WAC Bibliography

Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

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Category: Genre

Your search found 54 citations.

1. Addison, Joanne; Sharon James McGee. (2010). Writing in high school/writing in college: Research trends and future directions. College Composition and Communication 62.1, 147-179.
Annotation: Outlines major large-scale writing research projects done within the ten years preceding article publication. Using student responses to the National Survey of Student Engagement’s (NSSE) 'writing-specific' questions, Addison and McGee identified five scales that 'describe the quality of undergraduate writing and establish that certain types of writing are substantially related to NSSE’s deep learning subscales, especially higherorder thinking and integrative learning,' through investigating: pre-writing activities, instructor articulation of clear expectations, the assignment of higher-order writing tasks, good instructor practices such as student collaboration, sample review and opportunities for writing practice, and evidence of student use of integrated media like the inclusion of visual content in their writing. Upon comparison of the aggregate data from the studies referenced above using these five scales, Addison and McGee found that college and high school faculty across the curriculum only diverged in their practices in terms of assigning higher-order writing tasks and using integrated media . Yet, college faculty tended to provide fewer opportunities for peer review and 'informal, exploratory' writing. Alternately, student and teacher as well as instructor-workplace perceptions and expectations about writing were far less congruent. In response, calls for the following future actions: the creation of 'WAC-centered vertical curriculum' between high schools and colleges that concretely emphasizes the transfer of skills related to not only essay but also narrative and critical research-based writing , including interdisciplinary rhetorical analysis and workplace genres; the establishment of future research partnerships between large organizations like NSSE and WPA jointly guided by the Committee on Research and Committee on Professional Visibility and Databases within CCCC; and the formation of an online repository by NCTE/CCCC to archive the raw data and tools used in writing studies as a resource for upcoming research and advocacy efforts [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Keywords: writing-studies, school-college, articulation, literacy, WAC, scale, deep learning, curriculum, workplace, genre, best-practices, academic, research-method, future, trend, National Survey of Student Engagement’s (NSSE), WPA Committee on Research and Committee on Professional Visibility and Databases, CCCC, data repository, digital, rhetorical-analysis, interdisciplinary, trend
2. Anson, Chris. (2005). Teaching and learning a multimodal genre in a psychology course. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press (pp. 171-195).
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, psychology-course, multimodal
3. Bazerman, Charles. (1988). Shaping written knowledge: The genre and activity of the experimental article in science. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Annotation: Traces the history and character of the experimental article in science, calling attention to the social and rhetorical forces that shaped its development. The book provides a broadly interdisciplinary exploration of an important genre and offers insights that extend far beyond its immediate focus of study. This book is available online as part of the Academic Writing series, Landmark Publications in Writing Studies. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: science-writing, genre, history, science, research-report, activity-theory, constructivist, knowledge-making, term-paper, experimental, WAC, academic, interdisciplinary
4. Beaufort, Anne. (2005). Writing history: Informed or not by genre theory. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press (pp. 44-64).
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, historiography, genre-theory, history-course
5. Blau, Sheridan. (2010). Academic writing as participation: Writing your way in. In Sullivan, Patrick; Tinberg, Howard; Blau, Sheridan (Eds.), What is “college-level” writing? Volume 2: Assignments, Readings and Student Writing Samples; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English (pp. 29-56).
Annotation: Blau describes and models his methodology and classroom practice of a genre-specific approach that purports to enable the transition of high school, community college and first-year college students into the university academic discourse community. Blau bases his claims of efficacy on anecdotal reports, observations done in New York City community colleges and high school classrooms as well as the application of research and theory. Blau suggests that students ought to write share and discuss literary commentary so they can concretely enact the formation of genuine academic discursive practices. These student commentaries are used for longer papers where students read, respond to and cite each other’s work. Blau contends that this 'genre-creating program' promotes the 'critical thinking' that is essential to the reading and writing involved in 'college-level discourse' because it lends students academic authority, in that they are originators and evaluators of a shared classroom disciplinary textual [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Keywords: school-college, two-year, research-method, New York City, discourse-community, genre-specific, disciplinary, convention, WAC, critical-thinking, research-practice, theory-practice, discursive, praxis
6. Blythe, Stuart; Laura Gonzales. (2016). Coordination and Transfer across the Metagenre of Secondary Research. College Composition and Communication 67.4.
