Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.
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Alderman, M. Kay; R. Klein; S. K. Seeley; M. Sanders. (1993). Metacognitive self-portraits: Preservice teachers as learners. Reading Research and Instruction 32.2, 38-54.
Bechtel, Judith. (1985). Cognition, convention, and certainty: What we need to know about writing. In Bechtel, Judith (Ed.), Improving writing and learning: A handbook for teachers in every class; Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Blau, Sheridan. (2010). Academic writing as participation: Writing your way in. In Sullivan, Patrick; Tinberg, Howard; Blau, Sheridan (Eds.), What is “college-level” writing? Volume 2: Assignments, Readings and Student Writing Samples; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Blau describes and models his methodology and classroom practice of a genre-specific approach that purports to enable the transition of high school, community college and first-year college students into the university academic discourse community. Blau bases his claims of efficacy on anecdotal reports, observations done in New York City community colleges and high school classrooms as well as the application of research and theory. Blau suggests that students ought to write share and discuss literary commentary so they can concretely enact the formation of genuine academic discursive practices. These student commentaries are used for longer papers where students read, respond to and cite each other’s work. Blau contends that this 'genre-creating program' promotes the 'critical thinking' that is essential to the reading and writing involved in 'college-level discourse' because it lends students academic authority, in that they are originators and evaluators of a shared classroom disciplinary textual [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Keywords: school-college, two-year, research-method, New York City, discourse-community, genre-specific, disciplinary, convention, WAC, critical-thinking, research-practice, theory-practice, discursive, praxis
Blumner, Jacob S.. (1999). Authority and initiation: Preparing students for discipline-specific language conventions. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Brown, Peggy Ann. (1984). Additional programs. The Forum for Liberal Education 07.1, 12-18.
Keywords: program, survey, Albright College, intensive, University of Chicago, style, Eastern Oregon State College, rising-junior, assessment, Kalamazoo University, Moravian College, Orange Coast College, interdisciplinary, Pima College, WAC, lay-reader; St. Mary's College, intensive, Southeastern Massachusetts University, gen-ed, University of Wisconsin, student-motivation, wcenter
Bunting, Ann. (1994). Writing to fluency: Stylistic variations across disciplines [doctoral thesis]. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.
Keywords: interdisciplinary , fluency, WAC, pedagogy, Elaine Maimon, Art Young, Charles Bazerman, Toby Fulwiler, style, variation
Bushman, Donald; Elizabeth Ervin. (1995). Rhetorical contexts of grammar: Some views from writing-emphasis course instructors. In Hunter, Susan; Ray Wallace (Eds.), The place of grammar in writing instruction: Past, present, future; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: grammar, WAC, intensive, grammar
Bushman, John H.. (1984). The teaching of writing: A practical program to the composing process that works. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Carpenter, J. Harrison; Margie Krest. (2001). It's about the science: Students writing and thinking about data in a scientific writing course. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.2.
The problem for the teaching of discipline-specific writing is that disciplinary standards of style and form often trump writing teachers' concerns for fostering critical thinking; as a result, teachers overemphasize correctness and format. Our approach is based on the belief that a generative view of genre can be the basis for students learning how to think critically about science.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, conventions, science, critical thinking, writing to learn, genre, data-interpretation
Chamberlain, Lori. (1982). Gadamer, hermeneutics, and composition. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 232 140.
Dowdey, Diane. (1992). Citation and documentation across the curriculum. In Secor, Marie; Davida Charney (Eds.), Constructing rhetorical education; Carbondale, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Franklin, Sharon (Ed.). (1988). Making the literature, writing, word processing connection: The best of The Writing Notebook. 2nd edition. Mendocino, CA: The Writing Notebook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 312 644].
Frantz, Donald H., Jr.. (1952). Music and the writing experience. College English 14.2, 107-110.
Details the author’s attempt to arouse composition students’ interest in writing via the development of his course ‘Arts and the Writing Experience.’ Explains the author’s approach to this curriculum, including essay writing assignments, classical music study through both listening and reading articles (Chopin, Wagner, etc.), in-class discussions, and literature study (Twain). Notes similar successful approaches by other composition instructors. Enumerates the benefits of this approach: appreciation of the arts, increased honesty of student opinions in both writing and in-class discussions, reduction in grammatical errors, and recognition of ‘the meaningful experience,’ evoked by art. [Alan Blair]
Keywords: music, WAC, syllabus, assignment, discussion, writing-about-lit, liberal arts, honesty, error, gain
Fulwiler, Toby. (1981). Showing, not telling, at a writing workshop. College English 43.1, 55-63.
Harris, Barbara; Jan Newhouse. (1992). Meyers-Briggs and learning and writing styles. In Mahony, Elizabeth M. (Ed.); Saint Louis Community College at Meramec [Missouri]; Building community from diversity: Connecting students to their learning environments. An anthology of classroom projects undertaken for the Kellogg Beacon Grant: Final report; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 064.
