Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.
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Ackerman, John Martin. (1989). Reading and writing in the academy: A comparison of two disciplines [doctoral thesis]. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie-Mellon University.
Agatucci, Cora; Jack McCown; Mike Sequeria; Bruce Emerson. (1994). Writing and learning across disciplinary boundaries in college math and science courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 377 501.
Keywords: Central Oregon Community College, two-year, WAC, problem-solving, program, assignment, mathematics-course, physics-course, syllabus
Agutter, Paul S.. (1987). Precision testing: A method for improving students' written work in biochemistry. Journal of Biological Education 13, 25-31.
Alaimo, Peter J.; John C. Bean; Joseph M. Langenhan; Larry Nichols. (2009). Eliminating lab reports: A rhetorical approach for teaching the scientific paper in sophomore organic chemistry. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 17-32.
Considers how an interdisciplinary team of faculty is striving to improve student performance on senior chemistry theses at Seattle University through an alternative approach to teaching the discourse of the scientific community within the year-long sophomore chemistry lab course. Drops the notion of teaching new students in formulaic, academic-specific ways, through utilization of rudimentary lab reports. Stresses the need to make students immediately aware of the inquiry-based, persuasive context of actual professional work and writing through collaborative-based experimentation that stresses multiple replications and use of evidence for conclusions. Suggests teaching the scientific paper over a year early in students' science careers and prioritizing students' 'writing process knowledge' through explicit instruction in writing within science courses. [Jaclyn Rossi]
Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Terri Hessler; Moira Konrad. (2007). Teaching writing for keeps. Education and Treatment of Children 30.3, 107-128.
This article outlines difficulties with the implementation of writing across multiple disciplines, grade levels, and individual abilities of students in a time of increased high-stakes accountability. Alba-Morgan, et al. argue that teachers must teach for generalizable writing outcomes and focus on big ideas. Offers six strategies for teachers to use to promote writing, the writing process, and the development of students' writing skills. [JeanMarie Dimitratos]
Allen, Naomi Barbara R.. (1991). A study of metacognitive skill as influenced by expressive writing in college introductory algebra classes [doctoral thesis]. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Anderson, JoAnn Romeo; Nora Eisenberg; Harvey S. Wiener. (1991). Literacy and learning: Integrated skills reinforcement. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Anderson, JoAnn Romeo; Nora Eisenberg; J. Holland; Harvey S. Wiener; C. Rivera-Kron. (1983). Integrated skills reinforcement: Reading, writing, speaking, and listening across the curriculum. New York: Longman.
Andrews, Roy. (1991). Modeling how we think when we write. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 03.1, 1-3.
Keywords: WAC, cognitive, reasoning, process
Andrews, Roy. (1997). An afterword [to Roy Andrews, 'Modeling how we think when we write']. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 65-67.
Keywords: WAC, process, reasoning, cognitive
Andrews, Roy. (1997). Modeling how we think when we write [reprint]. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 63-64.
Keywords: WAC, process, reasoning, cognitive
Andrews, Roy. (1997). Response [to William L. Taylor, 'Using drafts in History 231']. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 12.
Keywords: WAC, history-course, USA economic, drafting
Andrews, Roy; Bruce Johnson; Mike Puiia; Pat Pemberton; Nancy Hill. (1994). A model of collaboration: One teacher's composition class and the reading/writing center. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 05, 81-95.
Anonymous. (1959). The basic issues in the teaching of English, being definitions and clarifications presented by members of the American Sstudies Association, College English Association, Modern Language Association, and National Council of Teachers of English. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Anson, Chris M.. (1988). Toward a multidimensional model of writing in the academic disciplines. In Jolliffe, David A. (Ed.), Writing in academic disciplines (Advances in writing research, Vol. 2); Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Ashby, Sara C.; Melvyn Lawson. (1943). A school-wide program in communication. In Roberts, Holland De Witte; Walter Vincent Kaulfers; Grayson Neikirk Kefauver (Eds.), English for a social living, a program including 25 statements of practice by teachers in the field; New York; London: McGraw-Hill.
Auslander, Bonnie. (1990). Student writers sometimes perish before they publish. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 02, 122-127.
Auslander, Bonnie; Lucie Lepine. (1989). 'What does the professor want and why': A view from the reading/writing center on WAC teachers' assignments. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 01, 82-87.
Balestri, Diane; Harold Cochrane; Donald Thursh. (1984). High tech, low tech, no tech: Three case studies of computers in the classroom. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 254 129. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin (December), 11-14.
Keywords: University of Illinois, computer, case-study, computerized textbook, spreadsheet, WAC, FYC, problem-solving, computer-programming, high-tech
Ballou, Norm. (1980). To the editor. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(1).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.1, 41, 45.
Barker, Thomas T.. (1988). Reinforcing the scheme of things: Using word processors in writing across the curriculum. In Killingsworth, Jimmie; Donald H. Cunningham; Laurie L. Jones (Eds.); Texas Tech University; Designing writing assignments for vocational-technical courses: A guide for teachers in the two-year college and technical institute; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 298 331.
Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer. (1999). Selected Bibliography. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Keywords: WAC, wcenter, organizational
Barnett, Robert W.; Lois M. Rosen. (1999). The WAC/writing center partnership: Creating a campus-wide writing environment. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Keywords: WAC, wcenter, organizational
Bartelo, Dennise; Robert Morton. (1997). Iconography revisited [afterword to Dennise Bartelo; Robert Morton, 'Iconology: An alternate form of writing'. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 139-142.
Keywords: WAC, graphic, iconography, revisited
Basile, Donald D.. (1980). Education as literacy. Reading World 20.1, 71-75.
Bazerman, Charles. (1995). Response: Curricular responsibilities and professional definition. In Petraglia, Joseph (Ed.), Reconceiving writing, rethinking writing instruction; Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bazerman’s grants that engagement and situatedness are central to good writing and effective writing pedagogy. He also grants that, as other contributions to Petraglia's book point out, such qualities are often missing in required first-year courses, but does not accept that first-year courses must exhibit these lacks, arguing that the 'best way to learn the power of writing is to write and become engaged in a compelling discourse' (257). Since it is impossible to know which discourses will best serve students in years to come, Bazerman suggests that students in their first years be engaged with a variety of discourses and that that work be connected to upper-division instruction in the major. Acknowledging that transferability is difficult to achieve, he advocates that students be taught to recognize and compare situations as well as to adapt previously-learned procedures. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Beach, Richard; Lillian Bridwell. (1984). Learning through writing: A rationale for writing across the curriculum. In Pellegrini, Anthony D.; T. D. Yawkey (Eds.), The development of oral and written language in social contexts; Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Bean, John C.; Dean Drenk; F.D. Lee. (1982). Microtheme strategies for developing cognitive skills. In Griffin, C. Williams (Ed.); Teaching writing in all disciplines (New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 12); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers.
Bent, V. H.. (1987). Student fear and writing: Writing across the curriculum can help. In Self, Judy S. (Ed.), Plain talk about learning and writing across the curriculum; Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Education.
Keywords: WAC, fear, apprehension, school
Berger, J.. (1984). Writing to learn in philosophy. Teaching Philosophy 7, 217-222.
Bergmann, Linda S.. (2000). WAC meets the ethos of engineering: Process, collaboration, and disciplinary practices. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
This paper considers some ways in which WAC theory can conflict with disciplinary practices in applied or technological fields like engineering, so that even though there is a significant demand in engineering education for improving students' communication skills, in many local institutional situations WAC theory and practices may have little actual effect on the kind of writing projects that are set up or on the ways in which students actually learn to write.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, engineering, process, collabortion, pedagogy, pedagogy, ethos
Berkenkotter, Carol. (1982). Writing and problem solving. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Beyer, Catharine Hoffman; Gerald M. Gillmore; Andrew T. Fisher. (2007). Inside the undergraduate experience: The University of Washington's study of undergraduate learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The University of Washington's Study of Undergraduate Learning (UW SOUL) tracked 304 entering freshmen and transfer students as they moved through their college experience from fall 1999 to spring 2003. Unparalleled in its scope, this longitudinal study focused on six areas of learning: writing, critical thinking/problem solving, quantitative reasoning, information literacy, understanding and appreciating diversity, and personal growth. This book provides faculty, staff, and administrators at two- and four-year institutions with a model of assessment that both captures the complexity of the undergraduate experience and offers practical information about how to improve teaching and learning. Data from surveys, open-ended email questions, interviews, focus groups, and portfolios make it possible for the authors to create case studies of individual learning paths over time, as well as to report the group s aggregate experience. Honoring the authenticity of student voices, this book illuminates the central roles played by the academic disciplines and by faculty in undergraduate learning, offering powerful evidence for the argument that assessment of student learning is most complete and most useful when conducted at the department level. [publisher's blurb]
Keywords: longitudinal, data, University of Washington, undergraduate, critical-thinking, problem-solving, quantitative reasoning, diversity, information literacy, personal growth, development, survey, focus group, case-study, portfolio, self-report, self-evaluation, argumentation, WAC, research-based, undergraduate
Beyer, Catharine; Joan Graham. (1990). Freshman/soph0more writing study: Progress and preliminary results report, Fall 1990. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Interdisciplinary Writing Program.
Blummer, Jacob S.. (1999). Authority and initiation: Preparing students for discipline-specific language conventions. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Keywords: Engaged Writers and Dynamic Disciplines: Research on the Academic Writing Life, by Chris Thaiss & Terry Myers Zawacki, engagement, academic, genre, rubric, student-opinion, process,
Boland, Sally. (1997). Goodbye, Ms. Goodwrench: Using conversation to motivate student thinking and writing [afterword to Sally Boland, 'How I started using writing across the curriculum and ended up taking algebra again']. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 115-122.
Bolt-Lee, Cynthia; Sheila D. Foster. (2000). Examination retakes in accounting: Increasing learning by writing after the exam. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 04.2.
Bolt-Lee and Foster contend that examination retakes are beneficial because they offer students a maximum increase in knowledge and an opportunity to enhance written communication skills in exchange for a minimum increase in grades.
Bozyk, D.. (1986). Conversational writing: The value of informal letter writing in the college history course. In O'Dowd, Kathleen; Earnest I. Nolan (Eds.), Learning to write/writing to learn; Livonia, MI: Madonna College, Humanities Writing Program.
Britton, James. (1981). Language and learning across the curriculum. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 55-56, 93-94.
Keywords: WAC, learning-theory, school, learning-process, growth, development
Brostoff, Anita. (1981). Thinking through writing: A report on the project, its evaluation, and its uses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 214 173.
Bullock, Richard; Richard Millman. (1992). Mathematicians' concepts of audience in mathematics textbook writing. PRIMUS: Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies 02.4, 335-347.
Carlino, Paula. (2010). Reading and writing in the social sciences in Argentine universities. In Bazerman, Charles; et al. (Eds.), Traditions of writing research; London: Routledge.
