs, research, and faculty development. This annotated bibliography takes up that call by providing WAC/WID administrators with reviews of 26 journal articles, book chapters, and monographs that together provide a range of resources useful for providing support for the L2 students writing across the curriculum, in the majors, and in graduate programs. This annotated bibliography is organized in three sections: WAC/WID administrative issues and L2 writers, studies focused on L2 writers in particular disciplines, and studies focused on L2 writers across disciplines. Many of the studies included are case studies tracking the experiences of undergraduate students writing in general education courses as well as courses in their majors, and graduate students writing across master and doctoral programs. What emerges from these studies is a picture of the complex linguistic, cultural, and identity transitions made by L2 students as they write across varying social, disciplinary, and rhetorical contexts. What also emerges is a map of the many opportunities available to WAC/WID professionals for advocating for L2 students. Positioned at the crossroads of teaching and learning as agents of institutional change, WAC/WID professionals are key to making our institutional landscapes, classrooms, and assessment practices more equitable for L2 students, a group not at the margins but at the center of US institutions of higher education. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, WID, ESL, WPA, administrating, needs-analysis
11. D'Alessio, Diane & Riley, Margaret. (2002). Scaffolding Writing Skills for ESL Students in an Education Class at a Community College. The WAC Journal, 13(1), 79-89. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2002.13.1.08
Keywords: ESL, two-year, WAC, scaffolding, skill-level, education-course
12. Day, Michael, Howard, Tharon, Hult, Christine, Moran, Charles , Reiss, Donna, & Palmquist, Mike. (2000). The Role of Technology in WAC/CAC Program Development in the Coming Decade. Academic.Writing: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Communication Across the Curriculum, 1(2), 1-1. https://doi.org/10.37514/AWR-J.2000.1.2.03
Annotation: This Forum, which brought together five scholars [http://wac.colostate.edu/aw/forums/fall2000/participants.htm]with divergent experiences in and views about writing across the curriculum, was designed to consider the role of technology in WAC/CAC programs. The participants communicated with each other via electronic mail and the Web over a period of months. Their interactions are represented here using links among and beyond the texts that they produced. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, CAC, communication across the curriculum, WID
13. de Courcy, Michele. (1994). English in music: Content-based ESL for tertiary music students. Prospect: A Journal of Australian TESOL 09.1, 39-51.
Keywords: ESL, Australia, Queensland Conservatorium of Music, WAC, data, mainstreaming
14. Diaz, Diana M. (1989). Language across the curriculum and ESL students: Composition research and 'sheltered courses'. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 326 057.
Keywords: WAC, ESL, needs-analysis, acquisition, mainstreaming, sheltered courses, retraining
15. Diaz, Diana M. (1988). ESL college writers: Process and community. Journal of Developmental Education 12.2, 6-8, 10-12.
Keywords: ESL, needs-analysis, review-of-scholarship, acquisition, audience-awareness, collaborative, sheltered, WAC
16. Dixon, Richard. (1994). Developing higher cognitive skills through interpretive writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 374 643.
Keywords: L2, English-Spanish, write-to-learn, WAC, poetry-writing, sample, pedagogy, cognitive, skill, interpretive
17. Estes, Gisela B., Lopez-Mayhew, Barbara, & Gardner, Marie-Therese. (1998). Writing in the Foreign Language Department. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum, 9(1), 68-81. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.1998.9.1.09
Keywords: WAC, L2-department, L2-course, write-to-learn
18. Ferris, Dana & Thaiss, Chris. (2011). Writing at UC Davis: Addressing the Needs of Second Language Writers. Across the Disciplines, 8(4), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.37514/ATD-J.2011.8.4.27
Keywords: ESL, L2, independent writing program, WAC, WID
19. Gaudiani, Claire; Center for Applied Linguistics [Washington, D. C.]. (1981). Teaching composition in the foreign language curriculum (Language in education: Theory and practice, No. 43). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 209 961.
Keywords: WAC, language-course, L2, syllabus, text-editing, journal-writing
20. Hall, John. (2009). WAC/WID in the Next America: Redefining Professional Identity in the Age of the Multilingual Majority. The WAC Journal, 20(1), 33-49. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2009.20.1.03
Annotation: Drawing from data depicting the fast rise of linguistically diverse students in k-12 and in higher education, as well as the trend toward globalization in the workplace, Hall calls for WAC administrators to prepare for this ‘New America’ by shifting faculty development programming to be inclusive of second language writing. Hall provides areas of L2 writing research useful to WAC administrators for educating themselves on working with L2 writers as well as enrich faculty development programming to be inclusive of L2 writing issues. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, transformative, multilingual, WID, diversity, ESL, data, teacher-growth, identity, majority
21. Harris, Muriel. (1979). Do we need materials for lab, ESL and engineering students?. Writing Lab Newsletter 03.6, 2-3. https://writinglabnewsletter.org/archives.php
Keywords: wcenter, WAC, materials
22. Hirsch, Linda. (1989). Are principles of writing across the curriculum applicable to ESL students in content courses? Research findings. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 319 264.
Keywords: WAC, gain, data, contrast-group, two-year, Hostos Community College (SUNY), ESL, focus group, tutoring, contrast-group, grades, gain, data, persistence, drop-out, persistence, ancillary, principle
23. Hirsch, Linda. (1988). Talking and writing across the curriculum: A tutorial model for adult ESL students in content courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 294 195.
Keywords: pre-post, questionnaire, student-opinion, faculty-opinion, course-grade, data, ESL, adult-ed, WAC, Hostos Community College, CUNY, tutorial, contrast-group, model-essay, tutoring, tutorial
24. Hirsch, Linda M. (1986). The use of expressive function talk and writing as a learning tool with adult ESL students across the curriculum [doctoral thesis]. New York: New York University.
Keywords: talk-write, expressive, ESL, adult-ed, WAC, write-to-learn
25. Hirsch, Linda; Carolina DeLuca. (2003). WAC in an urban and bilingual setting: Writing-to-learn in English y en Español. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3. https://wac.colostate.edu/llad/v6n3/hirsch.pdf
Annotation: Hirsh and DeLuca research the effectiveness of writing-to-learn pedagogies in a writing-intensive section of an Introductions to Humanities course taught in Spanish as part of a bilingual program. Hirsh and DeLuca argue that for L2 students, writing-to-learn in their first language enables them to create meaning and further understand course material, a benefit of WAC not always available to L2 writers when faculty insist on the use of English even in low-stakes writing activities. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, WID, WAC, L2, urban, write-to-learn, bilingual, Spanish-English, ESL, urban
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