Annotation: Screencast videos were used to study the work of undergraduates enrolled in biology. Students were able to adapt to the writing requirements in biology because they implicitly understood the metagenre of ""research from sources."" Students coordinated multiple texts simultaneously to engage in processes akin to what Howard has called ""patchwriting"" but also similar to the habits of professional writers. The authors suggest that instructors spend more time helping students develop effective networks of information, including experts and organizations in addition to published sources.
Keywords: WAC, biology, transfer, metagenre, genre, research, patchwriting, professional-writing, FYC, WID
7. Burton, Vicki Tolar. (2010). Activity systems, genre, and research on writing across the curriculum. College Composition and Communication 61.3, 583-596.
Keywords: activity-theory, systemic, genre, research-method, review-of-scholarship, WAC
8. Carpenter, J. Harrison. & Krest, Margie. (2001). It's About the Science: Students Writing and Thinking about Data in a Scientific Writing Course. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines, 5(2), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.37514/LLD-J.2001.5.2.04
Annotation: The problem for the teaching of discipline-specific writing is that disciplinary standards of style and form often trump writing teachers' concerns for fostering critical thinking; as a result, teachers overemphasize correctness and format. Our approach is based on the belief that a generative view of genre can be the basis for students learning how to think critically about science.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, conventions, science, critical thinking, writing to learn, genre, data-interpretation
9. Carter, Michael. (2007). Ways of knowing, doing, and writing in the disciplines. College Composition and Communication 58.3, 385-418.
Annotation: Drawing on the North American genre theories of Carolyn Miller, David Russell, and Charles Bazerman, as well as eight years’ work with outcomes descriptions and assessments, Carter proposes that disciplines define themselves by the genres or intellectual actions central to their work. This definition has several implications: (a) it defies the late 19th century notion of university disciplines as static bodies of declarative knowledge; (b) it forwards the more recent sense of disciplines as collaborations of scholars engaged in ongoing work; (c) it draws attention to the act of writing as the means by which the essential work of all disciplines is realized; (d) it makes it inevitable that all faculty are teachers of writing; and (e) it suggests fruitful areas of cooperation among disciplines. After describing the many genres through which intellectual work is realized, Carter describes four metagenres (Problem Solving, Empirical Inquiry, Research from Sources, Performance) that name intellectual actions common to many disciplines. He suggests that by concentrating on these metagenres, university specialists in WID can help all faculty better understand and teach the genres in which they are engaged and for which they are responsible. The article closes with an appendix listing program outcomes from three academic departments at NCSU, Carter’s home institution. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Keywords: WID, discipline, genre, meta, multidisciplinary, cross-discipline, Dave R. Russell, Carolyn R. Miller, Charles Bazerman, WAC, epistemological, write-to-learn, outcomes
10. Chanock, Kate. (2007). Helping Thesis Writers to Think About Genre:What is Prescribed, What May Be Possible. The WAC Journal, 18(1), 31-41. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2007.18.1.03
Annotation: Describes a WAC-like seminar created to aid graduate students in discovering how to simultaneously write creatively and formally in accordance with their respective disciplines. By using analysis of established genres in thesis formation students work within the guidelines and concerns of the discipline while applying their own ideas of what constitutes relevant forms and content for personal investment. Purpose is to foster interpersonal communication among members of the academic disciplines. [Michael Bistreich]
Keywords: masters thesis-writing, genre-analysis, graduate, WAC, seminar, Australian, creativity, academic, disciplinary, individual, interpersonal
11. Charlton, Michael. (2007). That's Just a Story: Academic Genres and Teaching Anecdotes in Writing-Across-the-Curriculum Projects. The WAC Journal, 18(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2007.18.1.02
Keywords: teacher-story, WAC, lore, conflict, faculty-workshop, narrative, persuasive
