The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

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Service and Experiential Learning

Adler-Kassner, Linda; Robert Crooks; Ann Watters (Eds.). (1997). Writing the community: Concepts and models for service-learning in composition. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 449 729.
'[T]he first collection of essays explicitly connecting service learning and Composition studies' (Deans, Writing Partnerships, 2000, p.13). Adler-Kassner et al. highlight the benefits of combining service learning and composition for academic and nonacademic communities; review institutional barriers to implementing and sustaining effective service learning initiatives; and underscore the need to continue theorizing service learning. Contributors consider the implications of service learning for composition theory and pedagogy, university-community relations, higher education, and civic engagement. They also report on implementation of institution-specific programs, and they invite critical reflection and experimentation with service learning in Composition. The collection includes an annotated bibliography on community service and Composition. [David Stock]. [Rebecca Lorimer & David Stock, Service Learning Initiatives: Implementation and Administration; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 13].
Keywords: community, service-learning, pragmatic, civic literacy, WAC
Ash, Sarah L.; Patti H. Clayton. (2004). Service-learning: Integrating inquiry and engagement. In Lee, Virginia S. (Ed.), Teaching and learning through inquiry: A guidebook for institutions and instructors; Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Keywords: inquiry-based, service-learning, pedagogy, student-engagement, WAC
Blalock, Glenn; Diana Cardenas; Joyce Hawthorne; and Susan Loudermilk. (2003). Using 'community' needs to promote and expand WAC. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
This article explores WAC efforts at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. Specifically, the article addresses efforts to extend WAC efforts to consider the needs of the larger community as well as the university community.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, community, community service, service-learning, techcomm, FYC, learning-community
Carrick, Tracy Hamler; Margaret Himley; Tobi Jacobi. (2000). Ruptura: Acknowledging the lost subjects of the service learning story. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
In this essay we turn to the crisis of representation in ethnography and to stories of rupturas from our own experiences as service learning teachers to explore the discursive, institutional, and psychological reasons why these breaks may be difficult to analyze, easy to suture over, and necessary for understanding the intellectual project of service learning theory and pedagogy.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, ethnography, 'ruptura', service-learning
Deans, Thomas. (2002). Writing and community action: A service learning rhetoric and reader. New York: Longman.
The author's service learning rhetoric offers comprehensive support for writing about, for, and with communities. The ten chapters present an expansive understanding of writing practiced across academic, social, literary, and professional communities. Each moves through assignment options, direct instruction in a variety of genres, student samples, and reading selections of short stories, reflective essays, and professional writing samples. The book is grounded in a rhetorical tradition of civic participation and balances preparation for community outreach with reflection on such work, viewing writing in both cases 'as a versatile tool for action—action in academic, workplace, and civic communities' (xii). [Rebecca Lorimer]. [Rebecca Lorimer & David Stock, Service Learning Initiatives: Implementation and Administration; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 13].
Keywords: service-learning, pedagogy, course-design, community, student-engagement, genre, WAC, assignment, student-writing, sample, civic participation
Deans, Tom. (1997). Writing across the curriculum and community service learning: Correspondences, cautions, and futures. In Adler-Kassner, Linda; Robert Crooks; Ann Watters (Eds.) Writing the community: Concepts and models for service-learning in composition; Washington DC: American Association for Higher Education; with National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 449 729].
Keywords: service-learning, community, WAC, needs-analysis, future, cautionary
Donovan, Timothy R.; Ben W. McClelland (Eds.). (1980). Eight approaches to teaching composition. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 191 042].
