The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

— Justin Jory
Bibliography Editor

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Discourse Analysis

Anderson, Janice Scott. (1981). The rhetorical theory and practice of Walter Lippmann: Advocacy journalism as rhetorical discourse [doctoral thesis]. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Keywords: journalism, advocacy, Walter Lippman, theory, discourse-analysis, rhetorical, rhetorical-theory
Anson, Chris M.. (1988). Toward a multidimensional model of writing in the academic disciplines. In Jolliffe, David A. (Ed.), Writing in academic disciplines (Advances in writing research, Vol. 2); Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Keywords: WAC, multidimensional, model, theory, contextual, discourse-analysis, academic, nonacademic, WID, research-method, survey, faculty, review-of-scholarship, ideology, curriculum, write-to-learn, development, interpretive, research-agenda
Beason, Larry. (1993). Feedback and revision in writing across the curriculum classes. Research in the Teaching of English 27.4, 395-422.
Keywords: response, drafting, commenting, revising, coding, measurement, research-method, feedback, WAC, criteria, text-analysis, business-law-course, journalism, dental hygiene, psychology-course, praise, data, frequency, arrangement, focusing, MX, diction, error
Bergmann, Linda S.. (1996). Academic discourse and academic service: Composition vs. WAC in the university. College English Association Critic 58.3, 50-59.
Keywords: academic, service, service-course, discourse, conventions, enculturation, WAC, plagiarism, boilerplate, disciplinary, textbook, text-analysis, academic-discourse
Braine, George. (1989). Writing in the natural sciences and engineering: Implications for ESL composition courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 304 881.
Keywords: science-course, engineering-course, WAC, ESL, LEP, University of Texas, text-analysis, taxonomy, genre, laboratory-report, textbook, summary-writing, paraphrase, natural-science, implication
Buerk, Dorothy; Wellesley College Center for Research on Women. (1986). Carolyn Werbel's journal: Voicing the struggle to make meaning of mathematics (Working paper No. 160). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 297 977.
Keywords: WAC, mathematics-course, journal-writing, resistance, case-study, sample, data, write-to-learn, women, text-analysis
Comprone, Joseph J.. (1985). Literary theory and composition: Creating communities of readers and writers. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 254 855.
Keywords: lit-crit, interpretive, hermeneutic, WAC, deconstruction, text-analysis, discovery, bridging, theory, writer-reader, discourse-community
Condit, Celeste Michelle. (1989). Feminized power and adversarial advocacy: Leveling arguments or analyzing them?. Argumentation and Advocacy 25.4, 226-230.
Keywords: argumentation, advocacy, adversarial, feminization, power, discourse-analysis
Dunlap, Louise. (1992). Advocacy and neutrality: A contradiction in the discourse of urban planners. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Writing, teaching and learning in the disciplines; New York, NY: Modern Language Associates.
Keywords: sociology-discipline, WAC, urban-planning, advocacy, neutrality, discourse-analysis, institutional, contradiction, workplace, academy-workplace, empowerment, urban
Durst, Russel K.. (1984). The development of analytic writing. In Applebee, Arthur N., Contexts for learning to write: Studies of secondary school instruction; Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Keywords: school, development, analytic, mode, WAC, text-analysis, sample, growth, model, informational, social-science, science-writing, genre, data
Durst, Russel K.. (1994). Coming to grips with theory: College students' use of theoretical explanation in writing about history. [full-text]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 01.1, 72-87.
This study looks at how college history students wrestle with and sometimes work around issues of theory, specifically theories of the causes of the Civil War. Using analysis of think-aloud protocol, the author investigates how students theoretical writing about the Civil War and how they use the theoretical material to take a position in writing about these same issues. The main purpose of this article is to examine the cognitive moves students make, their ways of thinking, when working with theory, an activity which many educators today are touting as particularly important in developing students' critical thinking abilities. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: historiography, theorizing, text-analysis, student-writing, history-course, WAC, data, think-aloud, protocol-analysis
Eisenhart, Christopher. (2006). The humanist scholar as public expert. Written Communication 23.2, 150-172.