Keywords: Argentina, South America, social-science, WAC, science-writing, curriculum, pedagogy, read-write, data, questionnaire, interview, social
Carroll, Lee Ann. (2002). Rehearsing new roles: How college students develop as writers (Studies in Writing and Rhetoric). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
A brief review of this study of 20 writers over four years at Pepperdine is at: http://chronicle.com/teaching/books/2003030401b.htm 'Focusing on first-year writing courses as a point of transition, not a final destination or a detour to fix literacy problems before students begin their real journey, means that many types of courses can be effective as long as they truly challenge students to move beyond their comfort zones and solve problems that are just beyond their reach.' [WAC Clearinghouse]
Carroll, Lee Ann. (2002). Rehearsing new roles: How college students develop as writers (Studies in Writing and Rhetoric). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Carroll followed 20 college students for four years, interviewing them about writing tasks, challenges, successes and failures, and reading (with a team of faculty researchers from various disciplines) the texts the students produced and the writing logs they kept. The pattern of development they note aligns with a ‘Cultural/Environmental View of Development’ based in the work of Jerome Bruner, Michael Cole, and Urie Bronfenbrenner. This view holds that development is uneven and that progress entails increasing ability to understand and respond to the environment in which one finds oneself. The most successful students were those most willing to take on take on new challenges and to work toward the meta-cognitive awareness needed to figure out what a new challenge required and what they needed to do to meet it. (Significantly, such students frequently said they were able to give the teacher ‘what s/he wanted.’) Carroll concludes by recommending that faculty ‘[t]ake seriously questions about ‘what the professor wants’ and provide clearly explained assignments, guidelines for performance, models, specific feedback, and opportunities for self-assessment and improvement’ (134). Faculty and WPAs should also work to: (a) think of student work as literacy challenges and not writing tasks; (b) help students focus on writing differently, not better; (c) learn from other faculty what demands they will be making and help students anticipate; provide more options in required literacy environments; (d) develop projects and assignments that will challenge all students—even if finished projects are less than great; (e) provide scaffolding to support development by directly teaching discipline specific research and writing skills, using grading strategically to reward improvement, scheduling interim deadlines for longer projects, and requiring classroom workshops, study groups, and teacher conferences; (f) reconsider with students, colleagues, and other professionals whether ‘what the professor wants’ is, in fact, what the discipline needs or should want. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Carter, Sandra; Stephanie Layton; Katie McKay; Department of Education, Washington, D. C.. (1984). Reading and writing across the curriculum. Miami, FL: Department of Education, Miami-Dade Community College [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 259 777].
Keywords: WAC, read-write, Miami-Dade Community College, two-year, guidelines
Cassity, Kathleen J.. (2015). What cognitive psychology suggests about the teaching and assessment of writing. Journal of Teaching Writing 28.2, 19-40.
Childers, Pamela B.. (1999). Writing center or experimental center for faculty research, discovery, and risk taking?. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Clark, Irene L.. (1999). Creating a virtual space: The role of the Web in forging writing center/WAC connections. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Keywords: WAC, wcenter, organizational, virtual space, internet
Clark, Irene L.; Andrea Hernandez. (2011). Genre awareness, academic argument, and transferability. link to full text. WAC Journal 22, 66-78.
The authors report on a preliminary study of the use of FYW instruction in genre-awareness as a means to facilitate transferrable writing skills and techniques across disciplines. By defining genre-awareness as a "threshold concept," they are able to address issues that arise in transfer-based instruction, namely, "transferability, troublesomeness, and liminality." A distinction made between genre-awareness and the explicit teaching of genre occurs, in which the re-defining of genre-awareness as threshold concept attempts to eliminate the restrictive method of genre instruction cited by Freedman. The authors address several critiques regarding transferability, noting issues of mimicry and cross-disciplinary inconsistency. They present methods and results of a semester-long survey-based study in which students compose two essays in different genres (argumentative and disciplinary), and one essay reflecting on their differences. Comparison of statistical and commentarial data taken before and after the course occurs, wherein analysis of student awareness of audience, authorial persona, purpose, formatting, and structure transpires. Clark and Hernandez conclude that student focus on structural and surface level elements rather than rhetorical features support issues of instructor expertise in foreign genres posed by Russell, Wardle, and Downs, and that due to an admittedly small sample size, possibilities for future research are vast and necessary.
[Clark, Irene L., and Andrea Hernandez. "Genre Awareness, Academic Argument, and Transferability." The WAC Journal 22 (2011): 66-78. Print.]
Clark, Irene L.; Ronald Fischbach. (2008). Writing and learning in the health sciences: Rhetoric, identity, genre, and performance. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 19, 15-28.
Clark and Fishbach argue that discussions of linked courses often overlook the need for students simultaneously to develop their professional identities as they work toward becoming more proficient writers. To explore this claim, the authors turn to their experience developing a link between a public health education course and a course in health sciences writing and rhetoric. Clark and Fishbach discovered that students benefited from the opportunity 'to 'perform' as writers and speakers within a particular field or profession' (18). More particularly, the link helped student writers to reconceptualize genre as a form of 'social action' as they became more familiar with the professional discourses they were learning. Clark and Fischbach subsequently consider the ways their focus on genre in the linkage put pressure on the shared term 'argument', but also discuss ways that researchers have shown the term to be similar across humanities-based writing and scientific writing. In closing, the authors assert that their experiences with this linkage affirm that role-play is essential to an increase in professionally situated rhetorical awareness for student writers. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Claypool, Sharon H.. (1980). Teacher writing apprehension: Does it affect writing assignments across the curriculum?. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 216 387. Identification of writing competencies needed by secondary students to perform assignments in science and social studies classes.
Click, Benjamin A., III. (1996). Educating students to write effectively. In Jones, Elizabeth A. (Ed.), Preparing competent college students: Setting new and higher expectations for student learning (New directions for higher education, No. 96); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Clugston, Marie. (1997). The teaching of communication skills in a health science faculty. In Golebiowski, Zofia (Ed.); Victoria University of Techology [Melbourne, Australia]; Policy and practice of tertiary literacy: Selected proceedings of the first National Conference on Tertiary Literacy [Melbourne, Australia, March 14-16, 1996] (Research and practice, Vol. 1); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 414 822.
Coffinberger, Richard. (1982). Aligning reading-writing group sessions to distinct stages of the writing process. In Gallehr, Donald; Robert Gilstrap; Marian Mohr; Anne Legge; Marie Wilson-Nelson (Eds.), Writing processes of college students: Working papers of the Writing Research Center at the Northern Virginia Writing Project (Volume I); Fairfax, VA: George Mason University, The Project.
Keywords: WAC, process, group, peer-evaluation, process, process
Collins, Daniel F.. (2004). Writing to connect through paired courses. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 15 (September), 34-54.
Collins describes the problem-based curriculum, writing assignments, and benefits of a 'thematic link' between a religious-studies course and a writing course at Manhattan College. 'One of [the students’] goals in both courses,' Collins writes, 'was to monitor and become familiar with particular positions as readers, to look at a text from multiple perspectives and become aware of their perspectives as readers' (p. 39). Drawing on the work of Bruce McComiskey, Kurt Spellmeyer, Joseph Harris, and Muriel Harris, Collins argues that 'writing provides a new lens of exploration [for students] into themselves as social beings and the discourses that make up their worlds, a kind of reflection that develops productive ways of knowing capable of helping them succeed in our classrooms' (p. 42). Paired courses, Collins notes, increase the likelihood that student writers will come to understand their own involvement in the construction of knowledge and to see the ways that knowledge is shaped by its relationships to social processes. Collins lists four direct benefits from linked course offerings at Manhattan College: (1) '[S]tudents in both courses moved beyond the traditional scope of each course' (p. 46); (2) Students 'wrote more,' 'wrote for multiple audiences,' and 'wrote with greater sophistication.' (Collins describes this as greater 'intertextuality,' synthesis and methodological-awareness in the students’ texts); (3) /[T]he building of community among freshmen students'; (4) '[T]he building of community across faculty' (p. 47). [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: linked, assignment, WAC, religion-studies-course, pedagogy, constructivist, construction of knowledge, curriculum, problem-solving, religion-studies, thematic, intertextuality, data, metaconsciousness, ancillary
Collins, Vicki Tolar. (2000). Freewriting in the middle: Self-help for college writers across the curriculum. In Smith, Jane Bowman; Kathleen Blake Yancey (eds.), Self-assessment and development in writing: A collaborative inquiry; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Committee on the School and College Study of General Education. (1952). General education in school and college; a committee report by members of the faculties of Andover, Exeter, Lawrenceville, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Keywords: gen-ed, college-span, WAC, development
Comprone, Joseph J.. (1987). The new rhetoric: A way of connecting community and discourse conventions in writing across the disciplines courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 279 019.
Cross, Geoffrey A.; Katherine V. Wills. (2005). Bridging disciplinary divides in writing across the curriculum. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 02.
Geoffrey Cross and Katherine Wills report the results of a longitudinal study that assessed whether faculty writing workshops could facilitate writing in heterogeneous disciplines by linking specific, workaday writing activities (Tschudi, 1986) with Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (1974). Results show that participating faculty reported increases in reflective pedagogical practice, more critical selection of writing activities, and decreased time required to construct writing strategies to achieve discipline-related instructional goals. (Published June 26, 2005) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Crumbo, Ginger Bourne. (1999). Writing apprehension and the effects of 'I think I can, I think I can' [doctoral thesis]. Louisville, KY: Spalding University.
Keywords: anxiety, self-efficacy, apprehension
Cunningham, Linda M.. (1994). Involving students in learning through a reading/writing approach. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 384 405. Focus: A Forum on Teaching and Learning in Utah Community Colleges 12.
Keywords: read-write, WAC
D'Alessio, Diane; Margaret Riley. (2002). Scaffolding writing skills for ESL students in an education class at a community college. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 13, 79-89.
Davis, Barbara; Linda Luvaas-Briggs; Sacramento City College. (1983). 'It's not my job'--basic skill development in a sociology course, a shared solution. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 231 496.
Deal, Ron. (1987). Writing and computer aided drafting. In Copeland, Jeffrey S. (Ed.), Essays grown from a writing across the curriculum institute at Indian Hills Community College: Fostering cooperation and cohesion in writing instruction; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 294 182.
Dean-Rumsey, Theresa A.. (1998). Improving the writing skills of at-risk students through the use of writing across the curriculum and writing process instruction [masters thesis]. Allendale, MI: Grand Valley State University.
Keywords: at-risk, basic, WAC, process, pedagogy, improvement, process
Denenberg, Stewart A.. (1988). Developing reasoning skills in college freshmen using computer programming, collaborative problem-solving, and writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 302 231.
Dohrer, Gary. (1991). Do teachers' comments on students' papers help?. College Teaching 39.2, 48-54.
Keywords: WAC, response, commenting, survey, University of Texas at Austin, guidelines, situational, needs-analysis, student-perception, editing, revising, grading, motivation, minimal marking, data, editing, think-aloud, interview, data
Donahue, Tiane. (2007). Notes of a humbled WPA: Dialogue with high school colleagues. link to full text. Writing Instructor Beta 04.0.
Donahue sets up the framework for this study by supplying an account of published scholarship on high-school-college writing connections. She cites lack of: existing collaboration, high school faculty articulation, actual high school-to-college transitional period research and connections between cognitive-developmental and social theory. In response to the needs identified above and in order to develop the college readiness of Maine high school students, Donahue crafts a set of research questions gleaned from three exploratory focus groups and 'key informants' from Maine high schools and colleges. A sample of the questions surrounding the 'eight areas of concern' that both sets of instructors share are: How are the writing process, peer review and collaborative writing enacted in each arena? With what criteria is writing evaluated? What is the function of research and citation work? What forms and structures of writing are made dominant unintentionally? Why? [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Donnell, Jeffrey A.; Joseph Petraglia-Bahri; Amanda C. Gable. (1999). Writing vs. content, skills vs. rhetoric: More and less false dichotomies. http://wac.colostate.edu/atd/archives.cfm [full-text]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 03.2, 113-117.
