Welcome to the WAC Clearinghouse Program Descriptions. This Program Descriptions list is maintained by our editors and members. You can update or delete any descriptions you have added to the list. To contribute to this list, please join the WAC Clearinghouse. If you are a member, you can add or update a description by logging in.
Description: The WAC Program at Appalachian State University, begun in 2008, supports a unified writing curriculum as the only vertical element of the Gen Ed curriculum. This writing model requires four dedicated writing courses in Composition (two courses) and all disciplines (at junior and capstone levels), designed to strengthen writing practice and to provide a structure to archive writing for students and the university. See our film for students and glossary for faculty at http://wac.appstate.edu. The WAC program (along with the University Writing Center and Composition department) was awarded the 2012 CCCC Certificate of Excellence. Our WAC program staff includes a half-time director and WAC and WID consultants who offer assistance to faculty designing and teaching Composition and Writing in the Discipline courses through workshops, consultations, and conversations between Composition and WID faculty. In 2009, we began an initiative to bring community college faculty to Appalachian's campus to discuss writing pedagogy, the Writing Across Institutions Conference (WAI, held in April each year) and in 2014 expanded our outreach to offer state-wide faculty development in converting the second community college writing course to WAC models. Our Writing for Change program encourages reflection and creativity through writing in the Women’s Writing Pilgrimage and the Writing and Social Justice program. For information about any of these initiatives, contact Georgia Rhoades at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit our website wac.appstate.edu. (Added by WAC Program, Appalachian State University on October 2, 2013 | Last Updated on October 7, 2015)
Description: Begun in 2010, The Office of University supports the curricular initiative to embed significant writing experiences in every undergraduate major. Programs have submitted their plans to a University Writing Committee for approval with implementation scheduled for fall 2011. The OUW's broad mission of enhancing the culture of writing and writing instruction at Auburn University is accomplished through activities that: 1)provide support to students through the Miller Writing Center, 2)support faculty through workshops, symposia and individual consultations, 3)involve research and assessment, 4) reach out to promote writing in local, regional, national and international communities, and 5)celebrate and promote writing of all kinds. (Added by Margaret Marshall on March 4, 2011 | Last Updated on July 3, 2017)
Description: The AUM Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) program seeks to improve the quality of student writing campus-wide by incorporating writing-intensive instruction into all undergraduate programs of study. View Detailed Description. (Added by Dana Bice on February 27, 2015 | Last Updated on July 3, 2017)
Description: We are a group of teachers designing an integrated writing program to align with a new Scott Foresman Reading Street curriculum (k-5) (Added by Micki Rhodes on February 10, 2013 | Last Updated on February 10, 2013)
Description: Brigham Young University has a thriving WAC program. We hold monthly luncheon presentations and monthly clinics on writing topics such as peer review and collaboration. Every spring and summer we hold a week-long seminar teaching faculty how to effectively include more writing in their classrooms, and every summer we have a WAC book group that meets monthly to discuss a particular book about writing. BYU also has a strong Writing Fellows program that assigns peer tutors to classes all over campus. (Added by Delys Snyder on October 30, 2013 | Last Updated on October 30, 2013)
Description: Our goal is to enhance the Law School's rigorous legal curriculum by incorporating ideas from WAC theory and pedagogy. Our Writing Center works with both students and faculty to not only improve students' writing skills, but to encourage a more holistic approach to the writing process. See our Web site for examples of our work within the legal writing context. (Added by Andrea McArdle on June 23, 2004 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Description: Our program takes an "integrated" approach to WAC, combining faculty outreach and support with direct support of student writers. Our program is housed in our Writing Center, which is part of our composition program. We make heavy use of our writing center Web site, Writing@CSU (writing.colostate.edu). (Added by Mike Palmquist on July 8, 2002 | Last Updated on June 22, 2012)
Communication Across the Professions/Writing in the Disciplines and Across Curriculum. Community College of Baltimore County/Essex campus. Contact: Andrew Rusnak at ARusnak@ccbcmd.edu or 443-653-2777.