Hobbs, Valerie; Lesley Rex-Kerish. (1986). Tenderfooting: Tackling the problems of freshman writers. College Teaching 34.3, 94-98.
Keywords: University of California, FYC, underprepared, basic, pedagogy, WAC, read-write, critical-thinking, arrangement, style
Hobson, Eric; Neal Lerner. (1999). Writing centers/WAC in pharmacy education: A changing prescription. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Jackson, Dixie S.. (1972). Combining writing with agronomy. In Berger, Allen; Blanche Hope-Smith (Eds.); Measure for measure: Classroom practices in teaching English 1972-1973; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproductino Service, ED 068 972].
Jacobs, Suzanne E.. (1979). Student writing in the academic context: A linguistic study of well-shaped vs. poorly-shaped essays with implications for learning and teachings. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 191 074.
Klinger, George C.. (1977). A campus view of college writing. College Composition and Communication 28.4, 343-347.
Explores attitudes toward writing correctness and language expression among faculty outside the English department. Concludes from 483 responses that non English faculty are intolerant of writing slovenliness, vagueness, and faulty conclusions. Sees potential allies in faculty from other disciplines and proposes writing instructors enlist their cooperation in improving writing. [Sue Hum]
Lavelle, Ellen; Nancy Zuercher. (2001). The writing approaches of university students. Higher Education 42.3, 373-391.
Examines university writing approaches as calculated by the Inventory of Processes in College Composition (IPIC) in relation to students' beliefs about writing. Discusses the results measured by the IPIC administered to 30 freshman undergraduates, 13 of whom were selected for interview afterward, and the five factors that emerged: Elaborative, Low Self-Efficacy, Reflective-Revision, Spontaneous-Impulsive and Procedural. Lavelle and Zuercher claim that the Elaborative and Reflective-Revision dimensions represent deep approaches to writing, while the Low Self-Efficacy, Spontaneous-Impulsive and Procedural factors reflect surface approaches. Hypothesizes that students who adopted deep approaches to writing will be more likely to consider themselves writers and describe the process of writing as involving learning and changes in thinking. Lavelle and Zuercher conclude that students who scored high on the Elaborative and Reflective-Revision scales consistently voiced process as critical and inseparable from product; while writers who scored high on surface approaches failed to report an emphasis on revision, an understanding of their own process as related to outcome, or a need for self-expression and self-discovery through writing. The authors propose a need for evaluative rubrics that foster deep criteria, rather than point systems that encourage surface approaches to writing. (Jake Young)
Lindblom, Kenneth; Patricia A. Dunn. (2004). Cooperative writing 'program' administration at Illinois State Normal University: The Committee on English of 1904-05 and the influence of Professor J. Rose Colby. In L'Eplattenier; Lisa Mastrangelo (Eds.), Historical studies of writing program administration: Individuals, communities, and the formation of a discipline; West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.
Keywords: WPA, Illinois State Normal University, June Rose Colby, Harvard narrative, normal college, cooperative, professional movement, Committee on English, historical, WAC, cooperative language instruction, language-use, error, pedagogy, student-centered, samples (ISNU Faculty Meeting Minutes, 27 September 1904: [Report One of] The Committee on English, 4 April, 1905: Report [Two] of the Committee on English), discipline, English-profession
Long, Russell C.. (1982). Error recognition: Implications for interdisciplinary writing instruction. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 241 936.
Maimon, Elaine P.; Barbara F. Nodine. (1979). Words enough and time: Syntax and error one year after. In Daiker, Donald; Andrew Kerek; Max Morenberg (Eds.), Sentence combining and the teaching of writing: Selected papers from the Miami University Conference, Oxford, Ohio, October 27 & 28, 1978; Conway, AK: L & S Books; with the Departments of English, University of Akron, University of Central Arkansas.
National Council of Teachers of English Executive Committee. (1979). Standards for basic skills writing programs. College English 41.2, 220-222.
Keywords: basic, program, objectives, form, content, audience, arrangement, genre, WAC, standard written English, error
North, Stephen M.. (1984). The idea of a writing center. College English 46.5, 433-446.
The author theorizes the practices and image of the ideal writing center. The article argues that the idea and contemporary work of writing centers is misunderstood by his peers in English studies. They see writing centers as a place to 'fix' remedial students skills through grammar drill, typically, and where students are referred to centers by teachers rather than voluntarily motivated to go (435-36). North sees writing centers as a 'place to produce better writers, not better writing' (438). At the core of 'The Idea ofa Writing Center' is talk (443), and this talk addresses the primary concern of centers, which is the writing process (438). North argues that through talk about the writing process and concerns beyond grammar, mechanics, and punctuation, a consultant can become a collaborator who helps students change their writing process behaviors (443). The author demands that students 'seek us out' (442) and 'come looking for us,' not be referred by teachers (440). The author discourages, if not bans, teacher referral or the required visit (440). This is based on assumed values, not empirical evidence. The author states that sending them to the writing center is a kind of 'detention,' suggesting instead that 'when they are ready, we will be here' (440). [Eliot F. Rendleman, Writing Centers and Mandatory Visits, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 22]
Odell, Lee. (1981). How English teachers can help their colleagues teach writing. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 57-59, 94-95.