Keywords: pedagogy, approach, pedagogy, process, model, experiential, rhetorical, epistemic, basic, conferencing, WAC, interdisciplinary
Ede, Lisa S.. (2004). Situating composition: Composition studies and the politics of location. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Keywords: location, place, politics, pedagogy, process, English-profession, social process, postprocess, theory, FYC, WC, WAC, ESL, service-learning, literacy, community, technology, online, cultural studies, literacy, resistance, desire, CCCC, historical studies, case study, anecdote, language, semiotics, course-design
Flower, Linda; Shirley Brice Heath. (2000). Drawing on the local: Collaboration and community expertise. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
A short history of community/university collaboration is buried in the phrase .service learning.. In the grammar of its implied narrative, the agent, actor, and source of expertise--the server--is the academy not the community. And the act of learning is more often a personal reflection by students on a broadening experience than it is a public act of shared knowledge making. But what if we attempted to turn the tables: to transform service into a collaboration with communities and learning into a problem-driven practice of mutual inquiry and literate action? And what would it take to do so? Our reflection on this issue comes in part from watching these questions come to life in an unusual forum--a community problem-solving dialogue with 180 stakeholders, including leaders in the urban community, leaders and staff from city youth organizations, and university faculty and students.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, collaboration, community service, service-learning, academy-community, academy-public, expertise
Friedman, Paul G.. (1974). Objectives, evaluation, and grading in interpersonal communication courses: An experiential association. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 091 786.
Keywords: comskills, WAC, contract grading, experiential, interpersonal, communications-course
Fryer, Karen Helene. (1991). Regional geological context for a course in petrography. Journal of Geological Education 39.3, 217-220.
Keywords: geology-course, science, research-report, assignment, experiential, oral-report, WAC, regional, petrography
Ghnassia, Virginia; Jill Dix. (2002). Interdisciplinarity and the public sphere. Journal of General Education 51.3, 153-172.
Ghnassia and Dix describe an interdisciplinary writing class on "Epidemics and Aids." The course incorporates science, service learning, and writing both research papers and for a public awareness campaign. Teachers from different disciplines work with the class. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: gen-ed, interdisciplinarity, WAC, AIDS, medicine, science-course, service-learning, term-paper, team-teaching, public sphere
Goldblatt, Eli. (2007). Because we live here: Sponsoring literacy beyond the college curriculum. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Using Saul Alinsky's community organizing methods and Dewey's progressive education models, the author shows how university writing programs can treat community writing needs as a central focus of their programmatic work. Chapters 1-4 focus on a set of connections between the Temple University writing program and local high schools, a community college, and community groups, analyzing the writing conflicts inherent in such issues as transfer, curriculum continuity, and funding. Chapters 5 and 6 analyze the movement of literacy problems and possibilities among the sites detailed in the first half of the book. The author proposes moving beyond WAC/WID to Writing Beyond the Curriculum (WBC), so that writing programs can see their institutions as 'one among many' writing actors in local settings, a frame which students, too, must develop in order to truly understand writing as a social act. [Rebecca Lorimer]. [Rebecca Lorimer & David Stock, Service Learning Initiatives: Implementation and Administration; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 13].
Keywords: service-learning, community literacy, Temple University, community-service, extracurricular, college-community, school-college, WAC, John Dewey, Sharon Crowley, New London Group, FYC, placement, basic, vocational, two-year, Saul Alinsky, activism, grant-writing, skill-transfer
Grobman, Laurie. (2017). The policy brief assignment: Transferable skills in action in a community-engaged writing project. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 8-18.
Abstract: The policy brief assignment in my capstone course in professional writing was designed as a community-engaged project in partnership with a nonprofit organization whose mission is to grow Reading, Pennsylvania's economy. The assignment was intended to do real work in the world: the nonprofit's director, a city council member, and an outreach manager for the city of Reading plan to use the policy briefs to convince Reading's City Council to adopt the recommended policies to enhance citizen participation and representation in local governance and to address deficiencies identified through the STAR Community Rating System(r) (STAR), the nation's leading sustainability framework and certification program (STAR 2016). I welcomed the collaboration and designed the assignment with the goal that students would experience what writing faculty always tell them: fundamental concepts in composition and rhetoric/writing studies are operational in the workplace, and understanding writing and communication rhetorically opens up possibilities for them to enter diverse and unfamiliar writing contexts.