Description: Mission Statement: The demands of today’s workplace are rigorous and diverse. Criteria for successful performance extends beyond specialization to knowledge and skill sets that include a strong emphasis on professional communication, speaking and writing. It is the belief of the Community College of Baltimore County’s Communications Across the Professions committee (CAP) that there is a direct correlation between an employee’s ability to communicate and write effectively, and that employee’s professional career development and success, no matter what that career is. View Detailed Description. (Added by Andrew Rusnak on January 23, 2013 | Last Updated on January 23, 2013)
Description: The Writing Across the Curriculum program at Confederation College pursues three goals:
1. To collaborate with faculty administrators, with individual faculty members, and with faculty groups to create and facilitate assignments, programs and workshops to improve writing instruction for students.
2. To support student writers in the disciplines with a variety of interventions: online resources, lectures and individual and group tutoring.
3. To reach out to the broader community, including secondary school systems, local and international campuses to build relationships and smooth the transition to College writing demands.
(Added by Ollie Pedersen on October 6, 2016 | Last Updated on October 6, 2016)
Description: Writing in the Disciplines at Dawson is a faculty-driven initiative supporting writing, critical thinking, and active learning across departments and programs. WID@Dawson collaborates with teachers interested in developing innovative instructional strategies and curricular materials by way of the interdisciplinary Faculty Writing Fellows program. Each year a new group of Writing Fellows publishes their work in the form of teaching portfolios for their respective disciplines. WID@Dawson also develops department and program-specific workshops on demand. (Added by Ian MacKenzie on March 8, 2013 | Last Updated on March 8, 2013)
Description: Drexel’s University Writing Program contains several interrelated programs designed to support the use of writing across Drexel and beyond as a powerful tool for thinking, inquiry and communication. View Detailed Description. (Added by Harriet Millan on July 18, 2006 | Last Updated on August 20, 2014)
Description: The mission of Eastern's WAC program is to provide writers with opportunities to learn through writing and to understand what it means to write in the disciplines. Students are required to take writing-intensive courses at all levels. Our Writing Center supports the mission of the WAC and first-year composition programs. (Added by Rita Malenczyk on February 14, 2011 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Description: WAE is a new program as of Fall 2015. We plan a three-year pilot with faculty teaching writing enhanced courses in the general education requirement of three such courses for students in the college. After the three years, we hope to have a sustainable WAC/dWID program in place providing both workshops for faculty, as well as programmatic support in the disciplines. (Added by Joonna Trapp on June 8, 2015 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Description: The best way to learn about this nationally ranked program is to go to our website where you will find a description of our program, our WI requirements, and a variety of other WAC related resources. You might also visit the program’s blog, The Writing Campus, at https://thewritingcampus.com. (Added by Thomas Polk on February 21, 2017 | Last Updated on February 21, 2017)
Description: This is a WAC-based writing center supported by various constituencies within the Gonzaga University community. View Detailed Description. (Added by John Eliason on May 28, 2010 | Last Updated on May 28, 2010)
Description: I have always been very strong with Persuasive writing and On Demands. I have created the Departmental standards/requirements for On Demands for each grade level to increase Kentucky State KPrep On Demand scores. (Added by Gail McCrady on November 20, 2014 | Last Updated on November 20, 2014)
Description: Hofstra's WAC program provides forums and resources for faculty who use writing to teach more effectively. We run three to four faculty development events each semester as well as periodic Faculty Writing Retreats. We also provide online resources to support WAC. (Added by Daniel Cole on April 7, 2013 | Last Updated on April 7, 2013)
Description: The Hostos WAC initiative encourages writing at all levels of a student’s academic experience including those students enrolled in ESL or developmental writing through completion of English composition requirements and beyond. Writing activities are incorporated at two levels: 1) generally throughout the curriculum, and 2) in designated Writing Intensive (WI) courses. In these ways, an emphasis on writing is not compartmentalized in a few specially designated courses, but is a part of coursework across the College. View Detailed Description. (Added by Roderick Graham on December 4, 2007 | Last Updated on December 4, 2007)
