The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

— Justin Jory
Bibliography Editor

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Bedau, Hugo. (1996). Thinking and writing about philosophy. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Keywords: WAC, philosophy, guidelines, composing, summary-writing, abstrqact-writing, thesis, outline, argument, disputation, persuasion, evaluation, essay-writing, sequence, drafting, revising, citation
Beyer, Catharine Hoffman; Gerald M. Gillmore; Andrew T. Fisher. (2007). Inside the undergraduate experience: The University of Washington's study of undergraduate learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The University of Washington's Study of Undergraduate Learning (UW SOUL) tracked 304 entering freshmen and transfer students as they moved through their college experience from fall 1999 to spring 2003. Unparalleled in its scope, this longitudinal study focused on six areas of learning: writing, critical thinking/problem solving, quantitative reasoning, information literacy, understanding and appreciating diversity, and personal growth. This book provides faculty, staff, and administrators at two- and four-year institutions with a model of assessment that both captures the complexity of the undergraduate experience and offers practical information about how to improve teaching and learning. Data from surveys, open-ended email questions, interviews, focus groups, and portfolios make it possible for the authors to create case studies of individual learning paths over time, as well as to report the group s aggregate experience. Honoring the authenticity of student voices, this book illuminates the central roles played by the academic disciplines and by faculty in undergraduate learning, offering powerful evidence for the argument that assessment of student learning is most complete and most useful when conducted at the department level. [publisher's blurb]
Keywords: longitudinal, data, University of Washington, undergraduate, critical-thinking, problem-solving, quantitative reasoning, diversity, information literacy, personal growth, development, survey, focus group, case-study, portfolio, self-report, self-evaluation, argumentation, WAC, research-based, undergraduate
Beyer, Catharine; Joan Graham. (1990). Freshman/soph0more writing study: Progress and preliminary results report, Fall 1990. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Interdisciplinary Writing Program.
Keywords: data, development, school-college, preparation, argumentation, complexity, assignment, interdisciplinary, topic, writing-about-lit, term-paper, WAC, requirement, survey
Boe, John; Eric Schroeder; David Bartholomae. (1998). 'Stop being so coherent': An interview with David Bartholomae [interview]. Writing on the Edge 10.1, 9-28.
Keywords: scholar-story, commenting, value, William Coles, WAC, assignment, writing-about-lit, disciplinarity, academic, hegemony, counter-hegemony, critique, Peter Elbow, 'sentimental realism', sentimentality, argumentation, objective, FYC, difficulty
Brashers, Dale E.; Stephen M. Haas; Judith L. Neidig. (1999). Satisfying the argumentative requirements for self advocacy. In van Eemeren, Frans H.; Rob Grootendorst; J. Anthony Blair; Charles A. Willard (Eds.), Proceedings of the fourth international conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation; Amsterdam: Stichting International Centrum voor de Studie van Argumentatie en Taalbeheersing.
Keywords: argumentation, self-advocacy, requirement
Brostoff, Anita. (1978). Applications of the functional writing model in technical and professional writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 154 389.
Keywords: argumentation, functional writing model, arrangement, composing, frame, forecasting, technical-communication, techcom, WAC, model-essay, functional, applied
Clark, Irene L.; Ronald Fischbach. (2008). Writing and learning in the health sciences: Rhetoric, identity, genre, and performance. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 19, 15-28.
Clark and Fishbach argue that discussions of linked courses often overlook the need for students simultaneously to develop their professional identities as they work toward becoming more proficient writers. To explore this claim, the authors turn to their experience developing a link between a public health education course and a course in health sciences writing and rhetoric. Clark and Fishbach discovered that students benefited from the opportunity 'to 'perform' as writers and speakers within a particular field or profession' (18). More particularly, the link helped student writers to reconceptualize genre as a form of 'social action' as they became more familiar with the professional discourses they were learning. Clark and Fischbach subsequently consider the ways their focus on genre in the linkage put pressure on the shared term 'argument', but also discuss ways that researchers have shown the term to be similar across humanities-based writing and scientific writing. In closing, the authors assert that their experiences with this linkage affirm that role-play is essential to an increase in professionally situated rhetorical awareness for student writers. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: basic-skills, genre, health-sciences, learning-theory, WAC, linked, skill-transfer, public health course, intensive, assignment, syllabus, genre, identity, career, identity, performative, role-playing, interdisciplinary, 'argument', conflict
Comprone, Joseph J.. (1987). The new rhetoric: A way of connecting community and discourse conventions in writing across the disciplines courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 279 019.
Keywords: Toulmin, Perelman, Olbrechts-Tyteca, new rhetorical-theory-practice, disciplinary, universal audience, argumentation, WAC
Condit, Celeste Michelle. (1989). Feminized power and adversarial advocacy: Leveling arguments or analyzing them?. Argumentation and Advocacy 25.4, 226-230.
