Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.
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WAC in the Schools
Adler-Kassner, Linda; Peggy O'Neill. (2010). Reframing writing assessment to improve teaching and learning. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Public discourse about writing instruction is currently driven by ideas of what instructors and programs 'need to do,' 'should do,' or 'are not doing,' and is based on poorly informed concepts of correctness and unfounded claims about a broad decline in educational quality. This discussion needs to be reframed, say Adler-Kassner and O'Neill, to help policymakers understand that the purpose of writing instruction is to help sstudents develop critical thinking, read, and writing strategies that will form the foundation for their future education, careers, and civic engagement [publishing blurb]
Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Terri Hessler; Moira Konrad. (2007). Teaching writing for keeps. Education and Treatment of Children 30.3, 107-128.
This article outlines difficulties with the implementation of writing across multiple disciplines, grade levels, and individual abilities of students in a time of increased high-stakes accountability. Alba-Morgan, et al. argue that teachers must teach for generalizable writing outcomes and focus on big ideas. Offers six strategies for teachers to use to promote writing, the writing process, and the development of students' writing skills. [JeanMarie Dimitratos]
Allenspach, Dee; Sandra Laurenson; Robin White; Ohio State University, Vocational Instructional Materials Laboratory. (1996). Alternative assessment: A family and consumer sciences teacher's tool kit. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 402 434.
Ambron, Joanna. (1991). History of WAC and its role in community colleges. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Keywords: WAC, history, two-year, London Schools Project
Anderson, JoAnn Romeo; Nora Eisenberg; J. Holland; Harvey S. Wiener; C. Rivera-Kron. (1983). Integrated skills reinforcement: Reading, writing, speaking, and listening across the curriculum. New York: Longman.
Ashby, Sara C.; Melvyn Lawson. (1943). A school-wide program in communication. In Roberts, Holland De Witte; Walter Vincent Kaulfers; Grayson Neikirk Kefauver (Eds.), English for a social living, a program including 25 statements of practice by teachers in the field; New York; London: McGraw-Hill.
Bader, L. A; D. L. Pearce. (1983). Writing across the curriculum , 7-12. English Education 15, 97-106.
Keywords: WAC, high-school, G7-G12
Bailey, Richard W.. (1981). Writing across the curriculum: The British approach. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 80, 92.
Keywords: WAC, England, history, Bullock Report, Alan Bullock, school, James Britton
Ballou, Norm. (1980). To the editor. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(1).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.1, 41, 45.
Bartelo, Dennise; Kathleen Birkitt; Lynn Davis. (1990). Writing beyond the form: Professional dialogue journals in elementary education methods. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 02, 70-75.
Battista, Joseph Rocco. (1981). The effects of a triad method of teaching on the attitudes of twelfth graders toward a business English course [doctoral thesis]. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University.
Benjamin, Amy. (1999). Writing in the content areas. Larchmont, NY: Eye On Education.
Keywords: WAC, school, content-course, pedagogy
Bent, V. H.. (1987). Student fear and writing: Writing across the curriculum can help. In Self, Judy S. (Ed.), Plain talk about learning and writing across the curriculum; Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Education.
Keywords: WAC, fear, apprehension, school
Bergman, Charles A.. (1982). An inclusive literacy: U. S. schools are teaching and writing in all the subject disciplines. American Association of Higher Education Bulletin 35 (December), 3-5.
Keywords: WAC, school, pedagogy, inclusion
Bernhardt, Stephen A.; withGenelle Bedokis; Linda Stevens; Barbara Wilson; Suzanne Ludwig. (1986). Writing across the curriculum: Exemplary projects from the Illinois Humanities Council's Summer Institutes for second school teachers. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 277 004. Illinois English Bulletin 74.1, 14-31.
Keywords: WAC, program, school, teacher-training, summer institute
Brewster, Marty. (1988). Ten ways to revise tired learning logs. English Journal 77, 57.