This article provides a description of undergraduate and graduate writing instruction at Georgia Tech; the authors argue that the writing and content dichotomy is a false one. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-Year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
Downs and Wardle describe WAW curricula that extend beyond students reading and writing about existing scholarship in rhetoric and composition (cf. Dew) to having students conduct primary research on related topics. They frame the pedagogy as an ‘Introduction to Writing Studies’ that explicitly rejects the traditional FYC goal of teaching a universal academic discourse and instead seeks to teach (1) metacognition about writing via procedural and declarative knowledge of writing, and (2) a version of the activity of inquiry that centers universities and spans disciplines. The article theorizes the shortcomings of traditional FYC courses in terms of genre and activity theory and describes WAW curricula that can better respond to these theories of how writing works and thus needs to be learned. It then reports on early results from the curriculum as taught in multiple sections at three institutions, illustrating effects through two particular student experiences in the course. Student feedback and results suggest that the WAW curriculum results in increased self-awareness about writing, improved reading abilities and confidence, and raised awareness of researched writing as conversation. The article concludes with challenges that the curriculum presents, including the challenging nature of the course for students, the resulting imperfections in student work, limited textbook support for the approach, and the need for extensive instructor preparation. [Doug Downs, Writing-About-Writing Curricula: Origins, Theories, and Initial Field-Tests, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 12]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
While much of this article is an explication and defense of the authors' proposed 'writing about writing' pedagogy, there are explicit connections to transfer explored. Downs and Wardle address two prevalent misconceptions about FYC: that FYC can teach students 'academic writing' (a concept that defies singular definition), and that writing skills learned in FYC transfer to other writing contexts. They contend there is 'little empirical verification' of such transfer, and, in fact, some evidence to suggest that such transfer does not occur. To address these two misconceptions, the authors suggest a transformation of FYC into 'Introduction to Writing Studies,' a course that 'could teach about the ways writing works in the world' and about writing as a mediating tool. Based on the results of a pilot study with a research sample of eighty-four students in two universities, the authors conclude that this curriculum results in students' 'increased self awareness about writing,' increased confidence and improved reading ability, and increased understanding of writing (particularly research) as a conversation among writers. While not without its challenges and its critics (which are acknowledged and addressed), this curriculum, the authors assert, has the potential to increase transfer through reflective activities, a focus on abstracting generalities about writing, and increased context awareness, each of which helps students to understand how rhetorical strategies are realized in particular contexts for writing. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Driscoll, Dana Lynn. (2008). [book review]. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 05.
Keywords: College Writing and Beyond: A New Framework for University Writing Instruction by Anne Beaufort, development, WAC
Duke, Charles R.. (1984). Integrating reading, writing, and thinking skills into the music class. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 278 029.
Ebert, Dineen. (1992). Directories: Writing to learn and reading strategies in the WordPerfect classroom. In Mahony, Elizabeth M. (Ed.); Saint Louis Community College at Meramec [Missouri]; Building community from diversity: Connecting students to their learning environments. An anthology of classroom projects undertaken for the Kellogg Beacon Grant: Final report; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 064.
Farris, Christine. (2003). No discipline? Composition's professional identity crisis. In Bloom, Lynn Z.; Donald A. Daiker; Edward M. White (Eds.), Composition Studies in the new millennium: Rereading the past, rewriting the future; Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Keywords: composition studies, professionalism, composition-discipline, postprocess, process, professional movement, Lynn Z. Bloom, Susan Miller, Mike Rose, turf war, WAC,, identity
Fisher, Bradley J.. (1996). Using journals in the social psychology class: Helping students apply course concepts to life experiences. Teaching Sociology 24.2, 157-165.
Fitzpatrick, Bob. (1992). Research and writing assignments that reduce fear and lead to better papers and more confident students. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 03.2, 15-24.
Flinn, Jane Zeni (Ed.); University of Missouri, St. Louis, Department of English; Gateway Writing Project. (1981). Reflections on writing: Programs and strategies from classrooms K-12 (Gateway Writing Project). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 262 421.
Flynn, Elizabeth. (1982). Reconciling readers and texts. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Flynn, Elizabeth A.. (1986). Composing response to literary texts: A process approach. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
Franklin, Sharon (Ed.). (1988). Making the literature, writing, word processing connection: The best of The Writing Notebook. 2nd edition. Mendocino, CA: The Writing Notebook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 312 644].
Freedman, Aviva. (1995). The what, where, when, why, and how of classroom genres. In Petraglia, Joseph (Ed.), Reconceiving writing, rethinking writing instruction; Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Keywords: composing, learning-theory, social action, genre, situational, language acquisition, review-of-scholarship, general writing skills instruction (GWSI), academic, evaluation, epistemic, pedagogy, ethical, ideology, change, WAC
Freisinger, Randall. (1982). Cross-disciplinary writing programs: Beginnings. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Keywords: WAC, program, learning-theory, development, cognitive, Vygotsky, James Britton, composing, process, Emig, James Moffett, Piaget
Freisinger, Randall R.. (1980). Cross-disciplinary writing workshops: Theory and practice. College English 42.2, 154-166.
Freisinger, Randall; Bruce Petersen. (1981). Writing across the curriculum: A theoretical background. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 65-67, 90.
Keywords: WAC, Michigan Technological University, curriculum, objective, discourse, expressive, transactional, learning-theory, development, scholarly-influence, James Britton, Louise Rosenblatt, David Bleich, Thomas Kuhn, Michael Polanyi, James Kinneavy, Janet Emig, Piaget, Ken Macrorie, Peter Elbow
Friday, Chet. (1986). An evaluation of graduating engineers' writing proficiency. Engineering Education 77, 114-116.
Fulwiler, Toby E.. (1979). Journal writing across the curriculum. In Stanford, Gene (Ed.); How to handle the paper load: Classroom practices in teaching English 1979-1980. [NCTE Committee on Classroom Practices in Teaching English Report No. 17]. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young. (2000). Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum [digital reprint of 1982, National Council of Teachers of English]. Fort Collins, CO: WAC Clearinghouse http://wac.colostate.edu/books/language_connections/.
Available online as part of the Academic.Writing series, Landmark Publications in Writing Studies, Language Connections focuses on general language skills teachers in all disciplines can use 'to enhance student learning and, at the same time, reinforce the more specific language skills taught by reading, writing and speech teachers' (ix). The 12 chapters address issues including journal writing, problem solving approaches to writing, transactional writing, writing to learn, reading processes, and conferencing. An annotated bibliography is provided. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, read-write, curriculum
Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.). (1982). Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Keywords: WAC, read-write
Gabriel, Susan L.; M. L. Hirsch, Jr.. (1992). Critical thinking and communication skills: Integration and implementation issues. Journal of Accounting Education 05, 127-137.
Garrahy, Dennis J.; Vista Unified School District [California]. (1982). DRAWS: Development of reading and writing in social studies (teacher's guide). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 241 434.
Keywords: WAC, school, social-tudies, read-write, teacher-manual, social
Gaudiani, Claire; Center for Applied Linguistics [Washington, D. C.]. (1981). Teaching composition in the foreign language curriculum (Language in education: Theory and practice, No. 43). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 209 961.
Givens, Karolyn Whittlesey. (1990). Facilitating the cognitive growth of baccalaureate nursing students: Using writing strategies for thinking and cognitive development [doctoral thesis]. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Keywords: WAC, nursing, growth, cognitive, strategy, critical-thinking, development
Gokhale, Anu. (1997). Writing in the technology discipline. Technology Teacher 56.8, 11-13, 22-23.
Goldblatt, Eli. (2007). Because we live here: Sponsoring literacy beyond the college curriculum. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Using Saul Alinsky's community organizing methods and Dewey's progressive education models, the author shows how university writing programs can treat community writing needs as a central focus of their programmatic work. Chapters 1-4 focus on a set of connections between the Temple University writing program and local high schools, a community college, and community groups, analyzing the writing conflicts inherent in such issues as transfer, curriculum continuity, and funding. Chapters 5 and 6 analyze the movement of literacy problems and possibilities among the sites detailed in the first half of the book. The author proposes moving beyond WAC/WID to Writing Beyond the Curriculum (WBC), so that writing programs can see their institutions as 'one among many' writing actors in local settings, a frame which students, too, must develop in order to truly understand writing as a social act. [Rebecca Lorimer]. [Rebecca Lorimer & David Stock, Service Learning Initiatives: Implementation and Administration; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 13].
Keywords: service-learning, community literacy, Temple University, community-service, extracurricular, college-community, school-college, WAC, John Dewey, Sharon Crowley, New London Group, FYC, placement, basic, vocational, two-year, Saul Alinsky, activism, grant-writing, skill-transfer
Gonzalez, Angela Marta. (2007). Shaping the thesis and dissertation: Case studies of writers across the curriculum [doctoral thesis]. Forth Worth, TX: Texas Christian University.
Keywords: dissertation-writing, thesis-writing, process, graduate, WAC, case-study, data
Gopen, George. (2005). Why so many bright students and so many dull papers? Peer-responded journals as a partial solution to the problem of the fake audience. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 16, 22-48.
Graal, Maria (Ed.). (2002). Writing development in higher education: Changing contexts for teaching and learning (Proceedings of the 8th annual writing development in higher education conference, April 2001). Leicester, England: University of Leicester.
Keywords: development, contextual, WAC
Graal, Maria; Richard Clark (Eds.). (2000). Writing development in higher education: Partnerships across the curriculum. Leicester, England: University of Leicester.
Keywords: development, WAC
Grabau, Larry J.; Patricia S. Wilson. (1995). Jumping on thin ice: Values argument writing assignment for a large enrollment plant science class. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education 24.2, 185-189.
Greene, Stuart. (1991). Writing from sources: Authority in text and task (Technical report, No. 55). Berkeley, CA; Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for the Study of Writing [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 341 068].
Griffin, C. Williams (Ed.). (1982). Teaching writing in all disciplines (New directions for teaching and learning, No. 12). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The development of Writing-across-the-Curriculum programs has been an effort to make writing an integral part of the learning process in all courses. This effort reinforced the shift in composition pedagogy from a product to a process orientation because the learning process and the writing process work together. Writing across the Curriculum has also promoted collaborative-learning techniques. Process pedagogy requires many drafts and much feedback, and small groups of students can provide each other with audience feedback that may be even more valuable than the teacher's responses. Writing-across-the-Curriculum programs are helping students find 'an authentic voice in the community of educated people. (Bedford Bibliography) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, process-product, collaborative, drafting, group
Grimes, Dorothy G.. (1982). The English department, the teaching of writing, and the academic community: Particle, wave, and field. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 220 855.
Keywords: University of Montevallo [Alabama], process, WAC, FYC, write-to-learn, theory-practice, agenda
Grossman, Frances Jo; Brenda Smith; Cynthia Miller. (1993). Did you say 'write' in mathematics class?. Journal of Developmental Education 17.1, 2-4, 6, 35.