Keywords: scholar-as-writer, case-study, discourse-analysis, public, expertise, rhetorical, Waco conflict, debate, content-analysis, style-analysis, mixed-genre, argumentation, kairos, narrative, hybridity, interdisciplinary, extra-disciplinary, 'understanding', topic
Flynn, Elizabeth A.; George A. McCulley; Ronald K. Gratz. (1986). Writing in biology: Effects of peer critiquing and analysis of models on the quality of biology laboratory reports. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, biology-course, peer-evaluation, imitation, text-analysis, quality, laboratory-report, student-opinion, assignment, data, criteria, sample
Forman, Janis. (1993). Business communication and composition: The writing connection and beyond. Journal of Business Communication 30.3, 313-352.
This article considers business communication's current and potential borrowing from composition studies as well as the constraints on such borrowing. It uses a citation analysis and a study of the arguments in business communication articles published in The Journal of Business Communication to identify the current state of composition's impact on research in business writing. After exploring the factors that may impede additional borrowing from composition, it discusses three major areas of composition studies that may profitably influence research in business communication: the historical and theoretical study of composition as a discipline, multicultural and literacy studies, and contemporary critical and social theory. [author's abstract]
Keywords: business-communication, WAC, cross-disciplinary, composition-studies, citation-analysis, discourse-analysis, argumentation, historiography, English-profession, multicultural, literacy-studies, critique, critical social-theory
Fulford, Carolyn J.. (2009). Writing across the curriculum program development as ideological and rhetorical practice [doctoral thesis] . Amherst, MA. University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Keywords: WAC, program-implementation, liberal arts, WPA, rhetoric, critical discourse-analysis, rhetorical, ecological, ethnographic, curriculum-design, standards, accountability, gen-ed, history, institutional identity, ideological dialectics
Gonzalez-Pineiro, Manuel. (1987). The structure of ideology in written texts: A linguistic analysis [doctoral thesis]. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.
Keywords: ideology, text-analysis, linguistic, arrangement, advocacy
Graves, Roger; Theresa Hyland; Boba M. Samuels. (2010). Undergraduate writing assignments: An analysis of syllabi at one Canadian college. Written Communication 27.3, 293-317.
Keywords: syllabus-analysis, Canada, assignment, text-analysis, data, mean, assignment-length, genre, term-paper, WAC, undergraduate
Greene, Stuart. (1991). Writing from sources: Authority in text and task (Technical report, No. 55). Berkeley, CA; Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for the Study of Writing [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 341 068].
Keywords: think-aloud, protocol-analysis , learning-log, WAC, history-course, prior knowledge, sources, text-analysis, comparison, report-writing, problem-solving, term-paper, write-to-learn, data, bibliographic-search, technical-report
Harris, June. (1991). Reader response logs as a learning device in literature classes. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 543.
Keywords: reading-log, reader-response, writing-about-lit, literature-course, WAC, text-analysis, data, gain, write-to-learn
Henry, Jim. (1994). A narratological analysis of WAC authorship. College English 56.7, 810-824.
Keywords: authorship, narratology, implied-author, WAC, discourse-analysis, assignment, pedagogy, personal,
Houtlosser, Peter. (2001). Points of view. In van Eemeren, Frans H. (Ed.), Crucial concepts in argumentation theory; Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Keywords: argumentation, theory, point-of-view, perspective, dialectic, pragma-dialectics, social, psychological, cognitive, discourse-analysis, structuralist, debate, advocacy, communicative action
Inglese, Terry. (2010). Can archived TV interviews with social sciences scholars enhance the quality of students' academic writing?. In Bazerman, Charles; et al. (Eds.), Traditions of writing research; London: Routledge.
Keywords: WAC, social-science-course, television, interview, archival, multimedia, multimodal, literacy, intersubjectivity, Italy, text-analysis, data, native-nonnative, quality, social
Jacobs, Suzanne E.. (1979). Student writing in the academic context: A linguistic study of well-shaped vs. poorly-shaped essays with implications for learning and teachings. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 191 074.
Keywords: academic, minority, WAC, biology-course, impromptu, text-analysis, arrangement, evaluation, text-analysis, data, predicate, syntactic complexity, development, sequence, in-class essay, style, implication, student-writing
Johnstone, Anne C.; Barbara Johnstone; Valerie M. Balester. (1994). Uses for journal keeping: An ethnography of writing in a university science class. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Keywords: journal-writing, science-course, WAC, ethnographic, data, reflexivity, teacher-research, University of Northern Iowa, sample, discourse-analysis, student-opinion, teacher-opinion
Kaplan, Robert B.; Richard B. Baldauf, Jr.. (2005). Editing contributed scholarly articles from a language management perspective. . Journal of Second Language Writing 14.1, 47-62.