Description: The Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) program provides support for faculty universitywide in implementing writing into their courses. The program aims to create and sustain a community of writers at IUP. (Added by Bryna Siegel Finer on March 3, 2015 | Last Updated on March 3, 2015)
Description: SUComm is Iowa State University’s communication-across-the-curriculum initiative. The goal of ISUComm is to strengthen student communication and enhance students’ critical thinking skills by creating opportunities for them to practice communication skills throughout their academic careers. While many institutions have similar outreach efforts to train and encourage faculty from all disciplines to include writing assignments in their courses, ISUComm speaks to a broader set of communication competencies. Rather than focus solely on written communication, ISUComm is contemporary and comprehensive in its emphasis on oral, visual, and electronic skills development as well. View Detailed Description. (Added by David Russell on June 5, 2008 | Last Updated on June 5, 2008)
Description: Writing in the Disciplines at LaGuardia Community College is a dynamic and challenging interdisciplinary initiative to support professors as they work to make writing an integral part of their courses. The LaGuardia WID web site provides information on the program requirements, and provides information and examples of types of writing assignments. (Added by Shawna Brandle on May 4, 2011 | Last Updated on May 4, 2011)
Description: CxC at LSU promotes outstanding communication in four modes: written, spoken, visual, and technological. LSU students and faculty use state-of-the-art technologies to produce effective writing, speeches, interpersonal communication, graphics, posters, video, electronic portfolios, web sites, and more. CxC sponsors communication-intensive courses, studios, high-level communicator certification, digital portfolio hosting, and a mentoring program. (Added by Lillian Bridwell-Bowles on November 27, 2006 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Description: Lynchburg College is in the process of implementing Writing Enriched courses in all majors, an initiative that officially begins in fall of 2014. They have hired a writing consultant to work in conjunction with the WE development committee to define program parameters and provide faculty development. (Added by Judy Strang on February 10, 2014 | Last Updated on February 10, 2014)
Description: The Howe Center for Writing Excellence exists to ensure that Miami students excel as college writers and are prepared to excel as writers in their careers, roles as community and civic leaders, and personal lives. The Center stands as a demonstrated statement of Miami’s strong institution-wide commitment to writing. View Detailed Description. (Added by Elizabeth Wardle on December 8, 2016 | Last Updated on December 8, 2016)
Howe Center for Writing Excellence (Miami, Ohio); Writing Across the University (Elon). Miami University (Ohio); Elon University.
Description: I am retired. The programs at Miami (Ohio) and Elon are in the good hands of leaders who have expanded, refined, and otherwise improved the programs since I left them.
However, I continue to research an publish on topics related to WAC, as well as to offer talks, consultations and other assistance to WAC programs in the US and elsewhere. You may contact me at email@example.com. I would be glad to hear from you. View Detailed Description. (Added by Paul Anderson on March 18, 2017 | Last Updated on March 18, 2017)
Description: Multiliteracies Center (MTMC) works with students, faculty, and staff to address the challenges of learning and communicating in complex and culturally diverse environments. (Added by Dickie Selfe on January 9, 2003 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
MCC Hospitality & Culinary Management Program. Mohave Community College. Contact: Delphine R. Jones at firstname.lastname@example.org or 928.704.4167.
Description: Professor/Chef MCC Hospitality & Culinary Program and Program Concurrent Enrollment Coordinator. I hold an BS degree in Career and Technical Education, AAS degree in Hospitality & Culinary, Certificate in Hospitality & Culinary, Certificate in Baking & Pastry, currently completing MS degree in Career and Technical Education (Fall 2014). Area's of research interest (WAC) Writing Across the Curriculum, (MAC)Math Across the Curriculum, (RAC) Research Across the Curriculum, Contextualization Pedagogy in Career and Technical Education with emphasis in the Hospitality, Culinary, and Baking & Pastry disciplines. (Added by Delphine Jones on February 8, 2014 | Last Updated on February 8, 2014)
Description: A hybrid WAC/WID program serving three community college campuses in DC Metro.
Fall 2006 was the first fully active semester of WID at Montgomery College. Our events have included public lectures, a WID keynote address at commencement, ongoing online faculty forums, two full-day faculty retreats, and six Writing Center-hosted workshops per semester, two on each campus. The same basic program repeats each semester, with the addition of discipline-specific workshops. Faculty fellowships funded by the Center for Teaching and Learning provide release time from one class for weekly seminar-type discussions and workshops. WID is also launching publication of an online journal featuring exemplary student writings from all disciplines.