Keywords: argumentation, advocacy, adversarial, feminization, power, discourse-analysis
Crank, Virginia. (2012). From high school to college: Developing writing skills in the disciplines. full text. WAC Journal 23, 49-63.
Keywords: school-college, growth, skill, skill-transfer, WAC, preparedness, review-of-scholarship, format, genre, argumentation, voice, authority
Currie, Pat. (1996). Fullness and sound reasoning: Argument and evaluation in a university content course. In Berrill, Deborah P. (Ed.); Perspectives on written argument; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Keywords: argumentation, WAC, content-course, reasoning, evaluation
Daro, Philip; Solomon Garfunkel (co-chairs, mathematics panel); Richard P. Duran; Sally Hampton; Catherine E. Snow (co-chairs, English panel). (2013). What does it really mean to be college and work ready? The mathematics and English literacy required of first year community college students. Washington, D. C.: National Center on Education and the Economy.
Keywords: readiness, school-college, two-year, mathematics, literacy, data, textbook-analysis, age-level, complexity, complexity, argumentation, reading level, WAC, assignment
Donaldson, Alice. (1981). The role of advocacy in small group discussion. In Ziegelmueller, George; Jack Rhodes (Eds.), Dimensions of argument: Proceedings of the Second Summer Conference on Argumentation [Alta, Utah, July 30-August 2, 1981]; Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
Keywords: argumentation, group, discussion, advocacy, small group
Eisenhart, Christopher. (2006). The humanist scholar as public expert. Written Communication 23.2, 150-172.
Keywords: scholar-as-writer, case-study, discourse-analysis, public, expertise, rhetorical, Waco conflict, debate, content-analysis, style-analysis, mixed-genre, argumentation, kairos, narrative, hybridity, interdisciplinary, extra-disciplinary, 'understanding', topic
Forman, Janis. (1993). Business communication and composition: The writing connection and beyond. Journal of Business Communication 30.3, 313-352.
This article considers business communication's current and potential borrowing from composition studies as well as the constraints on such borrowing. It uses a citation analysis and a study of the arguments in business communication articles published in The Journal of Business Communication to identify the current state of composition's impact on research in business writing. After exploring the factors that may impede additional borrowing from composition, it discusses three major areas of composition studies that may profitably influence research in business communication: the historical and theoretical study of composition as a discipline, multicultural and literacy studies, and contemporary critical and social theory. [author's abstract]
Keywords: business-communication, WAC, cross-disciplinary, composition-studies, citation-analysis, discourse-analysis, argumentation, historiography, English-profession, multicultural, literacy-studies, critique, critical social-theory
Grabau, Larry J.; Patricia S. Wilson. (1995). Jumping on thin ice: Values argument writing assignment for a large enrollment plant science class. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education 24.2, 185-189.
Keywords: biology-course, plant science, class-size, large-class, lecture, library skills, argumentation, WAC, assignment
Greene, Stuart; Amy J. Orr. (2007). First-year college students writing across the disciplines. In O'Neill, Peggy (ed.), Blurring boundaries: Developing writers, researchers and teachers: A tribute to William L. Smith; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Keywords: FYC, WAC, study-longitudinal, data, interview, student-writing, pedagogy, cognitive, literacy-narrative, activity rhetorical-theory, social-science, cognitive science, narrative-writing, expository-writing, argumentative-writing, interpretive-writing, sample essay, claim, assignment, social-context, case study, function-writing, discourse-community
Harney, Diane M.. (1990). Legal advocacy as a means of defining social policy: Arguing school admissions for children with AIDS. Communication Research: An International Quarterly 17.6, 827-841.
Keywords: AIDS, legal-advocacy, social, policy, argumentation, school, admissions, policy, social
Houtlosser, Peter. (2001). Points of view. In van Eemeren, Frans H. (Ed.), Crucial concepts in argumentation theory; Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Keywords: argumentation, theory, point-of-view, perspective, dialectic, pragma-dialectics, social, psychological, cognitive, discourse-analysis, structuralist, debate, advocacy, communicative action
Johnson, J. Paul; Ethan Krase. (2012). Articulating claims and presenting evidence: A study of twelve student writers, from first-year composition to writing across the curriculum. link to full text. WAC Journal 23, 31-48.
Found gains in argumentation (including conciseness and clarity) from early to late papers in first-year composition. Also found improvement from lower-division to upper-division writing in seven of the twelve students, with three more remaining 'stagnant' and two 'regressing' [Richard Haswell]
Keywords: college-span, growth, FYC, pre-post, improvement, data, WAC, Toulmin, development, argumentation, claim, conciseness, clarity, qualification, support, evidence, citation, genre, skill-transfer
Ling, David A.. (1981). Policy advocacy in the legal setting: A case analysis. In Ziegelmueller, George; Jack Rhodes (Eds.), Dimensions of argument: Proceedings of the Second Summer Conference on Argumentation [Alta, Utah, July 30-August 2, 1981]; Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
Keywords: argumentation, legal, case-analysis, case-writing, policy, advocacy, policy
Lukeman, Howard. (1992). First year student essays in humanities and social sciences: The need for new paradigms. Education in Rural Australia 02.2, 37-40.