Taking language management as its initial perspective, this paper examines some of the sorts of linguistic problems that second language writers of English face when contributing to scholarly journals and some of the issues that editors face when working with authors on those problems. Some ethical questions implicit in editing non-native speaker texts are explored. [authors' abstract]
Keywords: ESL, scholarly-writing, editing, ethical, language management, WAC, text-analysis, EAP, editing
Kelly, Gregory J.; Charles Bazerman; Audra Skukauskaite; William Prothero. (2010). Rhetorical features of student science writing in introductory university oceanography. In Bazerman, Charles; et al. (Eds.), Traditions of writing research; London: Routledge.
Keywords: WAC, science-writing, oceanography, text-analysis, rhetorical, feature, data, arrangement, cohesion
Lange, Phil C.. (1948). A sampling of composition errors of college freshmen in a course other than English. Journal of Educational Research 42 (November), 191-200.
Keywords: contrast-group, error, text-analysis, FYC, WAC, data, skill-transfer
Langsam, Deborah M.; Kathleen Blake Yancey. (1998). E-mailing biology: Facing the biochallenge. In Reiss, Donna; Dickie Selfe; Art Young (Eds.), Electronic communication across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 416 561].
Keywords: computer, WAC, biology-course, email, class-size, lecture, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, text-analysis
Lindsay, Stan A.. (1999). Waco and Andover: An application of Kenneth Burke's concept of psychotic entelechy. Quarterly Journal of Speech 85.3, 268-284.
Keywords: Kenneth Burke, symbolic action, entelechy, disaster, Branch Davidian, Waco, psychotic entelechy, cults, cover-up, discourse-analysis, applied
Lukeman, Howard. (1992). First year student essays in humanities and social sciences: The need for new paradigms. Education in Rural Australia 02.2, 37-40.
Keywords: first-year, WAC, text-analysis, discipline-specific, academic, convention, critical-analysis, argumentation, humanities, social-science, paradigm, sciences-humanities, social
Mahala, Dan; Jody Swilky. (1995). Rhetoricizing the teacher's position: Or what to make of the ghost of 'process' in multicultural pedagogies. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 381 798.
Keywords: WAC, history, England, 1950-1960, expressivist, singularity, voice, authenticity, text-analysis, multicultural, pedagogy
Mahalski, Pauline A.. (1992). Essay-writing: Do study manuals give relevant advice?. Higher Education 24.1, 113-132.
Keywords: geography-course, WAC, study-guide, improvement, data, text-analysis, commenting, grades, data, Otago University [New Zealand], manual, relevance
McClure, Randall. (2009). Examining the presence of advocacy and commercial websites in research essays of first-year composition students. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 32.3, 49-74.
Keywords: FYC, advocacy, web, digital, NCTE, information-literacy, practice-research, teacher-research, librarian-teacher, website, commercial, text-analysis
Miles, Libby; Michael Pennell; Kim Henley Owens; Jeremiah Dyehouse; Helen O'Grady; Nedra Reynolds; Robert Schwelger; Linda Shamoon. (2008). Thinking vertically [Interchanges: Commenting on Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle's 'Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions']. College Composition and Communication 59.3, 503-511.
Keywords: academic, curriculum, FYC, major, production, rhetorical, situational, text-analysis, WAC, WID, writing, misunderstanding, vertical, thought
Mitchell, Felicia. (1987). Bridging the communication gap between teacher and student: Composing assignments in the content areas. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 289 178.
Keywords: University of Texas at Austin, WAC, assignment, text-analysis, survey, data, topic specification
Mulvaney, Mary Kay. (1994). Interpreting academic apprenticeship: A theoretical synthesis and event analysis of academic enculturation [doctoral thesis]. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois at Chicago.
Keywords: academic, enculturation, discourse-community, activity-theory, text-analysis, WAC, anthropology, novice-expert, apprentice
Propen, Amy D.; Mary Lay Schuster. (2010). Understanding genre through the lens of advocacy: The rhetorical work of the victim impact statement. Written Communication 27.1, 3-35.
Keywords: discourse-analysis, genre-analysis, advocacy, victim impact statement, victim-rights, legal, interview, judge-opinion, courtroom, site-analysis, rhetorical-analysis, victim-opinion, data, appeal, emotion, personal, institutional
Ronald, Kate. (1988). On the outside looking in: Students' analyses of professional discourse communities. Rhetoric Review 07.1, 130-149.