View Detailed Description. (Added by Rita Kranidis on November 21, 2006 | Last Updated on September 24, 2009)
Description: The goals of the writing-across-the- curriculum program are: 1) To make writing and the complementary skills of reading, critical thinking, and research a regular part of coursework at National University,
2)To facilitate the acquisition of writing and communication skills vital to personal and professional success, 3) To distinguish graduates of National University in the eyes of employers and the general public through their professional and technical excellence in language and communication skills.
Writing across the curriculum promotes writing and reading enhancement throughout all schools of
study through a variety of publications and activities, including the following:
Workshops for faculty.
Professional forums for self-expression, such as The Gnu, a student literary journal, and WHACK, a faculty newsletter.
(Added by Vicki Martineau on November 27, 2005 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Lucy Caulkins. Nicholasville Elementary School.
Description: At NES we adhere to the Lucy Caulkins units of study. In 4th grade we use the narrative, opinion, literary reflection, and research units. (Added by Melissa Thompson on February 29, 2016 | Last Updated on February 29, 2016)
Description: Initiated in 1997, the CWSP is a campus-wide program designed to enhance the use of writing and speaking in all courses and disciplines across nine colleges at NC State. It blends campus-wide faculty development with program-specific consultation on the development and assessment of writing and speaking outcomes. View Detailed Description. (Added by Chris Anson on February 27, 2003 | Last Updated on April 12, 2016)
Description: By 2015, NIU requires “two upper-division courses (a minimum of six credit hours) officially certified as being ‘writing-infused,’ taken either in the general education program or in the major studies” (PLUS Task Force). WAC workshops and the University Writing Center provide support. (Added by Bradley Peters on September 6, 2014 | Last Updated on September 6, 2014)
Conversations about Writing: Writing Across the Curriculum at OHC. Olive-Harvey College. Contact: Dr. Khalilah T. Watson at email@example.com or 773-291-6464.
Description: The purpose of this program is to re-institute the importance and facilitate the process for all Faculty at Olive-Harvey College to dialogue and then to implement more Writing Across the Curriculum methods in their courses. The end result will be to have an active Writing Across the Curriculum Faculty Program that will ultimately benefit all member of this academic community: the students, faculty and staff. (Added by Khalilah Watson on September 26, 2011 | Last Updated on September 26, 2011)
Description: Philadelphia University offers varied and rich experiences with language. Students refine their writing skills by taking two writing-specific and at least four writing-intensive courses between the freshman and senior years. Throughout the campus community, students also have opportunities to pursue academic and professional writing in a range of co- and extra-curricular settings. Professional writing tutors in the Learning and Advising Center support student writers in all subjects and at all levels. (Added by John Eliason on January 29, 2003 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Quinnipiac University Writing Across the Curriculum (QUWAC). Quinnipiac University. Hamden, CT.. Contact: Jeffrey Foy, Faculty Director; Paul Pasquaretta, Coordinator at Jeffrey.Foy@QU.EDU; Paul.Pasquaretta@QU.EDU or 203-582-7916; 203-582-8509.
Description: Description: QUWAC provides training and support for faculty around a variety of critical thinking and writing issues.In addition to an annual summer training program for new and seasoned faculty, we provide several workshops a year on a variety of teaching strategies that include writing. QUWAC offers grants and workshops for faculty who are interested in developing WAC and WID research projects. Major program features include a biennial critical thinking and writing conference, publication of an open-access peer-reviewed journal (Double Helix: A Journal of Critical Thinking and Writing), individual and small group consultations, faculty writing retreats, and student writing contests. (Added by Paul Pasquaretta on January 24, 2018 | Last Updated on January 24, 2018)
Description: At Texas A&M students complete 2 writing-intensive courses in their majors as well as taking core courses in writing and communication. The UWC offers a wide variety of support for student writers at the graduate and undergraduate level including an OWL and consulting services. Faculty support includes workshops, symposia, a web site with a blog, and a newsletter. The UWC houses a writing fellows program to assist faculty teaching writing in the disciplines. View Detailed Description. (Added by Valerie Balester on April 4, 2006 | Last Updated on March 3, 2007)
Description: The WAC program at the University of Alberta works primarily with instructors from across the university to help improve the writing of their students. We do this through our group tutoring program, our informal discussion sessions, and our formal workshops.