Keywords: first-year, WAC, text-analysis, discipline-specific, academic, convention, critical-analysis, argumentation, humanities, social-science, paradigm, sciences-humanities, social
Mandell, Dan. (1979). Developing analytic and argumentative skills in philosophy. In Vacca, Linnea (Ed.), Papers from Saint Mary's college writing seminar; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 176 311.
Keywords: WAC, philosophy-course, argumentation, analysis, skill, pedagogy, philosophy
Marcy, Teresa. (1979). Weighing alternatives in government policy. In Vacca, Linnea (Ed.), Papers from Saint Mary's college writing seminar; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 176 311.
Keywords: WAC, political-science-course, government policy, perspective, argumentation, policy
Miller, Gerald R.. (1974). Toward a rhetoric of counterattitudinal advocacy. In Fisher, Walter R. (Ed.); Donald Cross Bryant, Rhetoric: A tradition in transition: In honor of Donald C. Bryant; East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.
Keywords: rhetoric, persuasive, argumentation, advocacy, counterattitudinal advocacy, emotion
Modesitt, L.E., Jr.. (1991). The 'factsheet' as a tool for teaching logical writing. [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 03.1, 20-25.
The author discusses the use of a 'fact sheet' as a writing strategy that can help develop analytical writing. Its basic design is a thesis with a list of supportive facts, intended to help students organize data. Modesitt appears to critique high school teachers for their 'sporadic if at all,' essay assignments without concern for the contexts in which English teachers work on a daily basis. [Vincent Cross]
Keywords: WAC, logical, argumentation, factsheet, thesis-support, data-collection, data-sheet, arrangement, high-school
Moffett, James. (1981). Active voice: A writing program across the curriculum. Upper Montclair NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: pedagogy, curriculum, school-college, exercise, workshopping, readings, sample, WAC, process, pre-writing, revising, sequence, formal-informal, narrative, essay-writing, argumentative, audience, personal essay, observation, abstraction, performance, public, individualization, folder, genre, group, student-motivation
Palczewski, Catherine Helen. (1999). Neutrality as advocacy: The argumentative dynamics in a state-sponsored, 'neutral', educational abortion video. In van Eemeren, Frans H.; Rob Grootendorst; J. Anthony Blair; Charles A. Willard (Eds.), Proceedings of the fourth international conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation; Amsterdam: Stichting International Centrum voor de Studie van Argumentatie en Taalbeheersing.
Keywords: argumentation, advocacy, neutrality, governmental, video, abortion, dynamic
Ritter, Kelly. (2005). English 200: Intermediate Composition. Composition Studies 33.2, 89-112.
Keywords: WAC, major-nonmajor, writing-intensive, advanced, syllabus, Southern Connecticut State University, expository, thematic, argumentation, popular-culture, cultural
Rochelle, Kapp. (2005). 'I was just never exposed to this argument thing': Using a genre approach to teach academic writing to ESL students in the humanities. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, humanities-course, ESL, argumentation
Rubin, Donald; Dawn Bruton; William Dodd; Frederick Johnson; Bennett Rafoth; Lauri Emel; Rosemarie Goodrum; University of Georgia. (1985). Project Synapse: Sparking connection between speech and writing. Instructor's handbook. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 267 455.
Keywords: talk-write, oral-presentation, rhetorical, invention, audience, argumentation, group, role switching, peer questioning, forensic, grammar, ESL, WAC, guidelines, Project Synapse, handbook
Salter, Kenneth W.. (1981). The functions of legal argumentations in pre-trial advocacy. In Ziegelmueller, George; Jack Rhodes (Eds.), Dimensions of argument: Proceedings of the Second Summer Conference on Argumentation [Alta, Utah, July 30-August 2, 1981]; Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
Keywords: argumentation, pre-trial, trial, courtroom, advocacy, functional
Schramm, Jan-Melissa. (2000). Testimony and advocacy in Victorian law, literature, and theology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Keywords: legal-writing, advocacy, argumentation, testimony, 19th-century, England, Victorian, lit-crit, religion, theological
Schuetz, Janice. (1990). Corporate advocacy as argumentation. In Trapp, Robert; Janice Schuetz (Eds.), Perspectives on argumentation: Essays in honor of Wayne Brockriede; Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Keywords: argumentation, business, corporation, advocacy
Shea, Renee Hausmann. (1987). The influence of writing prompt on process and product: An exploratory study using the LSAT writing sample [doctoral thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.