Briggs, James; Jame Kraft; Greg Venne. (1981). Survey: Writing In the content area. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 207 062.
As a follow-up to the Central Wisconsin Writing Project, a writing survey was prepared to (1) introduce the concept of writing across the curriculum to high school faculty in the district, (2) determine the district's need for inservice in writing across the curriculum, (3) establish the validity of the data, (4) collect information about writing expectations in high school courses other than English, and (5) use the information as a basis for creating strategies and inservice specially designed to meet the needs of non-English teachers. The survey was administered during October 1980 to departments of social studies, science, business education, driver education, physical education, home economics, industrial arts, and agriculture. The results indicated that 62% of the teachers did not connect the learning of course concepts to the ability to explain them in writing. Seventy-six percent felt that all written work should be read and evaluated by the teacher, but while 50% indicated that writing ability had some effect on grade, no more than 10% said it had a major role in grading. Over 50% said that little or no teaching time was spent on activities to improve writing, and most teachers had their students taking notes on a daily basis. No other type of written assignment received much attention other than short answers on worksheets. [ERIC]
Britton, James. (1981). Language and learning across the curriculum. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 55-56, 93-94.
Keywords: WAC, learning-theory, school, learning-process, growth, development
Britton, James; London University and Schools Council. (1974). Keeping options open--writing in the humanities. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 177 550.
Buehler, Lorraine; Jeffrey Conn. (1987). A description of the writing lab and the ISWAC program. In Chew, Charles (Ed.), Reflections by teachers who write; Liverpool, NY: New York State English Council.
Keywords: teacher-story, in-service, WAC, school, ISWAC [Improve Student Writing Across the Curriculum], wcenter
Bushman, John H.. (1984). The teaching of writing: A practical program to the composing process that works. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Comprone, Joseph J.. (1989). Balancing the language arts in the cross-curricular writing course: An answer to E. D. Hirsch's 'Cultural Literacy'. Kentucky English Bulletin 38.2, 61-74.
Keywords: literacy, E. D. Hirsch, cultural, pedagogy, WAC, interdisciplinary, school, language-arts
Covington, David; Ann E. Brown; Gary Blank. (1985). An alternative approach to writing across the curriculum: The writing assistance program at North Carolina State University's School of Engineering. [fulltext]. Writing Program Administration 08.3, 15-24.
Keywords: WAC, wcenter, engineering-school
D'Arcy, Pat. (1984). Keeping options open: Writing in the humanities. In Martin, Nancy (Ed.), Writing across the curriculum pamphlets; Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Fillion, Bryant. (1979). Language across the curriculum. McGill Journal of Education 14, 47-60.
Keywords: curriculum, LLAC [language learning across the curriculum], WAC, language, school
Fincke, G.. (1982). Writing across the curriculum in high school. Clearing House 56, 71-73.
Keywords: WAC, high-school
Flinn, Jane Zeni (Ed.); University of Missouri, St. Louis, Department of English; Gateway Writing Project. (1981). Reflections on writing: Programs and strategies from classrooms K-12 (Gateway Writing Project). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 262 421.
Fortune, Ron. (1986). The creative process in literature: A basis for connecting writing and literary studies. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 277 004. Illinois English Bulletin 74.1, 32-38.
Keywords: WAC, bridging, school
Franklin, Sharon (Ed.). (1988). Making the literature, writing, word processing connection: The best of The Writing Notebook. 2nd edition. Mendocino, CA: The Writing Notebook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 312 644].
Fulwiler, Toby. (1983). Why we teach writing in the first place. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum4(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 04.2, 122-133.
Hamilton-Wieler, Sharon J.. (1984). How does writing emerge from the classroom context? (A naturalistic study of the writing of eighteen-year-olds in biology, English, geography, history, history of art, and sociology). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 284 209.
Harney, Diane M.. (1990). Legal advocacy as a means of defining social policy: Arguing school admissions for children with AIDS. Communication Research: An International Quarterly 17.6, 827-841.