What can we do for individual instructors:
meet to talk about ways to incorporate informal (short, impromptu) writing assignments into any class, small or large;
review via email any assignment you give students that has a writing component to help make it clearer for students and to help develop grading rubrics to improve the speed and accuracy of grading;
visit your class to help students get started on your writing assignments.
What can we do for departments:
hold workshops on creating good writing assignments;
host discussions of how to improve the writing of students in your programs;
conduct reviews of writing assignments in your departments courses to identify exactly what your students are being asked to write—and to ensure that they have access to resources on how to write (online and on-campus). View Detailed Description. (Added by Roger Graves on October 20, 2011 | Last Updated on October 22, 2013)
Description: Upper-division courses in writing in disciplines/professions required of students; WAC/WID workshops for faculty, grad students, and GTAs; writing-intensive courses in majors; annual magazine of excellent student writing across disciplines View Detailed Description. (Added by Chris Thaiss on November 26, 2006 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Description: The UCSB Writing Program focuses on writing in the disciplines. At the lower-division level, courses focus on the common elements of academic writing in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. At the upper-division level, courses are specific to particular disciplines or areas of study (Writing in the Social Sciences, Legal Writing, Scientific and Technical Writing, Writing for the Visual Arts, Writing for the Health Professions, etc.) (Added by Susan McLeod on January 7, 2003 | Last Updated on November 29, 2006)
Description: The DU Writing Program includes a first year writing-intensive seminar, two first year rhetoric-based courses, and an senior-level writing-intensive interdisciplinary seminar, each capped at 15 students. The program conducts extensive research, both short-term and longitudinal; sponsors WID initiatives across campus; and hosts the campus Writing Center, which conducts extensive faculty and student outreach. 26 Teaching Assistant Professors and Teaching Associate Professors form the faculty core. Faculty development includes short-term and longer workshops, as well as competitive department-based projects. The Program's speaker series brings prominent visitors to campus each year. The program provides faculty support for travel, research, and professional memberships. The program publishes annual magazines of student and of faculty WAC-related writing. The program has just begun a Writing Minor that draws on coursework for eight departments across campus. It has received the CCCC Certificate of Excellence.
(Added by Doug Hesse on May 30, 2007 | Last Updated on June 7, 2015)
Description: The Writing Intensive Program began in 1997 and is housed in the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences. Aimed to improve the nature and quality of the undergraduate academic experience at the University of Georgia, the Writing Intensive Program encourages increased attention to writing as a way of learning and enhancing writing competence in the disciplines.
(Added by Angela Green on August 24, 2007 | Last Updated on August 24, 2007)
Description: The Sweetland Center for Writing offers peer tutoring; writing workshop with faculty; courses to serve all students, from first-years to graduate students; an annual seminar for faculty and graduate students, a minor in writing, a dissertation writing institute, and a variety of outreach workshops. it manages directed self-placement for matriculating students, it oversees all courses that satisfy the first-year and upper-level writing requirements, and it maintains a robust program of research on student writing development. (Added by Anne Ruggles Gere on January 12, 2013 | Last Updated on January 12, 2013)
Description: The University of Minnesota’s Teaching with Writing program is housed within the new Center for Writing. Our activities and resources include coordinating a faculty writing consultant committee, facilitating campus-wide and department-specific programming, underwriting individual and departmental research, and maintaining a resource Web-site. For more information, please consult our Detailed Description or contact the Center’s Associate Director, Pamela Flash. View Detailed Description. (Added by Kjel Johnson on October 13, 2003 | Last Updated on October 15, 2003)
Description: Writing Intensive courses help produce an educated, articulate citizenry capable of reasoning critically, solving complex problems, and communicating with clear and effective language.
MU's writing requirement -- English 20, followed by two WI courses -- is part of a 30-year-old trend in U.S. higher education known as "writing across the curriculum," or "writing in the disciplines." Since 1987, every undergraduate degree granted by MU has been strengthened by the WI requirement.