Keywords: mathematics-course, WAC, examination-success, contrast-group, data, current-traditional, problem-solving, Georgia State University
Gunn, Amanda M.. (2007). Relational communication as a central focus for the 'Communication Across the Curriculum' initiative. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Amanda Gunn argues that the CAC national discourse is disproportionately focused on basic communication skill development. She offers CAC program leaders and practitioners a relational communication approach as an alternative. A practical applications section suggests ways a CAC program might implement a Relational Communication Across the Curriculum (RCAC) model in faculty development initiatives. (Published August 10, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: CAC, WAC, communication across the curriculum, faculty development, professional development, relational communication across the curriculum, initiative
Gunston-Parks, Cynthia; Keith J. Thomas. (1986). Writing as a study skill in the classroom learning spiral. Reading Horizons 26.3, 209-215.
Hancock, Deborah Osen; Andrew Moss; Patricia Brandt; Sharon Owens (compliers). (1979). Reading and writing programs within the disciplines: A preliminary directory of models (revised edition). Fullerton, CA: University of California/California State University Workgroup on Reading and Writing Programs within the Disciplines.
Harley, Kay. (1991). Contrasts in student and faculty perceptions of student writing ability. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 332 192.
Keywords: teacher-student, evaluation, self-evaluation, conflict, Saginaw Valley State University, WAC, history-course, political-science-course, business-course, philosophy-course, sociology-course, student-opinion, skill-level, decline, data, student-writing
Harris, Muriel. (1999). A writing center without a WAC program: The de facto WAC center/writing center. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Keywords: WAC, wcenter, organizational
Hartley, James; Christopher K. Knapper. (1984). Academics and their writing. Studies in Higher Education 09.2, 151-167.
Hass, Michael; Jan Osborn. (2007). An emic view of student writing and the writing process. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Michael Hass and Jan Osborn use a Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) approach, which determines solutions to problems from moments of strength, as a model for studying what student writers believe constitutes good writing and what strategies most effectively help them produce high quality writing. The student responses provide an opportunity to design writing assignments that empower students to join the conversation in various discourse communities. (Published August 13, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Haswell, Richard H.; interviewed by Carol Rutz. (2009). Richard H. Haswell: A conversation with an empirical romanticist. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 5-15.
Keywords: Richard H. Haswell, scholar-story, bridging, empirical, research-method, data-based, development, expertise, WAC, WID, context-switching, prolepsis, English-profession, Wordsworth, Romanticism, authoring
Haviland, Carol Peterson; Sherry Green; Barbara Kime Shields; M. Todd Harper. (1999). Neither missionaries nor colonists nor handmaidens: What writing tutors can teach WAC faculty about inquiry. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hayes, Christopher G.; Michele L. Simpson; Norman A. Stahl. (1994). The effects of extended writing on students' understanding of content-area concepts. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 10.2, 13-34.
Hayes, John R.; Diana M. Bajzek; Susan Lawrence; Erwin R. Steinberg. (2007). Developing an online writing tutor: The interaction of design principles and assessment. In O'Neill, Peggy (ed.), Blurring boundaries: Developing writers, researchers and teachers: A tribute to William L. Smith; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Haynes, Carolyn; Shevaun Watson. (2009). Preparing liberal arts faculty to teach writing: A contextual-developmental model of faculty development. In Post, Joanna Castner; James A. Inman (Eds.), Composition(s) in the new liberal arts; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Henderson, Loretta; Emily Jensen; Bill Stiffler. (1998). Adjust the assignment to the reader. Teaching English in the Two-Year College 25.2, 132-138.
Keywords: audience, WAC, academic, discipline
Henn, Joan Elaine. (1989). The effect of journal writing on the learning of mathematical concepts and problem-solving skills by preservice elementary teachers at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville [doctoral thesis]. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee.
Henry, Jim; Tammy Haili'opua Baker. (2015). Writing to learn and learning to perform: Lessons from a writing intensive course in experimental theatre studio. link to full text. Across the Disciplines 12.4.
This case study conducted by a writing specialist and a theatre specialist examines the ways in which writing to learn and learning to write took form in a course in which the ultimate goal was a staged production for a live audience. Using naturalistic methodology that deployed both ethnographic and autoethnographic approaches to analyze the teaching and learning that transpired in Theatre 490: Experimental Theatre Studio, analysts reviewed the syllabus, assignments, production journal, responses to learning-to-write assignments, students' written final reflections, anonymous end-of-term course evaluations, a video of the final staged performance, and responses to a questionnaire completed by students nearly two years after the staged performance. Findings that incorporate video clips from the staged performance shed light on elements of teaching and learning that pass undetected when written artifacts alone are used to assess learning, including ways in which students learn from and about one another, learning through rehearsal and embodied performance, collaborative processes, framing research as an initial and collaborative venture, nurturing reflexive performances, learning to teach audiences, and engaging with invention as a social act. Implications are drawn for WAC/WID theory and for applications of Theatre 490 teaching approaches in courses outside of the performing arts.
Henscheid, Bob. (1989). Problem solving in a physics course--an exercise in communication. In Bordner, Marsha (Ed.); Clark State Community College; Early English Composition Assessment Program; Strategies in composition: Ideas that work in the classroom (Volume II); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 306 587.
Herman, Carolyn. (1999). Reading the literature in the jargon-intensive field of molecular genetics: Making molecular genetics accessible to undergraduates using a process-centered curriculum. Journal of College Science Teaching 28.4, 252-253.
Hilgers, Thomas L.; Edna Lardizabal Hussey; Monica Stitt-Bergh. (1999). 'As you're writing you have these epiphanies': What college students say about writing and learning in their majors. Written Communication 16.3, 317-353.
Hill, M.. (1991). Writing summaries promotes thinking and learning across the curriculum--but why are they so difficult to write?. Journal of Reading 34.7, 536-539.
Keywords: summary-writing, skill-level, WAC, write-to-learn, school
Hinman, Mary-Lou. (1997). Academic journals revisited: Or why the professor hasn't changed her mind [afterword to Mary-Lou Hinman; Beth A. Loring]. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 20-23.
Hobbs, Valerie; Lesley Rex-Kerish. (1986). Tenderfooting: Tackling the problems of freshman writers. College Teaching 34.3, 94-98.
Keywords: University of California, FYC, underprepared, basic, pedagogy, WAC, read-write, critical-thinking, arrangement, style
Hobson, Eric; Neal Lerner. (1999). Writing centers/WAC in pharmacy education: A changing prescription. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Holiday-Goodman, Monica; Buford T. Lively; Joan A. Mullin; Ruth Nemire. (1994). Development of a teaching module on written and verbal communication skills. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 58.3, 257-262.
Hollenbeck, Albert. (1983). Mentorships and learning to write: Reflections on process. In Thaiss, Christopher (Ed.), Writing to learn: Essays and reflections on writing across the curriculum; Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Horn, Christy A.; Duane Shell; M. T. H. Benkofske. (1988). Effects of cognitive development level on the relationships between self-efficacy, causal attribution, and outcome expectancy and performance in reading and writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 304 659.
Hughes-Wiener, Gail; Susan K. Jensen-Cekalla. (1991). Organizing a WAC evaluation project: Implications for program planning. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Hutto, David. (1994). Synthesizing process and product in writing across the curriculum. Dialogue: A Journal for Writing Specialists 01.2, 187-199.
Keywords: process-product, WAC, write-to-learn
Inglis, Margaret. (1995). English language development in a university foundational programme for science students. In Orr, Thomas (Ed.); Aizu University, Aizuwakamatsu [Japan], Center for Language Research; English for science and technology: Profiles and perspectives; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 389 174.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, science-course, basic-skills, pedagogy, improvement, data
Jackowski, Mick; Laurie Gullion. (1998). Teaching sport management through service-learning: An undergraduate case study. Quest 50.3, 251-265.
Jacobs, Suzanne E.. (1979). Student writing in the academic context: A linguistic study of well-shaped vs. poorly-shaped essays with implications for learning and teachings. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 191 074.
Jobst, Jack. (1982). Audience and purpose in writing. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Johns, Ann. (1991). Faculty assessment of ESL student literacy skills: Implications for writing assessment. In Hamp-Lyons, Liz (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts; Norwood, NJ: Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 396 583].
Johnson, J. Paul; Ethan Krase. (2012). Articulating claims and presenting evidence: A study of twelve student writers, from first-year composition to writing across the curriculum. link to full text. WAC Journal 23, 31-48.
Found gains in argumentation (including conciseness and clarity) from early to late papers in first-year composition. Also found improvement from lower-division to upper-division writing in seven of the twelve students, with three more remaining 'stagnant' and two 'regressing' [Richard Haswell]
Johnson, J. Paul; Ethan Krase. (2013). Affect, experience, and accomplishment: A case study of two writers, from first-year composition to writing in the disciplines. Journal of Teaching Writing 27.2, 1-26.
Kalmbach, James; William Powers. (1982). Shaping experience: Narration and understanding. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Kamhi-Stein, Lia D.. (1997). Redesigning the writing assignment in general education courses. College ESL 07.1, 49-61.
Keywords: gen-ed, WAC, literacy, academic, ESL, team-teaching, interdisciplinary, assignment, process
Kaplan, Robert B.; Richard B. Baldauf, Jr.. (2005). Editing contributed scholarly articles from a language management perspective. . Journal of Second Language Writing 14.1, 47-62.
Taking language management as its initial perspective, this paper examines some of the sorts of linguistic problems that second language writers of English face when contributing to scholarly journals and some of the issues that editors face when working with authors on those problems. Some ethical questions implicit in editing non-native speaker texts are explored. [authors' abstract]
Kipling, Kim J.; Richard John Murphy. (1992). Symbiosis: Writing and an academic culture. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, Slippery Rock University, implementation, organizational, symbiotic, academic, curriculum
Kirchner, David M.. (1987). Teaching language effectiveness. In Copeland, Jeffrey S. (Ed.), Essays grown from a writing across the curriculum institute at Indian Hills Community College: Fostering cooperation and cohesion in writing instruction; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 294 182.
Keywords: WAC, language-awareness, audience
Kirscht, Judy; Rhonda Levine; John Reiff. (1994). Evolving paradigms: WAC and the rhetoric of inquiry. College Composition and Communication 45.3, 369-380.
Kuriloff, Peshe C.. (1999). Writing centers as WAC centers: An evolving model. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Keywords: WAC, wcenter, organizational
Lange, Phil C.. (1948). A sampling of composition errors of college freshmen in a course other than English. Journal of Educational Research 42 (November), 191-200.
Lavelle, Ellen. (2009). Writing through college: Self-efficacy and instruction. In Beard, Roger; Debra Myhill; Jeni Riley; Martin Nystrand (Eds.), The Sage handbook of writing development (London: Sage).
Lavelle, Ellen; Nancy Zuercher. (2001). The writing approaches of university students. Higher Education 42.3, 373-391.
Examines university writing approaches as calculated by the Inventory of Processes in College Composition (IPIC) in relation to students' beliefs about writing. Discusses the results measured by the IPIC administered to 30 freshman undergraduates, 13 of whom were selected for interview afterward, and the five factors that emerged: Elaborative, Low Self-Efficacy, Reflective-Revision, Spontaneous-Impulsive and Procedural. Lavelle and Zuercher claim that the Elaborative and Reflective-Revision dimensions represent deep approaches to writing, while the Low Self-Efficacy, Spontaneous-Impulsive and Procedural factors reflect surface approaches. Hypothesizes that students who adopted deep approaches to writing will be more likely to consider themselves writers and describe the process of writing as involving learning and changes in thinking. Lavelle and Zuercher conclude that students who scored high on the Elaborative and Reflective-Revision scales consistently voiced process as critical and inseparable from product; while writers who scored high on surface approaches failed to report an emphasis on revision, an understanding of their own process as related to outcome, or a need for self-expression and self-discovery through writing. The authors propose a need for evaluative rubrics that foster deep criteria, rather than point systems that encourage surface approaches to writing. (Jake Young)
Leahy, Richard. (1999). When a writing center undertakes a writing fellows program. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blummer; Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Keywords: WAC, wcenter, organizational
Lee, Debra S.. (1997). What teachers can do to relieve problems identified by international students. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lord, Russell. (1997). Visiting a revisited journal [afterword to Russell Lord, 'A journal revisited']. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 191.