Porter, Mary K.; Joanna O. Masingila. (1995). The effects of writing to learn mathematics on the types of errors students make in a college calculus class. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 389 570.
Keywords: mathematics-course, calculus-course, WAC, write-to-learn, error-analysis, gain, data
Remington, Ted . (2010). But it is rocket science! E-mail tutoring outside your comfort zone. Writing Lab Newsletter 35.1, 5-8.
Keywords: wcenter, online tutoring, email, tutor-training, tutor training, training of tutors, writing center training, consultant training, WID, WAC, style, interdisciplinary
Rose, Mike. (1982). Remedial writing courses: Do they limit more than foster growth in writing?. In Cronnell, Bruce; Joan Michael (Eds.); Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development; California State University, Long Beach, Writing: Policies, problems, and possibilities: Proceedings of a conference co-sponsored by SWRL Educational Research and Development and by California State Unversity, Long Beach (held at SWRL, Los Alamitos, California, May 7, 1982); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 221 872.
Rubin, Donald; Dawn Bruton; William Dodd; Frederick Johnson; Bennett Rafoth; Lauri Emel; Rosemarie Goodrum; University of Georgia. (1985). Project Synapse: Sparking connection between speech and writing. Instructor's handbook. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 267 455.
Shea, Renee Hausmann. (1987). The influence of writing prompt on process and product: An exploratory study using the LSAT writing sample [doctoral thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.
Townsend, Martha. (1991). Instituting changes in curriculum and teaching style in liberal arts programs: A study of nineteen Ford Foundation projects [doctoral thesis]. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.
Keywords: literacy, liberal arts, WAC, science, case-study, site-analysis, style
Walker, J. R. L.. (1991). A student's guide to practical write-ups. Biochemical Education 19.1, 31-32.
Keywords: science-course, biochemistry, WAC, laboratory-report, edit-sheet, accuracy, data-collection, format, arrangement, error, editing, University of Canterbury [New Zealand]
Warenda, Amy. (1993). They. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 04, 99-108.
Warriner, John. (1980). The Rite-Aid Spiral Theme Notebook. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum1(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 01.2, 30-31, 49.
Winterowd, W. Ross. (1980). Transferable and local writing skills. JAC: Journal of Advanced Composition 01.1, 1-3.
Winterowd suggests that all writing skills fall into one of two categories: local skills and transferable skills. Local skills are defined as those skills that are domain-specific, such as knowledge of the genres of a particular field. Transferable skills, according to Winterowd, are the 'basics' of writing, including such issues as control of diction. Following Stephen Krashen's learning-acquisition theory, Winterowd asserts that the transferable skills, general skills that are important for competent writing across domains, must be acquired through modeling, practice, and feedback, while local skills can be taught. Two 'scenes' for writing instruction are suggested: a writing workshop (for acquistion) and a writing laboratory (for teaching local skills as well as editing). [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Winterowd, W. Ross. (1986). Composition/rhetoric: A synthesis. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Arguing that practice without theory is destructive, this books deals with the theory, philosophy, and application of a variety of subjects within the area of composition. The nine chapters of the first section of the book constitute a state-of-the-art essay and discuss such topics as J. Emig's 1971 study of the composing process and the more recent work of L. Flower and J. Hayes, cerebral organization and writing, the process and transactional models of composition, rhetorical invention, style, and form. The five chapters in the second section, which supplement those in the first section, are entitled "Invention,""Form and Style,""Reading,""Teaching Composition," and "The Profession." Specific topics discussed within these chapters include (1) brain, rhetoric, and style; (2) dramatism in themes and poems; (3) the grammar of coherence; (4) the rhetorical transaction; (5) developing a composition program; (6) teaching composition across the curriculum; and (7) the paradox of the humanities. [ERIC]
[various]. (1986). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fourth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Cleveland, Ohio, April, 1986]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2086toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 06, 3-25.
[various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2087toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school
[various]. (1988). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Sixth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April, 1988]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 08, 4-33.
Keywords: testing, K-12, mode, portfolio, WAC, rising-junior [Governors State University], revamping, exit-exam [Ball State University], proficiency, rising-junior [University of Massachusetts], WAC, program, campus-wide, universal, literacy, validity, direct, reliability, scale stability, rater-training, holistic, discrepant-essay, primary-trait, placement, rhetorical, rater-training, video, program-program-validation, longitudinal, growth, regression, mode, rhetorical-task, pedagogy, reader-response, holistic, self-assessment, computer, style-checker, legal, national, international, Written Composition Study [International Association for Educational Achievement], criteria, contrastive, topic, classroom-research, computer-analysis, feature