The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

— Justin Jory
Bibliography Editor

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Adams, Pauline Gordon; Emma Shore Thornton. (1986). An inquiry into the process of collaboration. Language Arts of Michigan 02, 25-28.
Keywords: collaboration, questionnaire, teacher-opinion, WAC, data, discipline, gender, age, inquiry
Anderson, Larry; Patricia Teel Bates; Don Smith. (1994). Reader-response theory and instructors' holistic evaluating in and out of their fields. Teaching English in the Two-Year College 21.1, 53-62.
Keywords: data, experiment, evaluation, holistic, rating, contrast-group, academic, discipline, WAC, gender-difference, ethnicity, African-Am, anglo, prompt, assessment, topic
Anderson, S. J.. (1986). Student essay assignment preferences: A study of sex, age and creativity variables. In O'Dowd, Kathleen; Earnest I. Nolan (Eds.), Learning to write/writing to learn; Livonia, MI: Madonna College, Humanities Writing Program.
Keywords: WAC, student-opinion, topic choice, student-preference, data, factorial, gender, age-correlation, creativity
Anthony, Mary Anne; Rancho Santiago Community College [Santa Ana, CA]. (1991). RSC classroom research consortium project: 1990-91/year-two report [Rancho Santiago College]. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 341 423.
Keywords: two-year, persistence, diversity, project, computer, critical-thinking, WAC, teacher-opinion, multiculturalism, portfolio
Babin, Jane E.; Daniel P. Moore. (1995). An investigation of gender through writing. [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 06, 45-54.
Keywords: WAC, gender, topic, assignment, role-playing, memorandum-writing, case-method, pedagogy
Batchelder, Susan (Ed.). (1992). Diversity and writing: Dialogue with a modern university: Proceedings, first annual conference, April 1990 / Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing (Monograph series No. 2). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 377 482].
Keywords: diversity, WAC, contemporary
Beyer, Catharine Hoffman; Gerald M. Gillmore; Andrew T. Fisher. (2007). Inside the undergraduate experience: The University of Washington's study of undergraduate learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The University of Washington's Study of Undergraduate Learning (UW SOUL) tracked 304 entering freshmen and transfer students as they moved through their college experience from fall 1999 to spring 2003. Unparalleled in its scope, this longitudinal study focused on six areas of learning: writing, critical thinking/problem solving, quantitative reasoning, information literacy, understanding and appreciating diversity, and personal growth. This book provides faculty, staff, and administrators at two- and four-year institutions with a model of assessment that both captures the complexity of the undergraduate experience and offers practical information about how to improve teaching and learning. Data from surveys, open-ended email questions, interviews, focus groups, and portfolios make it possible for the authors to create case studies of individual learning paths over time, as well as to report the group s aggregate experience. Honoring the authenticity of student voices, this book illuminates the central roles played by the academic disciplines and by faculty in undergraduate learning, offering powerful evidence for the argument that assessment of student learning is most complete and most useful when conducted at the department level. [publisher's blurb]
Keywords: longitudinal, data, University of Washington, undergraduate, critical-thinking, problem-solving, quantitative reasoning, diversity, information literacy, personal growth, development, survey, focus group, case-study, portfolio, self-report, self-evaluation, argumentation, WAC, research-based, undergraduate
Butler, Susan. (1998). Race and gender in an internet-based history course. Works and Days 16.1-2, 193-216.
Keywords: internet, classroom, racial, gender, history-course, WAC
Caywood, Cynthia L.; Gilliam R. Overing. (1987). Writing across the curriculum: A model for a workshop and a call for change. In Caywood, Cynthia L.; Gillian R. Overing (Eds.), Teaching writing: Pedagogy, gender and equity; Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Keywords: gender, equity, WAC, workshop, change
du Pre, Athena. (1997). Diversity in the classroom: A case study in gender awareness. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 411 552.
Keywords: gender, communications-course, classroom, discussion, WAC, assignment, diversity
Faery, Rebecca Blevins. (1987). Women and writing across the curriculum: Learning and liberation. In Caywood, Cynthia L.; Gillian R. Overing (Eds.), Teaching writing: Pedagogy, gender and equity; Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Keywords: women, gender, equity, WAC, liberatory, change
Giddens, Elizabeth . (2009). Saving the next tree: The Georgia hemlock project, community action and environmental literacy. Community Literacy Journal 04.1, 75-91.
abstract not published: This article describes a community effort in the north Georgia mountains to stem the spread of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) infestation, which is killing eastern hemlocks throughout their range. The project has raised awareness of the problem, funds to finance research and the cultivation of predator beetles, and citizen science involvement. Participating institutions and groups quickly focused on a shared purpose and have managed the project in a manner that accommodates separate benefits to each entity. In addition, the individuals leading the project have employed a personable, respectful, and flexible contact style, which has attracted participants and appealed to volunteers. Perhaps most important, the project has enabled participants to play active roles in fighting the infestation, rather than merely requesting monetary support or long-term changes to personal behavior; research shows these latter strategies are unlikely to result in authentic understanding of environmental issues or long-term behavioral change. Paradoxically, the field work itself has enabled participants to make connections between ecological crises--such as the HWA infestation--and choices that individuals can control--such as whether or not to use non-native plants in their suburban yards. This account demonstrates strategies that can be successful in many community action initiatives and that should have particular appeal for environmental activists.