Mahala, Daniel. (1991). Writing utopias: Writing across the curriculum and the promise of reform. College English 53.7, 773-789.
Argues that questions implied by Writing across the Curriculum (WAC) have been muted to insulate the tenuous consensus on which WAC is built from the clash of powerful and professional ideological interests in the university. Includes discussion of British expressivism as curricular critique, and the U.S. retreat from institutional critique. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Maimon, Elaine P.; Barbara F. Nodine. (1979). Words enough and time: Syntax and error one year after. In Daiker, Donald; Andrew Kerek; Max Morenberg (Eds.), Sentence combining and the teaching of writing: Selected papers from the Miami University Conference, Oxford, Ohio, October 27 & 28, 1978; Conway, AK: L & S Books; with the Departments of English, University of Akron, University of Central Arkansas.
Malinowski, Arlene. (2004). Incorporating active learning, critical thinking, and problem-based learning in an advanced French culture and civilization course. In Lee, Virginia S. (Ed.), Teaching and learning through inquiry: A guidebook for institutions and instructors; Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Keywords: inquiry-based, pedagogy, active-learning, critical-thinking, problem-solving, history-course, France, WAC
Mallonee, Barbara; John R. Breihan. (1985). Responding to students' drafts: Interdisciplinary consensus. College Composition and Communication 36.2, 213-231.
Malone, Gifford D.. (1988). Political advocacy and cultural communication: Organizing the nation's public diplomacy (Exxon Education Foundation series on rhetoric and political discourse, Vol. 11). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Keywords: political, rhetoric, advocacy, diplomatic, cultural, communications, USA, organizing
Mandell, Dan. (1979). Developing analytic and argumentative skills in philosophy. In Vacca, Linnea (Ed.), Papers from Saint Mary's college writing seminar; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 176 311.
Marra, James L.; Niel Big; Tania Calvimontes; Paul Marosa; Diane Perkins. (1993). Techniques for improving student writing and thinking skills in text-heavy courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 363 871.
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, process, student-writing
Marsella, Joy; Thomas L. Hilgers; Clemence McLaren. (1992). How students handle writing assignments: A study of eighteen responses in six disciplines. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Writing, teaching and learning in the disciplines; New York, NY: Modern Language Associates.
Keywords: WAC, assignment, student-opinion, cross-disciplinary, process
Marshall, Ellen. (1988). Writing to revitalize child development courses. In Killingsworth, Jimmie; Donald H. Cunningham; Laurie L. Jones (Eds.); Texas Tech University; Designing writing assignments for vocational-technical courses: A guide for teachers in the two-year college and technical institute; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 298 331.
Keywords: WAC, child-development-course
Maurer, Stephen B.. (1991). Advice for undergraduates on special aspects of writing mathematics. PRIMUS: Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies 01.1, 9-28.
Keywords: mathematics-course, WAC, defining, clarity, format, convention, style, audience, undergraduate
McCabe, Don F.. (1994). Writing (and talking) to learn: Integrating disciplinary content and skills development. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 390 460.
McCabe, Don F.. (1994). Writing (and talking) to learn: Integrating disciplinary content and skills development. In University of Florida, Institute of Higher Education (Eds.); Valdosta State College; Lake City Community College [Lake City, FL]; Proceedings of the eighteenth National Conference on Successful College Teaching (February 26-28, 1994, Orlando, Florida); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 390 454.
McCarthy, Lucille Parkinson. (1987). A stranger in strange lands: A college student writing across the curriculum. Research in the Teaching of English 21.3, 233-265.
McCarthy reports on her naturalistic case study in which she analyzed writing assignments and maintained interview contact with 'Dave' through three courses (Composition, Introduction to Poetry, and Cell Biology) in his freshman and sophomore years. While McCarthy saw similarities in writing assignments and opportunities for the transfer of knowledge learned in Composition to writing in the other courses, Dave did not. McCarthy determined that Dave's writing assignments were all 'informational writing for the teacher-as-examiner' (243) with each assignment requiring either summary or analysis (244). Similar purposes for writing were stated by each of the instructors for the assignments (244). Despite these similarities, Dave believed that each class offered an entirely new and uniquely different writing situation, completely unlike anything he'd previously encountered. While the writing situations themselves were similar, what was different in each course was the discipline-specific conventions, and, of course, the content. Based on McCarthy's analysis, the issues with Dave's failure to transfer skills seem not so much to be an inability to utilize previously gained knowledge, but rather an inability to see beyond the content differences to discern similarities in the writing tasks themselves. As such, rather than approaching each writing assignment with a 'toolkit' of skills and processes learned in Composition, Dave felt the need to, as Bartholomae states, 'invent the university' with each new assignment. McCarthy concluded that differences in the vocabulary for discussing writing and the different response styles of Dave's instructors contributed to his conception of each classroom as a 'foreign land' (252). [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
McCarthy, Patricia; Scott Meier; Regina Rinderer. (1985). Self-efficacy and writing: A different view of self-evaluation. College Composition and Communication 36.4, 465-471.
Keywords: gain, apprehension, development, reflexivity, multiple regression-analysis, reliability, analytic, placement, halo-effect, rater-bias, assessment, self-efficacy, self-evaluation, research-method, ethnographic, data
McClure, Randall; Lisa Baures. (2007). Looking in by looking out: The DNA of composition in the information age. full text. C&C Online (Fall).
Keywords: information literacy, objective, rhetorical knowledge, critical-thinking, process, information retrieval, Association of College and Research Libraries standards, WAC
McCulley, George A.; Jon A. Soper. (1986). Assessing the writing skills of engineering students: 1978-1983. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
McLeod, Susan; Elaine Maimon. (2000). Clearing the air: WAC myths and realities. College English 62.5, 573-583.
McLeod and Maimon respond to 'WAC Myths' they have encountered at conferences, and particularly in articles by C. Knoblauch and Lil Brannon, and by Daniel Mahala. They feel that the history of WAC is misunderstood, leading to misconceptions about WAC today; therefore, they try to re-historicize and redefine WAC. They deny that WAC began as 'grammar across the curriculum.' They deny that there is a 'technical correctness' camp in WAC, and that this campís goals are expressed in WID. They answer Mahala in particular, and say that WAC has always taught both exploratory, ìwriting to learnî assignments, and disciplinary writing. But the latter does not imply teaching 'correctness.' Instead, WID is rhetorical. It allows students to learn the purposes and expectations of writing in their field; it also makes faculty express and clarify what they expect out of disciplinary writing. For the authors, WID is part of WAC, and should be, and always has. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: writing across the curriculum, WAC, myth, demystification, WID, writing in the disciplines, pedagogy, pedagogy, curriculum, faculty development
McLeod, Susan; John Jarvis. (1987). What DO students write in the university?. Washington English Journal 09.3, 23-26.
McMeen, George R.; Lucille Guckes; Jonathan Lovell; Shane Templeton; Daniel Cline; University of Nevada, Reno, College of Education. (1986). The utilization of Burroughs microcomputers in teacher training (Final report COE 86-1). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 272 160.
Keywords: University of Nevada-Reno, computer, project, WAC, technology, retraining, word-processing, software, diagnosis, final-report
Medina, Suzanne L.. (1994). Teaching academic essay writing: Accelerating the process. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 417 412.
Middleton, James. (1981). A rationale for writing in the content areas. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 82, 88-89.
Morris, Barbra S.. (1982). Writing at the center of the curriculum: The Michigan program. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 228 659.
The writing program at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) is based on the idea that writing is taught best when it is emphasized in every discipline. There is an upper division writing requirement, and all departments design and teach advanced writing courses. In 1978, at the same time that the program was created, an outreach program to schools statewide was also begun. The dialogues with teachers from all disciplines that have taken place during the outreach program have produced five specific suggestions to improve the teaching of writing: (1) develop a profile of the teacher of writing that will fit anyone in any discipline, (2) provide a rich range of contexts for writing, (3) capitalize on native knowledge of language as a bridge for students into written form, (4) clarify both audience and purpose of writing assignments, and (5) make what is known about writing accessible to others as the basis of dialogue between disciplines. A 1981 writing conference that grew out of the outreach program reaffirmed the importance of the Michigan program as a model for other schools. [ERIC]
Keywords: University of Michigan, WAC, program, school-college, pedagogy, contextual, student-knowledge, audience, purpose, interdisciplinary
Morton, Robert. (1990). The drawing sketchbook revisited. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 02, 27-34.
Moss, Andrew; Carol Holder. (1988). Improving student writing: A guidebook for faculty in all disciplines. Pomona, CA: California State Polytechnic University; Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Intended for college faculty in all disciplines, this guidebook offers practical methods and ideas intended to help teachers clarify writing assignments so that students' writing will improve, as has been seen to happen when teachers sharpen their responses to students' papers. Contents include: (1) "Assigning Writing," which describes ways of designing effective assignments including journals and ungraded writing, provides 17 suggestions for making and presenting writing assignments, and includes a checklist for evaluating assignments; (2) "Assignments That Work," which consists of a collection of writing assignments developed by instructors in various fields, including agricultural engineering, American studies, biology, chemistry, counseling, and criminal justice; (3) "Essay Examinations," which discusses how to write effective essay questions and how to help students write better exams; (4) "Strategies for Helping Students," which includes guidelines on brainstorming, research, and planning, drafting and revising, as well as a writer's checklist; (5) "Integrating Reading and Writing," which examines anticipation guides, selective reading guides, graphic organizers, vocabulary previews, and student journals; and (6) "Evaluating Students' Writing," which covers pre-evaluation, evaluation, paper marking, scores and scoring guides, and post-evaluation. (Eleven references are included, and appended are a sample of on-the-job writing tasks for professionals, a sample accounting assignment, and a techniques inventory for assigning writing and reading in the disciplines.) [ERIC; WAC Clearinghouse]
Mueller, Cheryl. (1984). Introducing the faculty across the curriculum to the microcomputer. In Martinez, Thomas E. (Ed.), Collected essays on the written word and the word processor: From the Delaware Valley Writing Council's spring conference, February 25, 1984; Villanova, PA: Villanova University.
Keywords: word-processing, pedagogy, process, WAC
Murphy, Christina; Joe Law. (1999). Writing centers and WAC programs as infostructures: Relocating practice within futurist theories of social change. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
National Council of Teachers of English Executive Committee. (1979). Standards for basic skills writing programs. College English 41.2, 220-222.
Keywords: basic, program, objectives, form, content, audience, arrangement, genre, WAC, standard written English, error
Nelms, Gerald; Ronda Leathers Dively. (2007). [Printed version is incorrect: See NOTE in Annotation] Perceived roadblocks to transferring knowledge from first-year composition to writing-intensive major courses: A pilot study. [fulltext: Corrected Version: July 2008]. WPA: Writing Program Administration 31.1-2, 214-240.