12. Clark, Irene L. & Fischbach, Ronald. (2008). Writing and Learning in the Health Sciences: Rhetoric, Identity, Genre, and Performance. The WAC Journal, 19(1), 15-28. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2008.19.1.02
Annotation: Clark and Fishbach argue that discussions of linked courses often overlook the need for students simultaneously to develop their professional identities as they work toward becoming more proficient writers. To explore this claim, the authors turn to their experience developing a link between a public health education course and a course in health sciences writing and rhetoric. Clark and Fishbach discovered that students benefited from the opportunity 'to 'perform' as writers and speakers within a particular field or profession' (18). More particularly, the link helped student writers to reconceptualize genre as a form of 'social action' as they became more familiar with the professional discourses they were learning. Clark and Fischbach subsequently consider the ways their focus on genre in the linkage put pressure on the shared term 'argument', but also discuss ways that researchers have shown the term to be similar across humanities-based writing and scientific writing. In closing, the authors assert that their experiences with this linkage affirm that role-play is essential to an increase in professionally situated rhetorical awareness for student writers. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: basic-skills, genre, health-sciences, learning-theory, WAC, linked, skill-transfer, public health course, intensive, assignment, syllabus, genre, identity, career, identity, performative, role-playing, interdisciplinary, 'argument', conflict
13. Clark, Irene L. & Hernandez, Andrea. (2011). Genre Awareness, Academic Argument, and Transferability. The WAC Journal, 22(1), 65-78. https://doi.org/10.37514/WAC-J.2011.22.1.05
Annotation: The authors report on a preliminary study of the use of FYW instruction in genre-awareness as a means to facilitate transferrable writing skills and techniques across disciplines. By defining genre-awareness as a ""threshold concept,"" they are able to address issues that arise in transfer-based instruction, namely, ""transferability, troublesomeness, and liminality."" A distinction made between genre-awareness and the explicit teaching of genre occurs, in which the re-defining of genre-awareness as threshold concept attempts to eliminate the restrictive method of genre instruction cited by Freedman. The authors address several critiques regarding transferability, noting issues of mimicry and cross-disciplinary inconsistency. They present methods and results of a semester-long survey-based study in which students compose two essays in different genres (argumentative and disciplinary), and one essay reflecting on their differences. Comparison of statistical and commentarial data taken before and after the course occurs, wherein analysis of student awareness of audience, authorial persona, purpose, formatting, and structure transpires. Clark and Hernandez conclude that student focus on structural and surface level elements rather than rhetorical features support issues of instructor expertise in foreign genres posed by Russell, Wardle, and Downs, and that due to an admittedly small sample size, possibilities for future research are vast and necessary. [Clark, Irene L., and Andrea Hernandez. ""Genre Awareness, Academic Argument, and Transferability."" The WAC Journal 22 (2011): 66-78. Print.]
Keywords: genre-awareness, WAC, student-opinion, knowledge-transfer, skill-transfer, persona, formating, citation
14. Deans, Thomas. (2002). Writing and community action: A service learning rhetoric and reader. New York: Longman.
Annotation: The author's service learning rhetoric offers comprehensive support for writing about, for, and with communities. The ten chapters present an expansive understanding of writing practiced across academic, social, literary, and professional communities. Each moves through assignment options, direct instruction in a variety of genres, student samples, and reading selections of short stories, reflective essays, and professional writing samples. The book is grounded in a rhetorical tradition of civic participation and balances preparation for community outreach with reflection on such work, viewing writing in both cases 'as a versatile tool for action—action in academic, workplace, and civic communities' (xii). [Rebecca Lorimer]. [Rebecca Lorimer & David Stock, Service Learning Initiatives: Implementation and Administration; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 13].