Keywords: reciprocity, community literacy, community action, advocacy, biodiversity, native plants, invasive species, environmental literacy
Gottschalk, Katherine K.. (1991). Training TAs across the curriculum to teaching writing: Embracing diversity. In Nyquist, Jody (Ed.), Preparing the professoriate to teach: Selected readings in TA training; Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Keywords: TA-training, WAC, pedagogy, diversity
Greene, Gary Lynn. (1999). Writing self-efficacy, gender, aptitude, and writing achievement among freshman university students [doctoral thesis]. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama.
Keywords: gender-difference, University of Alabama, FYC, predictive, background, aptitude, self-efficacy, improvement, aptitude
Hall, Jonathan. (2009). WAC/WID in the next America: Redefining professional identity in the age of the multilingual majority. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 33-49.
Drawing from data depicting the fast rise of linguistically diverse students in k-12 and in higher education, as well as the trend toward globalization in the workplace, Hall calls for WAC administrators to prepare for this ‘New America’ by shifting faculty development programming to be inclusive of second language writing. Hall provides areas of L2 writing research useful to WAC administrators for educating themselves on working with L2 writers as well as enrich faculty development programming to be inclusive of L2 writing issues. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, transformative, multilingual, WID, diversity, ESL, data, teacher-growth, identity, majority
Hirsch, Linda; Joanne Nadal; Linda Shohet. (1991). Adapting language across the curriculum to diverse linguistic populations. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Keywords: WAC, two-year, diversity, minority
Holdstein, Deborah H.. (2014). Review: Theory, Practice, and the Disciplinary Cross-Narrative [book review]. College English 76.5, 458-467.
Keywords: Agents of Integration: Understanding Transfer as a Rhetorical Act, by Rebecca S. Nowacek; The Materiality of Language: Gender, Politics, and the University, by David Bleich; The Promise of Reason: Studies in The New Rhetoric, edited by John T. Gage
Johns, Ann M.. (2001). ESL students and WAC programs: Varied populations and diverse needs. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing across the curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
In this landmark chapter, Johns provides WAC administrators with an overview of the research on second language writers, covering such issues as differences between permanent resident L2 students and visa-holding L2 students; second language acquisition; error; and contrastive rhetoric. She then provides approaches for analyzing how and where L2 students are taught to write in a university as well as provides suggestions for better supporting L2 writers across the curriculum though faculty development, particularly in relation to understanding the writing development of L2 students, understanding and dealing with sentence-level errors in L2 writers’ texts, and the cultural complexities of plagiarism. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, program, needs-analysis, change, diversity, WPA, administrating
Kells, Michelle Hall. (2007). Writing across communities: Deliberation and the discursive possibilities of WAC. Reflections: A Journal of Writing, Service-Learning, and Community Literacy 6.1, 87-108.
This article argues that traditional models of WAC too narrowly privilege academic discourse over other discourses and communities shaping the worlds in which our students live and work. Writing Across Communities represents a shift in paradigm informed by Ecocomposition, New Literacy Studies, and Sociolinguistics. A Writing Across Communities approach to writing program reform foregrounds dimensions of ethnolinguistic diversity and civic engagement in contrast to other models of WAC currently institutionalized across the nation. Writing Across Communities, as a resistance discourse, calls for transdisciplinary dialogue that demystifies the ways we make and use knowledge across communities of practice. [Reflections]
Keywords: service-learning, pedagogy, pedagogy, WAC, WID, writing-across-the-curriculum, diversity, literacy, ecocomposition, sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistic, civic, program-design
Maimon, Elaine P.. (1991). Errors and expectations in writing across the curriculum: Diversity, equity, and the ideology of writing across the curriculum. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 331 092.
Keywords: WAC, diversity, equity, ideology, write-to-learn, theory, individualization, expectation
Martindale, Carolyn. (1991). Infusing cultural diversity into communication courses. Journalism Educator 45.4, 34-38.
Keywords: journalism-program, WAC, diversity, minority, term-paper
Moore, Julie L.; Erin San Gregory; Sarah Matney. (2009). Designing tutor guides to enhance effectiveness across disciplines and with special demographics. link to full text. Writing Lab Newsletter 34.5-5, 1-5.
Keywords: tutor-manual, wcenter, WAC, disciplinary, diversity, tutoring
Murphy, Carolyn Colvin; Duane F. Shell. (1989). Reading and writing beliefs for ethnic students: Relationship of self-efficacy beliefs, causal attribution, and outcome expectancy to reading and writing performance for ethnically diverse college freshmen. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 347 497.