NOTE: The version of this article that appears in the print copy of the journal is NOT the version meant for publication. It is an earlier draft that should not have been published. [authors] Nelms and Dively report on a study utilizing survey and focus group methodology to explore far transfer (as defined by Perkins and Salomon) from FYC to writing intensive (WI) courses at an institution with a two-course FYC sequence taught by GTAs with 'considerable freedom' of course design. Five themes emerged, several acting as 'roadblocks' to transfer. Student desire to 'compartmentalize' learning led to an inability to make connections across contexts. While some skills, including an understanding of the connection between thesis and support, an ability to analyze, and familiarity with the principles of citation, did transfer into WI courses, other skills identified as 'commonly addressed' in FYC did not. Further, WI instructors lamented the lack of time they had to address context-based writing in their courses, and although they recognized the essential nature of invention, peer response, and metacognition for writing success, they had not incorporated these strategies into their class meetings. Nelms and Dively note the significance of student dispositions, including lack of motivation, indifference about writing, and entitlement that are shown to limit transfer. Finally, they contend that the disparate vocabulary utilized in FYC and the content courses also hindered transfer; though instructors were often discussing the same concept, the different vocabulary prevented students (and instructors) from seeing connections. The authors recommend increased communication between FYC and WI instructors to bridge vocabulary differences, as well as teaching for transfer through contextualization, reflection, active learning, and the use of the 'hugging' and 'bridging' concepts of Perkins and Salomon. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Keywords: skill-transfer, knowledge-transfer, FYC, longitudinal, data, interdisciplinary, WPA, WAC, advanced, writing-intensive, pilot study
New Jersey Basic Skills Council [Trenton, NJ]. (1984). Teaching reading & writing in college, in high school, in every subject. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Basic Skills Council [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 303 788].
Keywords: read-write, WAC, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, assessment, bibliography, teacher-training
Nightingale, Peggy. (1991). Speaking of student writing . . .. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 15.1, 3-13.
North, Stephen M.. (2011). On the place of writing in higher education (and why it doesn't include composition). In Massey, Lance; Richard C. Gebhardt (Eds.), The changing of knowledge in composition: Contemporary perspectives; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: writing-studies, profession, history, writing-major, University of Albany, poetics, curriculum, development, advanced, teacher-knowledge, basic, wcenter, WAC, change
O'Brien Liam. (2005). Building a scaffolding for student writing across the disciplines in communication studies. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Odell, Lee. (1981). How English teachers can help their colleagues teach writing. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 57-59, 94-95.
Odell, Lee. (1991). On using writing. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Pajares, Frank; Gio Valiante. (2005). Self-efficacy beliefs and motivation in writing development. In MacArthur, Charles A.; Steve Graham; Jill Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research; New York: Guilford Press.
Pajares, Frank; Gio Valiante; Yuk Fai Cheong. (2007). Writing self-efficacy and its relation to gender, writing motivation and writing competence: A developmental perspective. In Hidi, Suzanne; Pietro Boscolo (Eds.), Writing and motivation; Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Keywords: writer-motivation, emotion, writer-interest, psychological, self-efficacy, gender, competence, development
Pajares, M. Frank; Margaret J. Johnson. (1993). Confidence and competence in writing: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and apprehension. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 358 474.
Patton, Martha D.. (2011). Writing in the research university: A Darwinian study of WID with cases from civil engineering [writing in the disciplines]. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
How do engineers learn to think and write like engineers? How do art historians learn to think and write like art historians? How do journalists or biologists learn to think and write like the professionals that they become? Do we learn to think and write primarily by enculturation-or can we be taught how to write in various disciplines? If anything can be taught, what practices stand out as best practices? Needed to address these questions is a cohesive theory of writing in the disciplines (WID), one that accounts for both discipline-specific features of writing and features that cut across many disciplines. To that end, this book re-examines contemporary sociohistoric theories of writing from an evolutionary perspective. An evolutionary perspective of WID suggests that disciplines (complexes of academic arguments) not only change, but they evolve much like species do via a dual process of variation and selection in forums of competition. An evolutionary perspective puts a spotlight on what endures as well as what changes in complexes of academic arguments [author abstract]
Pemberton, Michael. (1995). Rethinking the WAC/writing center connection. link to full text. Writing Center Journal 15.2, 116-134.
Keywords: wcenter, WAC, process, improvement, data
Persky, Charles; Ann Raimes. (1981). Learning through writing: A practical guide to student writing for college teachers. New York: City University of New, Office of Academic Affairs [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 236 265].
Peters, Laurence Colin. (1986). Writing across the curriculum: Some historical and theoretical perspectives on the development of writing programs in U. S. higher education [doctoral thesis]. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
Keywords: WAC, theory, history, USA, process-product
Petraglia, Joseph (Ed.). (1995). Reconceiving writing, rethinking writing instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Petraglia’s collection had its roots in three years of sessions at annual meetings of the CCCC on abolishing the first-year writing requirement. Its contributors argue that the traditional first-year course in composition does not and cannot prepare students for the writing that will be expected of them throughout their university careers, arguing instead for first-year writing courses that can serve as disciplinary apprenticeships or as introductions to rhetoric or writing studies. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Poe, Mya. (2000). On writing instruction and a short game of chess: Connecting mulitple ways of knowling and the writing process. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
Argues that writing should be regarded as both an expansive concept and as a communicative medium students can imbue with academic and non-academic knowledge; includes an abridged definition of multiple intelligence theory to validate the assertion that learning and writing can be developed and made applicable in a myriad number of ways; concludes that alternative composing and translating using metaphors are two classroom practices which treat writing as a learning process and tap into and reveal varying degrees of intellectual acumen and creativity. Offers many pedagogical examples to help students become metacognitive about their learning and writing. [Blaise Bennardo]
Popken, Randall. (1987). [book review]. Writing Across the Curriculum [Southern Technical Institute] 04.2, 9-11.
Keywords: Academic Writing: Working with Sources Across the Curriculum, by Mary Lynch Kennedy & Hadley Smith, knowledge-transfer, WAC, course-design, cross-disciplinary, process
Powell, Sharon. (1992). Tell tales to learn: Reading and writing about history. In Roberts, David H.; JoAnn Trenary (Eds.); Samford University, Orlean Bullard Beeson School of Education; Impact '92: Building a community of writers for the 21st century: A compilation of the teaching demonstrations, personal and professional writings, and daily activities of the Samford University Writing Project, 1992, July 6-August 6, 1992; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 376 505.
Keywords: WAC, read-write, history-course
Price, Margaret; Anne Bradford Warner. (2006). What you see is (not) what you get: Collaborative composing in visual space. [Link]
. Across the Disciplines 03.
Reiff, John D.. (1981). Writing in the disciplines at the University of Michigan. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum2(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 02.2, 75-77, 91-92.
Keywords: WAC, program, University of Michigan, requirement, content-course, upper-division, syllabus, workshop, pre-writing, term-paper, drafting, revising,
Reiff, John; Judith Kirscht. (1992). Inquiry as a human process: Interviews with researchers across the disciplines. http://www.jacweb.org/archives.htm [full text]. JAC: Journal of Advanced Composition 12.2, 359-372.
Reither, James A.. (1985). Writing and knowing: Toward redefining the writing process. College English 47.6, 620-628.
Keywords: process, discourse, community, motivation, academic, WAC, process
Reynolds, Erica J.. (2003). The role of self-efficacy in writing and directed self-placement. In Royer, Daniel; Roger Gilles (Eds.), Directed self-placement: Principles and practices; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Reynolds reviews studies on self-efficacy in relation to academic reading and writing for students, considering how it affects DSP (75). According to the literature she summarizes, self-efficacy is defined as 'people’s judgment of their capabilities to organize and excuse courses of action required to attain designated types of performance' (74). Reynolds' literature review finds that self-efficacy appears to be directly related to perceptions of writing ability by experienced raters, academic reading and writing achievement, and diminished anxiety over multiple writing assignments over a semester (76-79). Through these studies, Reynolds discovers that self-efficacy, and self-confidence are related to student writing abilities in and outside the classroom. She recommends that universities that implement DSP should be more specific about the types of good writing that they are looking for and that students should pick their class the same day that they receive information about DSP. Reynolds notes that factors such as apprehension and self-efficacy should be taken into account before a student begins to place herself in an English class. In the final section, Reynolds compares how males and females respond to writing feedback. Males have more apprehension about writing; females are more likely to respond to negative feedback on their writing; and females are less confident about their writing. Reynolds argues for more research on confidence, apprehension, self-efficacy, and gender, and how these factors affect a student's decision in a DSP program. [Asao B. Inoue, et al., Directed Self-Placement; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 16]
Robins, Edmund J.; J. Hal Walters. (1947). A program of basic communication for San Bernardino Valley College. In Sherman, Thelma R. (Ed.), Publication of the Fifth Workshop in Basic Communication, University of Denver, 1947; Denver, CO: University of Denver Press.
Explains how to incorporate writing into drama classes. The author examines writing in her field, observing that drama students improvise, and learn by doing. Thus, teachers need to teach revision and structure. At the same time, writing should be practical: journals about students' own acting, group scene writing, and research papers that culminate in performances. Also explains how to work in peer response. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Rose, Mike. (1982). Remedial writing courses: Do they limit more than foster growth in writing?. In Cronnell, Bruce; Joan Michael (Eds.); Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development; California State University, Long Beach, Writing: Policies, problems, and possibilities: Proceedings of a conference co-sponsored by SWRL Educational Research and Development and by California State Unversity, Long Beach (held at SWRL, Los Alamitos, California, May 7, 1982); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 221 872.
Rosen, Leonard; Lawrence Behrens. (1987). Writing and reading across the curriculum. 3rd edition [textbook]. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
Keywords: WAC, read-write, guidelines
Rosenwasser, Marie. (1983). Faculty renewal, basic learning skills, and student success: An overlooked relationship?. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 244 651.
Keywords: North Seattle Community College, two-year, WAC, retraining, survey, data, study skills
Rubin, Donald; Dawn Bruton; William Dodd; Frederick Johnson; Bennett Rafoth; Lauri Emel; Rosemarie Goodrum; University of Georgia. (1985). Project Synapse: Sparking connection between speech and writing. Instructor's handbook. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 267 455.
Russell, David R.. (2010). Writing in multiple contexts: Vygotskian CHAT meets the phenomenology of genre [cultural-historical activity theory]. In Bazerman, Charles; et al. (Eds.), Traditions of writing research; London: Routledge.
Ruszkiewicz, John J.. (1982). Writing 'in' and 'across' the disciplines: The historical background. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 224 024.
Keywords: WAC, WID, Aristotle, Cicero, Renaissance, Peter Ramus, Francis Bacon, cross-disciplinary, write-to-learn, development, classical-rhetoric
Ryan, Cathy. (2001). Communicating a new ABC: Advocacy, partnerships, and implementing change [Association of Business Communication]. Journal of Business Communication,, 38.3, 252-255.