Hessler, H. Brooke. (2000). Composing an institutional identity: The terms of community service in higher education. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
This essay examines how the rhetoric of community service can both hinder and help efforts to strengthen service-learning institutionally, professionally, and pedagogically. My research draws from an extensive review of college and university mission statements and other institutional artifacts used to compose and communicate the modern vocation of American higher education--its idealized roles, responsibilities, and contributions to society.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, community service, service-learning, data, identity
Higgitt, David L.. (1996). The effectiveness of student-authored field trails as a means of enhancing geomorphological interpretation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 20.1, 35-44.
Keywords: geography-course, collaboration, experiential, fieldwork, student-centered, audience, WAC
Isaacs, Emily; Phoebe Jackson. (2001). Introduction: What's the issue with student writing as public text?. In Isaacs, Emily J.; Phoebe Jackson (Eds.), Public works: Student writing as public text; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Heinemann.
Keywords: introduction, public, private, pedagogy, history, advocacy, service-learning, feminist, critique, ethics, student-writing
Jackowski, Mick; Laurie Gullion. (1998). Teaching sport management through service-learning: An undergraduate case study. Quest 50.3, 251-265.
Keywords: sports-management-course, service-learning, outreach, organizational, workplace, learning-log, oral-presentation, memorandum-writing, product-review, interviewing, improvement, WAC, undergraduate
Jolliffe, David A.. (2001). Writing across the curriculum and service learning: Kairos, genre, and collaboration. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing-across-the-curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Keywords: WAC, service-learning, kairos, genre, collaboration, change
Kells, Michelle Hall. (2007). Writing across communities: Deliberation and the discursive possibilities of WAC. Reflections: A Journal of Writing, Service-Learning, and Community Literacy 6.1, 87-108.
This article argues that traditional models of WAC too narrowly privilege academic discourse over other discourses and communities shaping the worlds in which our students live and work. Writing Across Communities represents a shift in paradigm informed by Ecocomposition, New Literacy Studies, and Sociolinguistics. A Writing Across Communities approach to writing program reform foregrounds dimensions of ethnolinguistic diversity and civic engagement in contrast to other models of WAC currently institutionalized across the nation. Writing Across Communities, as a resistance discourse, calls for transdisciplinary dialogue that demystifies the ways we make and use knowledge across communities of practice. [Reflections]
Keywords: service-learning, pedagogy, pedagogy, WAC, WID, writing-across-the-curriculum, diversity, literacy, ecocomposition, sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistic, civic, program-design
Klebanoff, Aaron. (1997). A memorable drive through calculus. PRIMUS: Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies 07.4, 289-296.
Keywords: mathematics-course, WAC, report-writing, experiential, collaboration, data-collection, car trip
Leach, Judith. (1992). Connecting students' experiences to course content through collaborative learning. In Mahony, Elizabeth M. (Ed.); Saint Louis Community College at Meramec [Missouri]; Building community from diversity: Connecting students to their learning environments. An anthology of classroom projects undertaken for the Kellogg Beacon Grant: Final report; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 064.
Keywords: WAC, collaboration, experiential, course-content, two-year
Lettner-Rust, Heather G.; Pamela J. Tracy; Susan L. Booker; Elizabeth Kocevar-Weidinger; Jená B. Burges. (2007). Writing beyond the curriculum: Transition, transfer, and transformation. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Part service-learning, part civic engagement, part student-directed research, and part interdisciplinary senior seminar, the course at the heart of Longwood University's mission combines a variation of writing-as-process with a ninety-degree rotation of writing-across-the-curriculum practices. Why and how it happened, and what we learned along the way, exemplifies the transformation of higher education's mission from an instructional paradigm to a learning paradigm. (Published October 8, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: service-learning, civic engagement, interdisciplinary, WAC, WID, learning paradigm, knowledge-transfer, transformative
Lewis, Andrea; Kathryn Palmer. (2001). A critical thinking / discipline specific model for teaching writing through service learning. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.2.