Keywords: academy-workplace, academic, disciplinary, discourse-analysis, WAC, student-opinion, rhetorical-analysis, discourse-community, professional-discourse
Root, Robert L.. (1987). The rhetorics of popular culture: Advertising, advocacy, and entertainment. New York: Greenwood.
Keywords: popular-culture, cultural, cultural, rhetorical-analysis, discourse-analysis, advertising, advocacy, entertainment
Rosow, La Vergne. (1990). Consumer advocacy, empowerment, and adult literacy. Journal of Reading 34.4, 258-262.
Keywords: discourse-analysis, text-analysis, junk mail, advertisement, multilingual, multicultural, consumer advocacy, civic, literacy, empowerment, student-centered
Russell, David R.. (2010). Writing in multiple contexts: Vygotskian CHAT meets the phenomenology of genre [cultural-historical activity theory]. In Bazerman, Charles; et al. (Eds.), Traditions of writing research; London: Routledge.
Keywords: activity-theory, Vygotsky, CHAT (cultural-historical activity theory], phenomenology, genre, research-method, contextual, multiple, process, discourse-analysis, WAC, polycontextuality, genre-analysis, academic, historiography, multimodal, simulation
Savage, Gerald. (1992). Beyond evangelism: Ideology and social responsibility in WAC. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 346 478.
Keywords: WAC, ideology, interdisciplinary, review-of-scholarship, science, engineeering, professional-periodical, social, ethical, discourse-analysis, data, social
Schor, Sandra. (1987). Writing across the disciplines: Respecting the untranslatable. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 292 116.
Keywords: WAC, disciplinarity, interdisciplinary, reader-response, discourse-analysis, jargon, popularization, interpretive, difficulty, translating, incommensurability, respect
Shea, Renee Hausmann. (1987). The influence of writing prompt on process and product: An exploratory study using the LSAT writing sample [doctoral thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.
Keywords: prompt, topic, LSAT, assessment, large-scale, process-product, text-analysis, contrast-group, MX, style, arrangement, elaboration, argumentation, creativity, advocacy, Toulmin
Sills, Caryl K.. (1991). Paired composition courses: 'Everything relates'. College Teaching 39.2, 61-64.
Sills notes that paired courses assist students in becoming aware of the 'connections among ideas and issues across disciplinary boundaries, and [helps] them gain intellectual sophistication by confronting and assessing multiple perspectives' (p. 61). She discusses the linkage between an English Composition course and Introduction to Sociology, where 'the professors were free to design two separate but related courses that would serve the goals of both the English and sociology departments' (p. 61). In this link, 'we focused on interpreting and communicating information as a component of the learning process,' Sills writes, 'accurate and effective use of language became a means of knowing sociology, rather than a separate exercise called ‘writing’' (p. 62). Sills comments that paired courses require a larger time commitment from faculty and that the relationship between the two courses must be actively managed by both instructors. Working together, the two faculty members can find an appropriate balance for 'pacing, methodology, and goals' (p. 64).[Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: Monmouth College [New Jersey], linked, FYC, EAP, ESL, learning-community, sociology-course, WAC, comparison, text-analysis, argumentation, student-attitude, faculty-commitment
Suedfeld, Peter; Loraine Lavellee; Jennifer Brough. (1998). Political language in an environmental controversy: Integrative complexity and motive imagery in advocacy propaganda and the press. In Feldman, Ofer; Christ'l de Landtsheer (Eds.), Politically speaking: A worldwide examination of language used in the public sphere; Westport, CT: Praeger.
Keywords: discourse-analysis, public, political, controversy, environmental, imagery, advocacy, propaganda, journalism, integrative, motive
Willcott, Paul Joseph. (1972). An analysis of the written English of native speakers of Arabic as found in American history final examinations given at the University of Texas at Austin [doctoral thesis]. Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin.
Keywords: ESL, Arabic-English, text-analysis, WAC, history-course, essay-exam, final examination
Wolfe, Christopher R.. (2011). Argumentation across the curriculum. Written Communication 28.2, 193-219.
Keywords: argumentation, WAC, cross-disciplinary, assignment-analysis, text-analysis, genre, taxonomy, undergraduate, data, frequency, engineering, fine arts, social-science, education, natural-science, humanities, business
Young, Art. (1985). Research connections: Writing in the disciplines. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 266 476.
Keywords: Michigan Technological University, WAC, faculty-workshop, program-validation, follow-up, assignment-analysis, journal-writing, text-analysis, multiple measures, data