Keywords: professional-organization, organizational, Association of Business Communication, business-communication, advocacy, implementation, change, implementation
Ryden, Wendy. (2007). Writing in anger: Emotions and the revision process in writing across the curriculum. Kassabgy, Nagwa; Amani Elshimi (Eds.), Sustaining excellence in 'communicating across the curriculum': Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press
Scholarship in Composition and Rhetoric has increasingly paid attention to the role of emotions in writing and critical pedagogy. This chapter analyzes the attention WAC theory gives to the pathetic dimension of rhetoric in regard to composing and revision strategies. [author summary]
Keywords: WAC, WID, emotion, revising, commenting, student-response, process
Rymer, Jone. (1988). Scientific composing processes: How eminent scientists write journal articles. In Jolliffe, David A. (Ed.), Writing in academic disciplines (Advances in writing research, Vol. 2); Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Keywords: WAC, academic, process, scientist
Samsa, Gregory; Eugene Z. Oddone. (1994). Integrating scientific writing into a statistics curriculum: A course in statistically based scientific writing. American Statistician 48.2, 117-119.
Samsa and Oddone argue that 'writing should play an increased role in statistical education and that this can be best accomplished by distributing exercises in writing and critical appraisal throughout the curriculum' (p. 117). They describe a master's level lecture course in statistics linked to a course based in discussion and data analysis. 'Over time,' they note, 'the course's emphasis shifted from the writing process itself toward issues of analysis strategy and other points of statistical methodology' (p. 118). The authors find that 'writing is an excellent mechanism for identifying student's strengths and weaknesses' and that 'students can use a linkage-based model to write more effectively' (p. 119). They further recommend the variation of writing assignments and keeping the assignments close to the student’s own goals. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Sanford, James. (1982). Writing and retention: Writing processes of college students. In Thaiss, Christopher (Ed.). Writing to learn: Essays and reflections by college teachers across the curriculum. First National Conference on Non-traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs; Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.
Keywords: WAC, process, persistence, process
Sanford, James. (1983). Multiple drafts of experimental laboratory reports. In Thaiss, Christopher (Ed.), Writing to learn: Essays and reflections on writing across the curriculum; Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Schlesinger, Thomas O.. (1997). Revisiting 'Writing assignments in world politics courses' [by Thomas O. Schlesinger]. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 150-143.
Keywords: WAC, political-science-course, world politics, assignment, revisited
Schmidt, Katherine M.; Joel E. Alexander. (2012). The empirical development of an instrument to measure writerly self-efficacy in writing centers. full text
. Journal of Writing Assessment 05.1 .
The objective of this study was to develop a college-level writing self-efficacy scale that can be used across repeated sessions in a writing center, as self-efficacy has been identified as an important construct underlying successful writing and cognitive development [authors' abstract]
Schreiner, Philip Joseph. (1966). An exploratory study of the nature of advocacy and inquiry in problem-solving [doctoral thesis]. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles.
Keywords: problem-solving, advocacy, inquiry
Schuldberg, Jean; Lorie Cavanaugh; Gabriel Aguilar; Jessica Cammack; Timmie Diaz; Noble Flournoy Jr.; Kimberly Taylor; Sarah Nicole Olson; Christine Sampson. (2007). Fear of the blank page: Teaching academic and professional writing in social work. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Jean Schuldberg and her colleagues report the results of a qualitative study of a pilot writing course for baccalaureate social work. They conclude that 'the collaborative effort in the course and research study facilitated the development of [students'] professional writing and increased confidence for continued work.' (Published April 1, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: data, qualitative, social-work, professional writing, WAC, WID, apprehension, social
Schunk, Dale H.. (2003). Self-efficacy for reading and writing: Influence of modeling, goal setting, and self-evaluation. Reading and Writing Quarterly 19, 159-172.
Selfe, Cynthia L.; Bruce T. Petersen; Cynthia L. Nahrgang. (1986). Journal writing in mathematics. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
Keywords: engineering-course, WAC, journal-writing, problem-solving, expressivism, assessment, record-keeping, contrast-group, write-to-learn, gain, data
Selfe, Cynthia L.; Michael E. Gorman; Margaret E. Gorman. (1986). Watching our garden grow: Longitudinal changes in student writing apprehension. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
Shahn, Ezra; Robert K. Costello. (2000). Evidence and interpretation: Teachers' reflections on reading writing in an introductory science course. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
The use of writing as a means of assisting students to learn and of assessing their understanding in an introductory science course intended primarily as a terminal course for non-science majors is considered in the context of a discussion of cognitive development. We suggest that, particularly where students are asked to justify their understanding by referring to concrete evidence, writing samples are a sensitive indicator of cognitive position. We demonstrate this with examples of four different types of writing used in our course: short answer exam questions, exam essays, take-home essays which may be revised, and informal journal writing. The information gained from writing assignments can be useful as feedback to an instructor regarding (a) an individual student's assumptions about what can be known in science and what form this knowledge takes, (b) what individuals and the class as a whole are prepared to understand, and (c) in what ways particular subject material is likely to be misunderstood. We conclude that these different probes can reveal different aspects of development, and that the use of any of them requires attentive reading by the instructor. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Shahn, Ezra; Robert K. Costello. (2000). Evidence and interpretation: Teachers' reflections on reading writing in an introductory science course . [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.2.
The use of writing as a means of assisting students to learn and of assessing their understanding in an introductory science course intended primarily as a terminal course for non-science majors is considered in the context of a discussion of cognitive development. We suggest that, particularly where students are asked to justify their understanding by referring to concrete evidence, writing samples are a sensitive indicator of cognitive position. We demonstrate this with examples of four different types of writing used in our course: short answer exam questions, exam essays, take-home essays which may be revised, and informal journal writing. The information gained from writing assignments can be useful as feedback to an instructor regarding (a) an individual student's assumptions about what can be known in science and what form this knowledge takes, (b) what individuals and the class as a whole are prepared to understand, and (c) in what ways particular subject material is likely to be misunderstood. We conclude that these different probes can reveal different aspects of development, and that the use of any of them requires attentive reading by the instructor.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, science, writing to learn, data, development, introductory
Shannon, Kathleen M.; Elizabeth Curtin. (1992). Special problems: An alternative to student journals in mathematics courses. PRIMUS: Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies 02.3, 247-256.
Shea, Kelly A.; Mary McAleer Balkun; Susan A. Nolan; John T. Saccoman; Joyce Wright. (2006). One more time: Transforming the curriculum across the disciplines through technology-based faculty development and writing-intensive course redesign. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 03.
Shea and her colleagues describe a WAC project, born of their university's commitment to writing and ubiquitous computing, that engaged nearly 70 faculty members in WAC training over four years. The authors describe the project and its results, emphasizing three case studies of faculty members from psychology, mathematics, and nursing. (Published February 21, 2006) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Shea, Renee Hausmann. (1987). The influence of writing prompt on process and product: An exploratory study using the LSAT writing sample [doctoral thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.
Shell, Duane F.; Carolyn Colvin Colvin; Roger H. Bruning. (1995). Self-efficacy, attributions, and outcome expectancy mechanisms in reading and writing achievement: Grade-level and achievement-level differences. Journal of Educational Psychology 87, 386-398.
Shell, Duane F.; Carolyn Colvin Murphy; Roger Bruning. (1986). Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy: Motivational aspects of reading and writing performance. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 278 969.
Sheridan, Jean. (1995). Making the library connection with process writing. In Sheridan, Jean (Ed.), Writing-across-the-curriculum and the academic library: A guide for librarians, instructors, and writing program directors; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 395 601].
Keywords: term-paper, library, WAC, process
Sherman, Debora C.. (1976). An innovative community college program integrating the fundamentals of reading and writing with a college level introductory psychology course. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 131 433.
Shine, Moira Shannon. (1982). The composing processes of nursing students in clinical writing. In Gallehr, Donald; Robert Gilstrap; Anne Legge; Marian Mohr; Marie Wilson-Nelson (Eds.), Writing processes of college students: Working papers of the Writing Research Center of Virginia at the Northern Virginia Writing Project, George Mason University, Volume II; Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.
Keywords: WAC, nursing, case-study, process, composing, data, process
Shulman, Gary M.. (1993). Using the journal assignment to create empowered learners: An application of writing across the curriculum. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching 4, 89-104.
Singer, Daniel; Barbara F. Walvoord. (1984). Process-oriented writing instruction in a case-method class. In Pearce A. J.; R. B. Robinson, Jr. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Academy of Management; Boston, MA: Academy of Management.
Keywords: management-course, business-course, WAC, contrast-group, revising, gain, data, drafting, write-to-learn
Slomp, David H.; M. Elizabeth Sargent. (2009). Responses to responses: Douglas downs and Elizabeth wardle's 'Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions'. full text. College Composition and Communication 60.3, 595-96, W25-W34.
Keywords: Curriculum-design, discourse-community, FYC, major, part-time, praxis, process, program-design, writing-major, WAC, WID, writing, Douglas Downs, Elizabeth Wardle, misunderstanding
Smagorinsky, Peter. (1994). Constructing meaning in the disciplines: Reconceptualizing writing across the curriculum as composing across the curriculum. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 366 954.
Smart Robert A.; Mary T. Segall. (2005). Introduction: Theoretical, institutional, and organizational contexts. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Smit, David William. (2004). The end of composition studies. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
As the pun of his title suggests, David Smit's The End of Composition Studies focuses both on the goal of composition courses, as well as on his proposal that we end composition courses as they are currently conceived--as courses in 'general' writing skill that is expected to transfer to any writing situation. Smit devotes one chapter specifically to the concept of transfer, noting the 'unpredictable' nature of transfer, and arguing that transfer depends on a writer's 'background and experience,' neither of which can be controlled by the instructor. He further maintains that transfer, when it does occur, results from a writer's ability to perceive similarities between contexts or writing situations. That given, Smit contends that teachers can best increase the chances of transfer by helping students recognize similarities between contexts. Smit also argues for writing instruction that immerses novice writers in domain and context-specific writing situations (taught by practitioners, not general 'writing instructors'), as well as instruction that 'makes writing in different courses more related and systematic,' drawing explicit attention to not only the differences, but also the similarities in writing in different contexts. He proposes a three-course sequence beginning with an 'Introduction to Writing as Social Practice,' followed by two courses that engage writers in writing within a discourse community. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Smith, Maggy. (1991). Reconsidering the effects of context on writing: Some social implications for writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 343 120.
Keywords: management-course, WAC, student-opinion, interview, data, interaction-analysis, Robert Bales, data, group, writer-based, audience-awareness, gain, implication, social
Smithson, Isaiah. (1986). Introduction: Writing as a subversive activity [to special issue on writing across the curriculum]. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 277 004. Illinois English Bulletin 74.1, 3-6.
Sockwell, Recardo Vernard. (1985). Writing in the secondary school revisited: A descriptive study of in-class assignments and related instruction used in advanced composition classes [doctoral thesis]. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Soffree-Cady, Flore. (1987). A pedagogical theory and practice for college writing courses and writing across the curriculum courses: A social constructionist perspective on learning through argument. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 384 911.
Soffree-Cady, Flore Frederique. (1987). A pedagogical theory and practice for college writing courses and writing across the curriculum courses: A social constructionist perspective on learning through argument [doctoral thesis]. Louisville, KY: University of Louisville.
Keywords: write-to-learn, WAC, pedagogy, theory, pedagogy, social, constructivist, argumentation, constructionist, pedagogy, William Perry, development, Vygotsky, social
Spaulding, Cheryl L.. (1989). The effects of ownership opportunities and instructional support on high school students' writing task engagement. Research in the Teaching of English 23.2, 139-162.
Starkweather, John E.; Deborah F. Knight; Elizabeth J. Bellen. (1993). 'College survival skills for LD students': A one credit course in study strategies and self-advocacy for incoming college students with a learning disability. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 10.1, 123-128.