Keywords: service-learning, pedagogy, course-design, community, student-engagement, genre, WAC, assignment, student-writing, sample, civic participation
15. Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-Year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
Annotation: Downs and Wardle describe WAW curricula that extend beyond students reading and writing about existing scholarship in rhetoric and composition (cf. Dew) to having students conduct primary research on related topics. They frame the pedagogy as an ‘Introduction to Writing Studies’ that explicitly rejects the traditional FYC goal of teaching a universal academic discourse and instead seeks to teach (1) metacognition about writing via procedural and declarative knowledge of writing, and (2) a version of the activity of inquiry that centers universities and spans disciplines. The article theorizes the shortcomings of traditional FYC courses in terms of genre and activity theory and describes WAW curricula that can better respond to these theories of how writing works and thus needs to be learned. It then reports on early results from the curriculum as taught in multiple sections at three institutions, illustrating effects through two particular student experiences in the course. Student feedback and results suggest that the WAW curriculum results in increased self-awareness about writing, improved reading abilities and confidence, and raised awareness of researched writing as conversation. The article concludes with challenges that the curriculum presents, including the challenging nature of the course for students, the resulting imperfections in student work, limited textbook support for the approach, and the need for extensive instructor preparation. [Doug Downs, Writing-About-Writing Curricula: Origins, Theories, and Initial Field-Tests, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 12]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
16. Edwards, Mike. (2005). The teaching and learning of Web genres in first-year composition. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press (pp. 196-218).
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, internet, FYC
17. Ennis, Michael. (2017). Explaining a scientific concept for page and screens. Prompt 1.1, 47-54. http://thepromptjournal.com/index.php/prompt/article/view/14/13
Annotation: Abstract: While students learn valuable skills by composing multimodal works, these assignments can also help students master traditional writing genres by defamiliarizing some of the ""design choices"" they make when writing. Requiring students to revise a traditional written essay into a video accomplishes two key goals in both lower level and advanced writing classes. It updates writing curricula to provide students experience with the kind of writing they will do in other classes. Furthermore, reflecting on the revision process enhances student appreciation for the importance of clear prose, careful exposition, and logical organization.
Keywords: MULTIMODAL, FYC, SCIENCE-WRITING, DIGITAL VIDEO, WID, WAC, ASSIGNMENT-WRITING, ASSIGNMENT, PEDAGOGY, REFLECTIVE PRACTICE,
18. Frazier, Dan. (2010). First steps beyond the first year: Coaching transfer after FYC. WPA: Writing Program Administration 33.3, 34-57.
Annotation: Through an exploratory study, Frazier investigates the potential of 'alternative teaching spaces' as a bridge between the writing completed in traditional FYC courses and discipline-specific expectations for writing. Employing a combined methodology of survey, one-on-one meetings, and focus group discussions, Frazier follows eight students' transition from FYC to courses in their majors that require writing during the first semester of their sophomore year. As he coaches these students in the concepts of genre analysis, discourse communities, and meta-cognitive reflection, Frazier concludes that work with transfer strategies and cross-disciplinary discussions of writing are best located in a 'third space' environment outside of either FYC or WAC/WID courses. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Keywords: FYC, knowledge-transfer, coaching, WAC, genre-study, survey, interview, focus group, data, student-opinion, teacher-opinion, WAC, WID, 'third-space, metacognition
19. Freedman, Aviva. (1995). The what, where, when, why, and how of classroom genres. In Petraglia, Joseph (Ed.), Reconceiving writing, rethinking writing instruction; Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum (pp. 121-144).
Keywords: composing, learning-theory, social action, genre, situational, language acquisition, review-of-scholarship, general writing skills instruction (GWSI), academic, evaluation, epistemic, pedagogy, ethical, ideology, change, WAC
20. Gallegos, Erin Penner. (2013). Mapping student literacies: Reimagining college writing instruction within the literacy landscape. Composition Forum 27 (Spring 2013). https://compositionforum.com/issue/27/literacies.php
Annotation: Abstract: Through an examination of four current trends in composition instruction, this article presents a new lens for envisioning composition instruction that integrates the best aspects of the writing across the curriculum, genre-based curriculum approach, ecocomposition, and writing across communities theories of writing instruction. The "literacy landscape" proposed herein explicitly values the integration of student learning "incomes" within the composition classroom and derives from the author’s experience teaching within a large composition program that employed aspects of the genre-based curriculum, and both WAC approaches. The literacy landscape is envisioned to act both as a lens for imagining a more comprehensive approach to administering composition programs, as well as to teaching composition.