The course we discuss in this article is an attempt to develop students' high-order cognitive skills in the context of specific disciplinary knowledge. We believe that this approach not only gives students the critical consciousness they need to produce valuable academic work and to live as active citizens beyond the ivory tower, but also helps institutionalize service learning as a credible pedagogical approach. This paper, then, will outline the pedagogical basis of our course and will explain how that basis translates into a host of practical matters including pre-course project development and agency liaison, the nature of specific projects and the necessity of matching students with appropriate projects, actual classroom instruction, and agency-student-academy dynamics. Moreover, it will examine—in the contexts of classroom instruction and actual student work—the way in which the course encourages the development of knowledge as the product of critical inquiry within a student's particular field of study. Ultimately, the paper works towards articulating how this approach can further institutionalize service learning by prioritizing critical thinking in the context of disciplinarity.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, service-learning, critical thinking
Mathieu, Paula. (2005). Tactics of hope: The public turn in English composition. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: public, social, extracurricular, public advocacy, service-learning, pedagogy, tactics
Miracle, Andrew W., Jr.. (1981). Teaching urban anthropology: An experiential approach. Urban Anthropology 10.4, 309-317.
Keywords: anthropology-course, urban, WAC, write-to-learn, Jerome Bruner, development, experiential, urban
Nelson, Gayle L.. (1997). How cultural differences affect written and oral communication: The case of peer response groups. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, peer-evaluation, cultural, interpersonal, diversity, cultural, individualism-collectivism, face, interaction, service-learning, oral-communication
Niemitz, Jeffrey William; Noel Potter, Jr.. (1991). The scientific method and writing in introductory landscape-development laboratories. Journal of Geological Education 39.3, 190-195.
Keywords: WAC, geology-course, field-observation, experiential, laboratory-report, data-collection, pedagogy, arrangement, science, research-method, hypothesizing, synthesis, introductory, landscape
Saunders, Peter M.. (1998). From case to virtual case: A journey in experiential learning. In Reiss, Donna; Dickie Selfe; Art Young (Eds.), Electronic communication across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 416 561].
Keywords: computer, WAC, Lehigh University, techcom, academy-workplace, usability, software-design, experiential learning, discipline-metaphor, journey
Stout, David E.; Alan R. Sumutka; Donald E. Wygal. (1991). Experiential evidence on the use of writing assignments in upper-level accounting courses. Advances in Accounting 09, 125-141.
Keywords: accounting-course, business-course, WAC, write-to-learn, contrast-group, gain, contextual, night-course, assignment, data, experiential
Taub, Diane E.. (1991). Strengthening the social within social psychology: An experiential learning approach. Teaching Sociology 19.2, 186-192.
Keywords: psychology-course, WAC, research-report, assignment, service-learning, data-collection, observation, experiential learning, social, social-psychology
Underwood, Charles; Mara Welsh; Mary Gauvain; Sharon Duffy. (2000). Learning at the edges: Challenges to the sustainability of service learning in higher education. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
In this article, we attempt to make both practical and theoretical contributions to the literature on service learning. On one hand, we focus pragmatically on the sustainability of service learning efforts, given the institutional culture of the university. On the other hand, we also examine service learning through the lens of socio-cultural theory, as a form of learning through apprenticeship. Our intent is to understand the multi-layered expert-novice roles implicit in service learning as a socio-cultural activity, and to interpret how the negotiation of those roles, especially the expert role assumed by participating faculty, directly impacts the sustainability of such programs in higher education. In the course of our discussion, we seek as well to contribute to the understanding of the expert's role in apprenticeship-like learning activities, a theoretical focus that has been largely neglected in previous literature.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, service-learning, novice-expert, activity theory, maintenance
Wells, Susan. (1996). Rogue cops and health care: What do we want from public writing. College Composition and Communication 47.3, 325-341.
Keywords: service-learning, Habermas, public, discourse, illegeracy, real-world, pedagogy, WAC, health-care
Zimmerelli, Lisa. (2015). A place to begin: Service-learning tutor education and writing center social justice. Writing Center Journal 35.1, 57-84.
Keywords: wcenter, service-learning, education, social, justice, community, reflection, identification, reciprocity, civic, identity, knowledge-transfer, transformative, empowerment, social, racial, advocacy