Keywords: learning-disability, survival skills, ancillary, study skills, self-advocacy, orientation-program, learner-strategy, study skills
Steffens, Henry. (1991). Helping students improve their own writing: The self-conference sheet. History Teacher 24.2, 239-241.
Taylor, William L.. (1989). Using drafts in History 231: American economic development. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 01, 64-65.
Keywords: WAC, history-course, USA, economic, drafting
Taylor, William L.. (1997). Using drafts in History 231: American economic development (1989) [reprint]. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 10-12.
Keywords: WAC, history-course, USA economic, drafting
Templeton, Jeff. (1978). From the student perspective: Writing instruction in economics classes. http://comppile.org/archives/WLA/WLA12.pdf [full text]. Writing as a Liberating Activity Newsletter, No. 12, 3-4.
Keywords: student-opinion, WAC, economics-course, group, peer-evaluation, term-paper, revising, school
Thaiss, Chris. (1993). Of havens, nodes, and no-center centers. Focuses: A Journal Linking Composition Programs and Writing-Center Practice 06.1, 16-26.
Keywords: wcenter, WAC, organizational
Thomas, Laura. (1991). College lecture classrooms as texts: An ethnography of student writing and reading [doctoral thesis]. Oxford, OH: Miami University.
Tripe, Robert L. K.. (1990). Problem solving and writing: A teaching/learning model for computer studies. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 324 039.
Keywords: vocational, Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology [Ontario, Canada], computer-studies, curriculum-design, WAC, programming, sample, problem-solving
Vaught-Alexander, Karen. (1999). Situating writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs in the academy: Creating partnerships for change with organizational development theory. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Vazquez, John D.. (1992). Implementation of integrated skills reinforcement teaching and learning strategies in the social sciences, behavioral sciences and Puerto Rican and Latin-American studies courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 343 165.
Keywords: data, gain, WAC, Skills Reinforcement, La Guardia Community College, two-year, student-centered, ESL, native-nonnative, sociology-course, oral-presentation, collaborative, narrative-log, vocabulary, academic, social-science, behavioral, implementation, integrated, learner-strategy, Puerto Rico, Latin America, social
Vickery, Connie E.; et al.. (1996). Encouraging undergraduate students to publish: Getting their message into print. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 88.3, 13-16.
Waldo, Mark L.; Maria Madruga. (1999). Finding common ground when WAC writing center directors meet neurotic pride. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Walker, J. R. L.. (1991). A student's guide to practical write-ups. Biochemical Education 19.1, 31-32.
Keywords: science-course, biochemistry, WAC, laboratory-report, edit-sheet, accuracy, data-collection, format, arrangement, error, editing, University of Canterbury [New Zealand]
Walpole, Jane R.. (1981). Content writing. Teaching English in the Two-Year College 07.2, 103-105.
Examines the discrepancy between writing ability in composition classes and poor writing in other classes and suggests exercises that will better prepare composition students for the writing that will be required of them in other courses and in their careers. [ERIC]
Walvoord, Barbara E. Fassler; Lucille Parkinson McCarthy (Eds.). (1990). Thinking and writing in college: A naturalistic study of students in four disciplines. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 334 591].
Walvoord, Barbara Fassler; Hoke L. Smith. (1982). Coaching the process of writing. In Griffin, C. Williams (Ed.); Teaching writing in all disciplines (New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 12); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers.
Keywords: WAC, process, pedagogy, coaching, process
Wardle, Elizabeth. (2009). 'Mutt genres' and the goal of FYC: Can we help students write the genres of the university?. College Composition and Communication 60.4, 765-789.
In this article, Wardle argues for a fundamental change in the goal of first-year-composition courses, giving up ‘teaching to write’ and replacing it with teaching about writing. As research studies indicate, the assumption that first-year-composition courses can effectively introduce students to the various genres of the university, which will transfer to other courses, is flawed. Generic conventions cannot be successfully learned and practiced outside of the rhetorical context of specific discourse communities. Attempting to teach the ‘institutional features’ of a genre out of context ignores the exigency, the purpose, and the evolutionary nature of the genre, resulting in ‘mutt genres’ which bear little resemblance to the actual disciplinary genre, therefore hindering transfer. Rather than continuing with this failed goal, Wardle advocates for a course that would teach students about language, discourse, and general principles of writing--the disciplinary knowledge of composition [Robin Oswald]. Wardle reports research from a large composition program that validates critiques of FYC based on genre and activity theory, focusing particularly on the limited range of genres that FYC can teach and questioning the ‘realism’ of the genres that she observed being taught in FYC courses, or applicability of those genres outside the FYC class. Wardle’s two-year study of 23 teachers and 462 students in 25 sections of FYC using ‘rhetorically based’ ‘academic writing skills’ curricula found nine genres assigned (ranging from personal narrative, profiles, travel narratives, and interviews to rhetorical analyses and argument/position papers). She characterizes the genres required in FYC courses as ‘mutt’ genres because they mimicked ‘real’ genres doing real work in other activity systems but actually did some other work in the FYC system, so that the writing becomes assigned and performed for its own sake. Wardle concludes that such genres should, at least, be taught as ‘boundary objects’ that bridge to writing embedded in the actual activities that require it; and, preferably, that FYC should in fact stop trying to teach how to write genres outside the activities that require them, and instead adopt a WAW content (like that described in this bibliography’s introduction) that prepares students for learning to write those genres once they are participating in the activities that require them. [Doug Downs, Writing-About-Writing Curricula: Origins, Theories, and Initial Field-Tests, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 12]
Warriner, John. (1980). The Rite-Aid Spiral Theme Notebook. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum1(2).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 01.2, 30-31, 49.
Watkins-Goffman, Linda; G. Joyce Dunston. (1994). Writing across the curriculum in a data processing class: An ethnographic investigations. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 11.1, 31-35.
Winterowd, W. Ross. (1980). Transferable and local writing skills. JAC: Journal of Advanced Composition 01.1, 1-3.
Winterowd suggests that all writing skills fall into one of two categories: local skills and transferable skills. Local skills are defined as those skills that are domain-specific, such as knowledge of the genres of a particular field. Transferable skills, according to Winterowd, are the 'basics' of writing, including such issues as control of diction. Following Stephen Krashen's learning-acquisition theory, Winterowd asserts that the transferable skills, general skills that are important for competent writing across domains, must be acquired through modeling, practice, and feedback, while local skills can be taught. Two 'scenes' for writing instruction are suggested: a writing workshop (for acquistion) and a writing laboratory (for teaching local skills as well as editing). [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Winterowd, W. Ross. (1986). Composition/rhetoric: A synthesis. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Arguing that practice without theory is destructive, this books deals with the theory, philosophy, and application of a variety of subjects within the area of composition. The nine chapters of the first section of the book constitute a state-of-the-art essay and discuss such topics as J. Emig's 1971 study of the composing process and the more recent work of L. Flower and J. Hayes, cerebral organization and writing, the process and transactional models of composition, rhetorical invention, style, and form. The five chapters in the second section, which supplement those in the first section, are entitled "Invention,""Form and Style,""Reading,""Teaching Composition," and "The Profession." Specific topics discussed within these chapters include (1) brain, rhetoric, and style; (2) dramatism in themes and poems; (3) the grammar of coherence; (4) the rhetorical transaction; (5) developing a composition program; (6) teaching composition across the curriculum; and (7) the paradox of the humanities. [ERIC]
Young, Art. (1984). Rebuilding community in the English department. ADE Bulletin, no. 77, 13-21.
Keywords: Michigan Tech University, WAC, bridging, process, collaboration, faculty-workshop, department
Young, Beth Rapp; Barbara A. Fritzsche. (2002). Writing center users procrastinate less: The relationship between individual differences in procrastination, peer feedback, and student writing process. link to full text. Writing Center Journal 23.1, 45-58.
The authors conducted a study to 'examine the relationships between procrastination tendency, peer feedback, and student writing success' and 'to determine whether a writing center helps writers avoid procrastinating' (46). The study had 206 traditional student participants from writing intensive classes requiring'at least 6,000 words of assessed writing' ) and from all undergraduate class standings. To gather data, they administered the Procrastination Assessment Scale--Students (PASS), a self-report measure of six academic activities; the Writing Behaviors Assessment, which the researchers designed for this particular study; and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, which assesses current anxiety and tendency toward anxiety. After the semester, they also gathered participants' paper grades, courses grades, and overall GPA (48). The researchers found that 'writing center use was associated with higher satisfaction and fewer procrastination behaviors' (50). The researchers also discovered that students who were required to visit 'were significantly more likely to report delay behavior' (52). Yet for some students the 'requirement [might add] the necessary motivation for procrastinators to drag themselves into the writing center' (54). The authors recommend that bureaucratic paperwork should be reduced in order to increase visits of procrastinating students. [Eliot F. Rendleman, Writing Centers and Mandatory Visits, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 22]
Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.). (2004). Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
This edited collection brings together the perspectives of L2 students, ESOL and composition researchers, and faculty in different disciplines on what it means for L2 students to write and learn through writing across the curriculum and into specific disciplines. The first section is devoted to case study research on undergraduate L2 students’ experiences as they write across the curriculum; the second section features reflections by a L2 biology major and L2 sociology major on their writing and learning experiences in courses in their majors and across the curriculum; and the third section shares chapters written by faculty in anthropology, philosophy, nursing, literature, sociology, and Asian American studies on their attempts to address the needs of L2 writers in their classrooms. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Zinfon, Gerald. (1993). The private pursuit of a better way. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 04, 89-98.
Keywords: WAC, term-paper, FYC, syllabus, process
Zinsser, William. (1988). Writing to learn. New York: Harper & Row.
Keywords: write-to-learn, WAC, anxiety, apprehension, liberal arts, liberalism, mathematical, science-writing, music
[various]. (1985). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Third National Testing Network in Writing Conference, San Francisco, California, March 1985]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2085toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 05, 2-26.
Keywords: testing, assessment, K-12, portfolio, proficiency, procedure, teacher-certification, holistic, rating, rater-training, primary-trait, research-method, research, WAC [at Stanford University], Research in the Effective Teaching of Writing Project, discourse-feature, gain, classroom-research, longitudinal, development, regression, analytic, funding, program, ESL, teacher-training minority, curriculum, G5, response, administering, cost, data-analysis, peer-evaluation, topic, large-scale, Canada, placement, feature
[various]. (1986). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fourth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Cleveland, Ohio, April, 1986]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2086toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 06, 3-25.
[various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2087toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school
[various]. (1990). [synopses of conference talks, Seventh National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Montreal, Canada, April, 1989]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 09, 2-48.
Keywords: testing, computer, process, large-scale, standards, WPA, international, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, ESL, literacy, competency, holistic, University of Minnesota, validity, construct-validity, topic, assessment, Scotland, classroom, portfolio assessment, program, self-evaluation, peer-evaluation, self-validation, professional-school, veterinary, WAC, rater-training, program-validation, empowerment, rising-junior [East Texas State University], wcenter, transfer-student, James Britton, Peter Elbow, campus-wide, universal, computer, individual-differences, ESL, community, contrastive, City University of New York, disciplinary, rising-junior [University of Missouri-St. Louis], rising-junior [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee], prompt, argumentation, validity, primary-trait, physics-department, feminist, pedagogy, placement, minimum competency, scale, score stability, response, local assessment, feature