Keywords: diversity, self-efficacy, causal attribution, outcome expectancy, FYC, African-Am, Mexican-Am, Hispanic, contrast-group, quality, correlation, data, ethnic
Nelson, Gayle L.. (1997). How cultural differences affect written and oral communication: The case of peer response groups. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, peer-evaluation, cultural, interpersonal, diversity, cultural, individualism-collectivism, face, interaction, service-learning, oral-communication
Pajares, Frank; Gio Valiante; Yuk Fai Cheong. (2007). Writing self-efficacy and its relation to gender, writing motivation and writing competence: A developmental perspective. In Hidi, Suzanne; Pietro Boscolo (Eds.), Writing and motivation; Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Keywords: writer-motivation, emotion, writer-interest, psychological, self-efficacy, gender, competence, development
Reiff, Mary Jo. (2002). WAC and writing theory. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 13, 100-112.
Keywords: WAC, theory, postmodernism, audience, multicultural, diversity
Reynolds, Erica J.. (2003). The role of self-efficacy in writing and directed self-placement. In Royer, Daniel; Roger Gilles (Eds.), Directed self-placement: Principles and practices; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Reynolds reviews studies on self-efficacy in relation to academic reading and writing for students, considering how it affects DSP (75). According to the literature she summarizes, self-efficacy is defined as 'people’s judgment of their capabilities to organize and excuse courses of action required to attain designated types of performance' (74). Reynolds' literature review finds that self-efficacy appears to be directly related to perceptions of writing ability by experienced raters, academic reading and writing achievement, and diminished anxiety over multiple writing assignments over a semester (76-79). Through these studies, Reynolds discovers that self-efficacy, and self-confidence are related to student writing abilities in and outside the classroom. She recommends that universities that implement DSP should be more specific about the types of good writing that they are looking for and that students should pick their class the same day that they receive information about DSP. Reynolds notes that factors such as apprehension and self-efficacy should be taken into account before a student begins to place herself in an English class. In the final section, Reynolds compares how males and females respond to writing feedback. Males have more apprehension about writing; females are more likely to respond to negative feedback on their writing; and females are less confident about their writing. Reynolds argues for more research on confidence, apprehension, self-efficacy, and gender, and how these factors affect a student's decision in a DSP program. [Asao B. Inoue, et al., Directed Self-Placement; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 16]
Keywords: placement, directed self-placement, self-placement, self-assessment, self-efficacy, correlation, data, academic-success, self-confidence, apprehension, gender-difference
Roskelly, Hephzibah. (2002). WAC meets WMS: Not love at first sight [women's studies]. In Anson, Christopher M. (Ed.), The WAC casebook: Scenes for faculty reflection and program development; New York: Oxford University Press.
Keywords: teacher-training, WAC, scenario, gender, women's-studies
Roth, Robin L.. (1985). Learning about gender through writing: Student journals in the undergraduate classroom. Teaching Sociology 12.3, 325-338.
Keywords: sociology-course, journal-writing, WAC, gender, questioning, problem-posing, write-to-learn, undergraduate
Villanueva, Victor. (2001). The politics of literacy across the curriculum. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing-across-the-curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Focuses on the problems of the absence of politics/political economy in studies of literature and literacy due to Platonic anti-materialism in academia and an all too prevalent attitude of taking multiculturalism for granted. Calls for study of political economy so as to better situate and accept diverse student writing in its place relative to disciplinary convention and eventually shift conventions in accordance with the reality of cultural situations. With particular attention paid to hegemonized cultures, subversive imitation of formal disciplinary writing is encouraged. [Michael Bistreich]
Keywords: WAC, literacy, political economy, ethnicity, change, multiculturalism, academy, diversity, contextual, hegemony, subversive
Walvoord, Barbara. (2006). Gender and discipline in two early WAC communities: Lessons for today. In McLeod, Susan H.; Margot Soven (Eds.), Composing a community: A history of writing across the curriculum; West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.
Keywords: WAC, history, gender, disciplinary
Warenda, Amy. (1993). They. [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 04, 99-108.
Keywords: WAC, third-person, pronoun, 'they', epicene, bias, gender, usage
Winter, Janet K; Esther J. Winter. (1992). Using the portfolio approach in teaching intercultural business communication. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 347 902.
Keywords: portfolio, WAC, bizcom, international, evaluation, letter-writing, report-writing, diversity, audience-awareness, intercultural
Wolcott, Willa; with Sue M.Legg. (1998). An overview of writing assessment: Theory, research, and practice. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 423 541].
Surveys recent developments in writing assessment within the context of the assessment field as a whole. Includes practical examples, applications, and teaching tips. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: assessment, theory, pedagogy, large-scale, evaluation, guidelines, objective, diversity, reliability, validity, WAC, computer, overview
[various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school