Keywords: prompt, topic, LSAT, assessment, large-scale, process-product, text-analysis, contrast-group, MX, style, arrangement, elaboration, argumentation, creativity, advocacy, Toulmin
Sher, David. (1997). Essays for motivating computer science topics. Mathematics and Computer Education 31.3, 248-251.
Keywords: computer-science-course, WAC, topic, argumentation, concision, task
Sheridan, Barrett E.; Helen Melville Jones. (1999). Assessment of changes in the level of critical thinking in nursing courses in Australian universities: A pilot study. Journal of Teaching Academic Survival Skills 01 (Winter/Spring), 40-62.
Keywords: critical-thinking, gain, nursing, WAC, argumentation, data, pre-post, pilot study, pilot study
Sills, Caryl K.. (1991). Paired composition courses: 'Everything relates'. College Teaching 39.2, 61-64.
Sills notes that paired courses assist students in becoming aware of the 'connections among ideas and issues across disciplinary boundaries, and [helps] them gain intellectual sophistication by confronting and assessing multiple perspectives' (p. 61). She discusses the linkage between an English Composition course and Introduction to Sociology, where 'the professors were free to design two separate but related courses that would serve the goals of both the English and sociology departments' (p. 61). In this link, 'we focused on interpreting and communicating information as a component of the learning process,' Sills writes, 'accurate and effective use of language became a means of knowing sociology, rather than a separate exercise called ‘writing’' (p. 62). Sills comments that paired courses require a larger time commitment from faculty and that the relationship between the two courses must be actively managed by both instructors. Working together, the two faculty members can find an appropriate balance for 'pacing, methodology, and goals' (p. 64).[Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: Monmouth College [New Jersey], linked, FYC, EAP, ESL, learning-community, sociology-course, WAC, comparison, text-analysis, argumentation, student-attitude, faculty-commitment
Soffree-Cady, Flore Frederique. (1987). A pedagogical theory and practice for college writing courses and writing across the curriculum courses: A social constructionist perspective on learning through argument [doctoral thesis]. Louisville, KY: University of Louisville.
Keywords: write-to-learn, WAC, pedagogy, theory, pedagogy, social, constructivist, argumentation, constructionist, pedagogy, William Perry, development, Vygotsky, social
Sommers, Nancy. (1994). A study of undergraduate writing at Harvard. Princeton, NJ: Harvard University, Expository Writing Program.
Keywords: undergraduate, Harvard University, teaching fellow, teacher-opinion, interview, questionnaire, data, longitudinal, junior, response, mentoring, requirement, FYC, WAC, major, science argumentation, pedagogy, sequence, assignment, undergraduate
Walker, Gregg B.; William Cue. (1987). Advocacy and influence in integrative negotiation: 'Win-win' argumentation. In Wenzel, Joseph W. (Ed.), Argument and critical practices: Proceedings of the fifth SCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation [July 30-August 2, 1987? Alta, UT]; Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association [American Forensic Association].
Keywords: argumentation, advocacy, negotiation, win-win, nonadversarial, integrative, negotiation
Witte, Kim. (1994). Fear control and danger control: A test of the extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs 61.2, 113-134.
Keywords: argumentation, persuasion, appeal, fear, threat, self-efficacy, elicitation, data, extended parallel process model, parallel-process, data
Wolfe, Christopher R.. (2011). Argumentation across the curriculum. Written Communication 28.2, 193-219.
Keywords: argumentation, WAC, cross-disciplinary, assignment-analysis, text-analysis, genre, taxonomy, undergraduate, data, frequency, engineering, fine arts, social-science, education, natural-science, humanities, business
Yoos, George E.. (1984). Rational appeal and the ethics of advocacy. In Connors, Robert J.; Lisa S. Ede; Andrea A. Lunsford (Eds.), Essays on classical rhetoric and modern discourse; Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 263 597].
Keywords: argumentation, reasoning, ethical, advocacy, ethics
[various]. (1990). [synopses of conference talks, Seventh National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Montreal, Canada, April, 1989]. [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 09, 2-48.
Keywords: testing, computer, process, large-scale, standards, WPA, international, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, ESL, literacy, competency, holistic, University of Minnesota, validity, construct-validity, topic, assessment, Scotland, classroom, portfolio assessment, program, self-evaluation, peer-evaluation, self-validation, professional-school, veterinary, WAC, rater-training, program-validation, empowerment, rising-junior [East Texas State University], wcenter, transfer-student, James Britton, Peter Elbow, campus-wide, universal, computer, individual-differences, ESL, community, contrastive, City University of New York, disciplinary, rising-junior [University of Missouri-St. Louis], rising-junior [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee], prompt, argumentation, validity, primary-trait, physics-department, feminist, pedagogy, placement, minimum competency, scale, score stability, response, local assessment, feature