Keywords: AIDS, legal-advocacy, social, policy, argumentation, school, admissions, policy, social
Harwood, N.. (1985). Writing across the curriculum: A lesson from the past. American Secondary Education 14.4, 14-15.
Keywords: WAC, history, school
Healy, Mary K.. (1978). Writing in all subject areas. [full text]. The Quarterly of the National Writing Project 01.1.
Keywords: WAC, school, Bay Area Writing Project, in-service
Healy, Mary K.. (1981). About writing across the curriculum [book review]. [full text]. The Quarterly of the National Writing Project 04.1, 14.
Keywords: Science, Volume 4 of Language Teaching and Learning, by Clive Carre, WAC, school, Britain, science-course
Henn, Joan Elaine. (1989). The effect of journal writing on the learning of mathematical concepts and problem-solving skills by preservice elementary teachers at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville [doctoral thesis]. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee.
Kelly, Dawn. (1990). Writing across the curriculum. In Kelly, Dawn; Carl Smith (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum (Learning package No. 50); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 333 416.
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, school, teacher-training
Kelly, Dawn; Carl Smith (Eds.); University of Indiana, School of Education. (1990). Writing across the curriculum (Learning package No. 50). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 333 416.
Keywords: WAC, school, pedagogy, teacher-training, ERIC bibliography
Kelly-Riley, Diana. (2017). Common Core State Standards Inititative for Writing Program Adminstrators [policy review]. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 40.2, 193-220.
Keywords: Common Core Standards, WPA, school, WAC
Kiniry, Pamela. (1997). Raising standards in a variety of middle-school settings. In Purves, Alan C.; Sarah L. Jordan; James H. Peltz (Eds.), Using portfolios in the English classroom; Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon.
Lundy, Eileen T.. (1982). Hearings on language and literacy. Testimony before the National Commission on Excellence in Education (Houston, Texas, April 1982). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 237 031.
Keywords: University of Texas, governmental, hearings, basic, syllabus, testing, criterion-referenced, holistic, school, WAC, excellence, testimony
Lunstrum, John; Judith Irwin. (1981). Integrating basic skills into social studies content. Social Education 45 (October).
Keywords: WAC, school, social-studies-course, basic-skill, integrated, social
Martin, Nancy. (1976). Writing and learning across the curriculum, 11-16. London: Ward Lock Educational; Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, school, Great Britain
Martin, Nancy. (1984). Writing across the curriculum pamphlets: A selection from the Schools Council and London University Institute Education Joint Project: Writing across the Curriculum. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
James Britton's colleagues, who worked with British schoolchildren of elementary- and high-school age, offer assignment suggestions and samples of student writing. Included are Nancy Martin, Peter Medway, and Harold Smith, 'From Information to Understanding: What Children Do with New Ideas'; Nancy Martin, Peter Medway, Harold Smith, and Pat D'Arcy, 'Why Write?; Peter Medway, 'From Talking to Writing'; Pat D'Arcy, 'Keeping Options Open: Writing in the Humanities'; and selections from Writing in Science (essays by Sue Watts and Jeff Shapland) and Language and Learning in the Humanities (essays by Bryan Newton, and Peter Medway and Ivor Goodson).(Bedford Bibliography) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, pamphlet, Great Britain, school, Schools Council, London University Institute of Education, institute
Martin, Nancy; Pat D'Arcy; B. Newton; R. Parker. (1976). Writing and learning across the curriculum, 11-16. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boyton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, school, high-school
Martin, Nancy; Peter Medway; Harold Smith; Pat D'Arcy. (1984). Why write?. In Martin, Nancy (Ed.), Writing across the curriculum pamphlets; Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Maxwell, Rhoda J.. (1996). Writing across the curriculum in middle and high schools. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 388 998].
Keywords: WAC, school, guidelines, high-school
McTeague, Frank; Shirleyanne Michaels; Anne Mulgrew; Helen Neufeld; York Borough Board of Education [Toronto]. (1980). An investigation of secondary student writing across the curriculum and some suggestions for school language policies. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 182 770.