Keywords: Writing across the curriculum, WAC, gender-based curriculum, literacy
21. Geller, Anne Ellen. (2005). 'What's cool here?: Collaboratively learning genre in biology. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press (pp. 83-105).
Annotation: This article details Gellers's observations and experiences as she worked alongside Dr. David Hibbett, a professor of biology, in conducting a class centered on studying how biology students navigate genre. Geller noted how that the collaborative nature of the class was instrumental in helping the students learn how to communicate their findings to audiences outside of their discipline. Geller argues that the sections of the class that were centered on collaborative learning techniques were the most useful tools in helping students navigate genre. She came to this conclusion while she worked alongside Hibbett in designing and teaching a class centered on the Biology of Symbiosis. The class was designed to be largely student led and collaborative, in order to help students better understand how to approach genre. To measure the genre savviness of their writing, Geller and Hibbett had their students write "mini-reviews" designed to present complicated biological research to audiences unfamiliar with biology. Geller noted that the genre of these "mini-reviews" helped the students in their ability to navigate genre and conduct research. They also conducted collaborative writing workshops between each "mini-review" to remind students how to write for a variety of audiences. Geller noted that the symbiotic spaces of the writing workshops were the most effective components of the course in facilitating student learning. Geller suggests that conducting a version of this course where the writing workshops are held before the "mini-reviews" could help in expanding future research. Geller ultimately concludes that the course was successful in helping students gain a better awareness of how to engage with and write for an audience.
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, biology-course, collaboration
22. Giltrow, Janet. (1988). Canadian contexts for public advocacy: Briefs as a genre. Technostyle 07.3, 17-25.
Keywords: legal-writing, genre-analysis, public advocacy, brief-writing
23. Gimenez, Julio. (2008). Beyond the academic essay: Discipline-specific writing in nursing and midwifery. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 07.3, 151-164.
Annotation: Although academic writing in higher education has been the focus of research efforts for more than two decades, the specific writing experiences, needs and difficulties of undergraduate nursing and midwifery students have remained largely under-researched. This article reports on a project that investigated the nature and dynamics of academic writing in pre-registration nursing and midwifery at a UK university. The project collected data from a survey completed by 135 students and two focus groups. The article examines the specific genres on these two programmes, the difficulties participating students face when writing them, and their views as to how they can be best supported to do these tasks. It concludes with an analysis of the implications that these issues have for teaching discipline-specific genres in nursing and midwifery and offers some suggestions to respond to such implications. [author abstract]
Keywords: academic, nursing-major, midwife-major, England, survey, student-opinion, focus group, data, program, WAC
24. Goddard, C. (1990). Emergent genres of reportage and advocacy in the Pitjantjatjara print media. Australian Aboriginal Studies 02, 27-47.
Keywords: Australia, aboriginal, genre, news-writing, reportage, advocacy, emergent
25. Gottschalk, Katherine K. (2011). Writing from Experience: The Evolving Roles of Personal Writing in a Writing in the Disciplines Program. Across the Disciplines, 8(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.37514/ATD-J.2011.8.1.05
Annotation: Gottschalk, a professor in the English department at Cornell, traces the history of the English 135 course offered at that university. Initially called Writing from Experience, the course began in the sixties as a way for students to eliminate the inherent limitations of writing in a particular genre. Gottschalk discusses the pedagogical evolution of the course, focusing on the politics of the academy since the sixties. She details each stage of the course’s development, as the English department transitioned into a genre-specific Writing in the Disciplines program. The course is no longer offered as a separate entity, but instead has been incorporated into the WID program, and the latter half of her article is devoted to analyzing the intersection of WID courses and expressivist writing. She advocates for keeping the essence of the English 135 course in current introductory writing courses, and she defines this essence as a balance of the personal and the professional in academic writing. By presenting anecdotal examples of courses offered at Cornell that blend the personal and the academic, she demonstrates how professors can incorporate both aspects of writing in their classes.
Keywords: WAC, WID, Cornell University, history, 20th-century, 'Writing from Experience', first-year seminar, personal experience
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