Over 125 courses from disciplines across the university are offered each semester. (Added by Marty Patton on March 29, 2004 | Last Updated on November 1, 2008)
Description: Writing Across Communities at UNM supports, connects, and enhances the intellectual life of students and faculty engaged in the academic mission of creating and circulating knowledge. WACommunities asserts that literacy education is both a civil right and a civic responsibility. View Detailed Description. (Added by Brian Hendrickson on September 9, 2013 | Last Updated on September 9, 2013)
Description: Communication Across the Curriculum is a faculty driven program committed to improving the communication competencies of all UNC Charlotte students. CxC pursues this mission by consulting with departments to develop communication enhanced curricula, facilitating group and individual faculty development, promoting the integration of ePortfolios in the curriculum, and supporting students directly through peer mentors and the University Speaking Center. View Detailed Description. (Added by Heather Bastian on January 13, 2017 | Last Updated on January 13, 2017)
Description: At UNI, students in the Professional Writing Program perform and critique practices including writing in scientific and technical contexts, designing a variety of professional documents (e.g., Web sites, manuals, reports), editing in a professional capacity, and creating digital documentation. The minor is rhetorically focused, reflecting both the professional communication field's humanistic roots (as appropriate for a program housed in the Department of English) and a recognition of workplace exigencies. View Detailed Description. (Added by A. Lamberti on October 23, 2007 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Description: WAC.pitt contains useful information for faculty and students alike, from writing assignments, W-course guidelines, and WAC bibliographies to assistance with writing an essay or submitting a paper for a writing award. View Detailed Description. (Added by Wayne Gunn on February 14, 2003 | Last Updated on February 14, 2003)
Description: Utah State University's Writing Fellows Program began in 1990. It is a curriculum-based peer-tutoring program for undergraduate students, sponsored by the USU Provost’s office and the College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Students are nominated for the program by professors who are familiar with their writing skills. Writing Fellows work with faculty and their students on two or three class-specific writing assignments throughout the writing semester. Fellows are paid $600 a semester and are expected to take a 2-credit course their first semester for training. For more information, contact the Director, Julie Foust Andrew, at firstname.lastname@example.org (Added by Julie Foust Andrew on June 4, 2016 | Last Updated on June 4, 2016)
Description: The Valparaiso University Writing Program includes a two-semester, writing intensive first-year humanities seminar, a WIC at the sophomore level, a WID course or set of courses for juniors, and a capstone writing experience. The program offers faculty development workshops, student peer consultations through the Judith L. Beumer Writing Center, Information Literacy workshops through the Christopher Center's Library Services, and a major and minor in professional writing through the Department of English. (Added by Kelly Belanger on September 18, 2017 | Last Updated on September 18, 2017)
Description: Thoroughly integrated with WSU’s Undergraduate Writing Center, Graduate and Professional Writing Center, and the Writing Assessment Program, the Writing in the Disciplines (WID) Program coordinates the efforts of faculty from across the disciplines in providing opportunities for learning through writing and hosts faculty development workshops throughout the academic year. (Added by Leola Dublin on September 19, 2008 | Last Updated on October 9, 2015)
Description: The Writing Across the Curriculum program at Wheaton College in Norton, Massachusetts supports the college’s mission to provide a transformative liberal arts education that values a diverse world. Comprised of First-Year Writing, peer and professional writing tutors and Writing in the Disciplines, the program received a 2010 CCC Certificate of Excellence for being a small college exemplar in WAC/WID.
(Added by Lisa Lebduska on August 4, 2012 | Last Updated on August 4, 2012)
Description: Yale University Writing Fellows Program was created in 2008 by the Graduate Writing Center and is funded through Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Writing Fellows are PhD students selected and trained to provide support to graduate school students on various academic writing topics. Fellows run writing workshops and seminars, lead peer-review groups, and facilitate dissertation boot camps and writing study halls. Fellows are paid $21+ and work between 5 and 10 hours per week. For more information, contact Elena Kallestinova, the program director, at email@example.com. (Added by Elena Kallestinova on November 13, 2014 | Last Updated on November 13, 2014)
Description: The WAC Program oversees over 90 sections per semester of writing intensive courses. Students must complete two lower-level WIs and one upper level WI in their major. Six CUNY WAC Fellows--advanced graduate students with WAC training--work 15 hours per week to support the program. View Detailed Description. (Added by Jonathan Hall on December 4, 2012 | Last Updated on December 4, 2012)