Michael, William B.; Phyllis Shaffer. (1979). An evaluation of alternative measures for assessing language proficiency skills of junior level students in a school of communications and professional studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement 39.4, 879-889.
Keywords: assessment, Test of Standard Written English (TSWE), Diagnostic Test in Written English (DTWE), essay-exam, CAPS Essay Examination, rising-junior, proficiency level, WAC, concurrent-validity, communications-school, data, correlation, placement, predictive, GPA, grades, language proficiency, diagnosis, proficiency
Miller, L. Diane; David A. England. (1989). Writing to learn algebra. Science and Mathematics 89, 299-312.
Keywords: mathematics-course, write-to-learn, WAC, in-class, assignment, school
Mitchell, Rebecca Hayward. (1997). The perceptions and practices of selected high school teachers in special admission schools regarding writing across the curriculum [doctoral thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.
Modesitt, L.E., Jr.. (1991). The 'factsheet' as a tool for teaching logical writing. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 03.1, 20-25.
The author discusses the use of a 'fact sheet' as a writing strategy that can help develop analytical writing. Its basic design is a thesis with a list of supportive facts, intended to help students organize data. Modesitt appears to critique high school teachers for their 'sporadic if at all,' essay assignments without concern for the contexts in which English teachers work on a daily basis. [Vincent Cross]
Morris, Barbra S. (Ed.); Detroit Public Schools; University of Michigan. (1991). Writing to learn in disciplines: Detroit teachers combine research and practice in their classrooms (a Detroit Public Schools/University of Michigan collaborative publilcation). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 333 420.
Keywords: school, interdisciplinary, WAC, Detroit, University of Michigan, classroom-research, teacher-researcher, collaborative
Mullin, Joan A.; Pamela B. Childers. (1995). The natural connection: The WAC program and the high school writing center. The Clearing House 69.1, 24-26.
Ostrow, Vickie S.. (2001). The status of WAC in secondary public schools: What do we know?. [fulltext]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 12, 37-48.
Recognizing the growing interest in writing across the curriculum (WAC) programs among secondary educators, Ostrow seeks to examine how that interest translates into implementation in public high school classrooms. From the few responders to Ostrow’s attempted survey study of over one hundred teachers and administrators in New Hampshire, the author discovered a sense of confusion concerning WAC philosophies and strategies. The survey participants who expressed personal or school-wide involvement in WAC initiatives cited computer labs or other technological amenities as adequate implementation. The author admits that WAC is growing in secondary schools due largely to the usage of technology in the classroom. However, she emphasizes that educators need information on how to use writing labs and other technologies for other purposes than word processing and research. The author notes a need for administrators and teachers to deepen their understanding of WAC philosophies by dialoguing with other professionals and collaborating with local college and university classrooms and writing centers. (Cassie Curtis)
Petersen, Meg J.. (2009). Making it easy [book review]. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 107-110.
Keywords: Rethinking Rubrics in Writing Assessment, by Maja Wilson, rubric, WAC, constructivist. grading, school
Phelps, Charles. (1997). Spreading the word of portfolios throughout the school system. In Purves, Alan C.; Sarah L. Jordan; James H. Peltz (Eds.), Using portfolios in the English classroom; Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon.
Keywords: Write for Insight: Empowering Content Area Learning, Grades 6-12, by William Strong, school, WAC, content-course, guidelines
Russell, David R.. (2002). The kind-ness of genre: An activity theory analysis of high school teachers' perception of genre in portfolio assessment across the curriculum. In Coe, Richard; Lorelei Lingard; Tatiana Teslenko (Eds.), The rhetoric and ideology of genre: Strategies for stability and change; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Scribner, Alicia Paredes. (1999). Using student advocacy assessment practices. In Reyes, Pedro; Jay D. Scribner; Alicia Paredes Scribner (Eds.), Lessons from high-performing Hispanic schools: Creating learning communities; New York: Teachers College Press.
Sejnost, Roberta; Sharon Thiese. (2007). Reading and writing across content areas. 2nd ed.. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Keywords: WAC, write-to-learn, term-paper, school
Self, Judy S. (Ed.); Production and Publication Committee. (1987). Plain talk about learning and writing across the curriculum. Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Education.
Keywords: WAC, write-to-learn, school
Shapland, Jeff. (1984). Worksheets--my changing attitudes toward them. In Martin, Nancy (Ed.), Writing across the curriculum pamphlets; Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, school, rote, work-sheet
Slater, Marsha S.. (1988). Collaboration as community: Outcomes of conducting research on one's colleagues. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 294 212.
Keywords: high-school, teacher-opinion, write-to-learn, interview, data, cross-disciplinary, WAC, New York City, teacher-cooperation, outcomes
Slisher, Max. (1981). Hounding the faculty about writing. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 78-79, 91-92.
Sockwell, Recardo Vernard. (1985). Writing in the secondary school revisited: A descriptive study of in-class assignments and related instruction used in advanced composition classes [doctoral thesis]. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Sorenson, Sharon; ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills. (1991). Encouraging writing achievement: Writing across the curriculum (ERIC digest). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 327 879.
Spencer, Eernest. (1983). Writing matters across the curriculum. Edinburgh: Lindsay & Co.; Hodder and Stoughton Educational.
Keywords: WAC, school, history, data, pedagogy, development, cognitive, program
Stedman, David. (1994). Starting a writing across the curriculum program: The first year [masters thesis]. Pullman, WA: Washington State University.
Keywords: WAC, program-implementation, program-design, school, Garfield-Palouse Middle School, Washington State
Steinaker, Debbie (Ed.); South Bay Writing Project. (1984). Writing: Don't leave it in the English classroom--activities to enhance teaching in all areas. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 260 410.
Keywords: WAC, journal-writing, letter-writing, personal-narrative, newspaper-writing, sample, school
Stern, Malcolm E.. (1967). Histlish. Indiana English Journal 02.2-3, 9-10.
Keywords: WAC, history-course, high-school
Stewart, Murray F.; Hayden L. Leaman. (1981). Teachers' writing assessments across the high school curriculum. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 204 751.
Stock, Patricia Lambert. (1986). Writing across the curriculum. In Bloom, David; Gladys Knott (Eds.), Beyond beginning reading and writing:Literacy development in the upper elementary, middle, and secondary school (Theory into practice).
Keywords: school, WAC
Stocky, Rosemarie Therese. (1990). The effects of integrating reading and writing skills across the curriculum: A senior high school model [doctoral thesis]. St. Louis, MO: Saint Louis University.
Sturtevant, Elizabeth G.. (1995). Beliefs about content literacy meet 'reality' in secondary school mathematics: Non-traditional student teachers share their experiences. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 379 607.
Taylor, Elizabeth. (1967). Home economics and English. Indiana English Journal 02.2-3, 24-26.
Keywords: WAC, home-economics, school
Templeton, Jeff. (1978). From the student perspective: Writing instruction in economics classes. http://comppile.org/archives/WLA/WLA12.pdf [full text]. Writing as a Liberating Activity Newsletter, No. 12, 3-4.
Keywords: student-opinion, WAC, economics-course, group, peer-evaluation, term-paper, revising, school
Thaiss, Christopher J.; Dingle Associates, Incorporated [Washington, D. C.]. (1983). Learning better, learning more: In the home and across the curriculum (The talking and writing series, K-12: Successful classroom practices). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 233 383.
Torbe, Mike. (1976). Language across the curriculum: Guidelines for schools. London: Ward Lock Educational.
Keywords: school, WAC, Britain, guidelines
Torbe, Mike. (1978). The secret-sharers: Teachers' response to language across the curriculum. In Davis, Frances R.A.; Robert P. Parker, Jr. (Eds.), Teaching for literacy: Reflections on the Bullock Report; London: Ward Lock Educational.
Torbe, Mike. (1980). Language policies in action: Language across the curriculum in some secondar schools. London: Ward Lock Educational.
Keywords: WAC, school
Torbe, Mike; Peter Medway. (1981). The climate for learning. London: Ward Lock Educational.
Keywords: WAC, school, climate
Tucker, G. Richard. (1986). Conclusion: Future directions for content-based language instruction. In Willetts, Karen F. (Ed.), Integrating language and content instruction: Proceedings of the Seminar (Washington, DC, January 6, 1986); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 278 262.
Watson, Samuel D., Jr.; Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. (1987). Writing teachers' resources for professional literacy: An annotated bibliography. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 293 136.
Watts, John. (1980). English in an integrated curriculum. In Robert Eagleson (Ed.), English in the eighties; Adelaide, Australia: Australian Association for the Teaching of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 233 390].
White, B. F.. (1990). Writing before reading: Its effects upon discussion and understanding of text [doctoral thesis]. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.
Keywords: writing-about-lit, short story, G9, WAC, write-to-learn, gain, data, school
Wills, Howard. (1993). Writing is learning: Strategies for math, science, social studies and language arts. Bloomington, IN: EDINFO Press.
Keywords: WAC, write-to-learn, mathematics-course, science-course, social-studies-course, school, language-arts, social
Wissot, jay. (1971). HESL and MESL: The teaching of history and math as components of an English as a second language program [Histor/Math for English as a Second Language]. In Jacobson, Rodolfo (Ed.), Studies in English to speakeers of other languages & standard English to speakers of a non-standard dialect (New York State English Council Monograph, No. 14); Oneonta, NY: New York State English Council.
Wixon, Vincent. (1981). [book review]. [full text]. The Quarterly of the National Writing Project 04.1.
Keywords: Active Voice: A Writing Program Across the Curriculum, by James Moffett, WAC, school, curriculum
Wonnberger, Carl G.. (1940). A laboratory plan in English. English Journal 29.5, 400-403.
High-school account of institution laboratory methods to teach writing. [Neal Lerner, Chronology of Published Descriptions of Writing Laboratories/Clinics, 1894-1977, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 9]
Keywords: wcenter, history, USA, laboratory-method, high-school, WAC
Wotring, Anne M.. (1980). Writing to think about high school chemistry [masters thesis]. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.
Keywords: high-school, chemistry-course, ethnographic, write-to-learn, WAC, data
Wotring, Anne Miller; Robert Tierney. (1981). Two studies of writing in high school science. [Writing to think about high school chemsitry; Using expressive writing to teach biology]. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Bay Area Writing Project.
Wright, Ann. (1981). School writing assessment: A first step toward writing-across-the-curriculum. In Flinn, Jane Zeni (Ed.), Reflections on writing: Programs and strategies from classrooms K-12 (Gateway Writing Project); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 262 421.
Keywords: assessment, school, program, WAC
[various]. (1986). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fourth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Cleveland, Ohio, April, 1986]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2086toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 06, 3-25.
[various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2087toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school
[various]. (1990). [synopses of conference talks, Seventh National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Montreal, Canada, April, 1989]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 09, 2-48.
Keywords: testing, computer, process, large-scale, standards, WPA, international, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, ESL, literacy, competency, holistic, University of Minnesota, validity, construct-validity, topic, assessment, Scotland, classroom, portfolio assessment, program, self-evaluation, peer-evaluation, self-validation, professional-school, veterinary, WAC, rater-training, program-validation, empowerment, rising-junior [East Texas State University], wcenter, transfer-student, James Britton, Peter Elbow, campus-wide, universal, computer, individual-differences, ESL, community, contrastive, City University of New York, disciplinary, rising-junior [University of Missouri-St. Louis], rising-junior [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee], prompt, argumentation, validity, primary-trait, physics-department, feminist, pedagogy, placement, minimum competency, scale, score stability, response, local assessment, feature