The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

— Justin Jory
Bibliography Editor

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Basic Writing

Anonymous. (1955). Workshop and Panel-Discussion Reports of the 1955 Conference On College Composition and Communication. College Composition and Communication 06.3, 123-179.
Keywords: FYC, newspaper, pedagogy, wcenter, read-write, training, honors, basic, ESL, reading, citation, advanced, deterioration, WAC, articulation, listening, creativity, examination, techcom, WPA, comskills, spelling, program, grammar, major,
Anonymous. (1959). The basic issues in the teaching of English, being definitions and clarifications presented by members of the American Sstudies Association, College English Association, Modern Language Association, and National Council of Teachers of English. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Keywords: English-profession, aim, competency, proficiency, basic, pedagogy, read-write, national standards, speech, class-size, work-load, technology, audiovisual, WAC, graduate, certification, English-ed, training, rhetoric, linguistics, lit-crit, articulation, DA-degree, contemporary
Bailey, George; Gregory Ross. (1983). Overcoming declining literacy with personalized, programmed instruction. Teaching Philosophy 06.2, 139-145.
Keywords: WAC, philosophy-course, basic, decline, personalization, interactive, pre-writing software, programmed
Collet, M. J.. (1991). Read between the lines: Music as a basis for learning. Music Educators Journal 78.3, 42-45.
Keywords: WAC, music-course, at-risk, basic, self-esteem, journal-writing
Committee on Basic Issues. (1959). The basic issues in the teaching of English. A conference report. Publications of the Modern Language Association 74.4 (pt. 2), 1-12.
Keywords: English-profession, aim, competency, proficiency,basic, pedagogy, read-write, national standards, speech, class-size, work-load, drudgery, technology, audiovisual, WAC, graduate, certification, English-ed, training, rhetoric, linguistics, lit-crit, articulation, DA-degree
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-Year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
Downs and Wardle describe WAW curricula that extend beyond students reading and writing about existing scholarship in rhetoric and composition (cf. Dew) to having students conduct primary research on related topics. They frame the pedagogy as an ‘Introduction to Writing Studies’ that explicitly rejects the traditional FYC goal of teaching a universal academic discourse and instead seeks to teach (1) metacognition about writing via procedural and declarative knowledge of writing, and (2) a version of the activity of inquiry that centers universities and spans disciplines. The article theorizes the shortcomings of traditional FYC courses in terms of genre and activity theory and describes WAW curricula that can better respond to these theories of how writing works and thus needs to be learned. It then reports on early results from the curriculum as taught in multiple sections at three institutions, illustrating effects through two particular student experiences in the course. Student feedback and results suggest that the WAW curriculum results in increased self-awareness about writing, improved reading abilities and confidence, and raised awareness of researched writing as conversation. The article concludes with challenges that the curriculum presents, including the challenging nature of the course for students, the resulting imperfections in student work, limited textbook support for the approach, and the need for extensive instructor preparation. [Doug Downs, Writing-About-Writing Curricula: Origins, Theories, and Initial Field-Tests, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 12]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
While much of this article is an explication and defense of the authors' proposed 'writing about writing' pedagogy, there are explicit connections to transfer explored. Downs and Wardle address two prevalent misconceptions about FYC: that FYC can teach students 'academic writing' (a concept that defies singular definition), and that writing skills learned in FYC transfer to other writing contexts. They contend there is 'little empirical verification' of such transfer, and, in fact, some evidence to suggest that such transfer does not occur. To address these two misconceptions, the authors suggest a transformation of FYC into 'Introduction to Writing Studies,' a course that 'could teach about the ways writing works in the world' and about writing as a mediating tool. Based on the results of a pilot study with a research sample of eighty-four students in two universities, the authors conclude that this curriculum results in students' 'increased self awareness about writing,' increased confidence and improved reading ability, and increased understanding of writing (particularly research) as a conversation among writers. While not without its challenges and its critics (which are acknowledged and addressed), this curriculum, the authors assert, has the potential to increase transfer through reflective activities, a focus on abstracting generalities about writing, and increased context awareness, each of which helps students to understand how rhetorical strategies are realized in particular contexts for writing. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Goldblatt, Eli. (2007). Because we live here: Sponsoring literacy beyond the college curriculum. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Using Saul Alinsky's community organizing methods and Dewey's progressive education models, the author shows how university writing programs can treat community writing needs as a central focus of their programmatic work. Chapters 1-4 focus on a set of connections between the Temple University writing program and local high schools, a community college, and community groups, analyzing the writing conflicts inherent in such issues as transfer, curriculum continuity, and funding. Chapters 5 and 6 analyze the movement of literacy problems and possibilities among the sites detailed in the first half of the book. The author proposes moving beyond WAC/WID to Writing Beyond the Curriculum (WBC), so that writing programs can see their institutions as 'one among many' writing actors in local settings, a frame which students, too, must develop in order to truly understand writing as a social act. [Rebecca Lorimer]. [Rebecca Lorimer & David Stock, Service Learning Initiatives: Implementation and Administration; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 13].
Keywords: service-learning, community literacy, Temple University, community-service, extracurricular, college-community, school-college, WAC, John Dewey, Sharon Crowley, New London Group, FYC, placement, basic, vocational, two-year, Saul Alinsky, activism, grant-writing, skill-transfer
Guralnick, Elissa S.; Paul M. Levitt. (1977). Improving student writing: A case history. College Engish 38.5, 506-511.
Describes environment of writing instruction at U of Colorado. Examines teacher and student attitudes toward writing, admission scores, placement tests. Allocates responsibility of writing instruction to all faculty and describes faculty reactions. Outlines revision of admission policies and entrance requirements. [Sue Hum]
Keywords: deterioration, SAT-testing, upper-division, requirement, cut-off, history, Univ ersity of Colorado, placement, basic, writing-intensive, case-narrative, University of Colorado, WAC, student-writing
Hancock, Deborah Osen; Andrew Moss; Patricia Brandt; Sharon Owens (compliers). (1979). Reading and writing programs within the disciplines: A preliminary directory of models (revised edition). Fullerton, CA: University of California/California State University Workgroup on Reading and Writing Programs within the Disciplines.
Keywords: read-write, basic-skills, program, survey, USA, model, directory, preliminary, ancillary, workshop, WAC
Hayes, John R.; Diana M. Bajzek; Susan Lawrence; Erwin R. Steinberg. (2007). Developing an online writing tutor: The interaction of design principles and assessment. In O'Neill, Peggy (ed.), Blurring boundaries: Developing writers, researchers and teachers: A tribute to William L. Smith; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Keywords: online-tutor, writing-tutor, WAC, audience, technical-writing, thesis statement, data, pedagogy, judgment training, basic-writing, science-student, engineering-student, Online Writing Lab, Carnegie Mellon Writing Tutor, Cognitive Tutor for Writers, Calibrated Peer Review, peer-evaluation, self-validation, Sager, assessment-criteria, goal-setting, exercise, decomposition, participation-student, scaffolding, feedback, tutor-features, tutoring session, assessment, program-design, sample essay, William L. Smith, tribute, anecdote, , principle, tutoring
Hobbs, Valerie; Lesley Rex-Kerish. (1986). Tenderfooting: Tackling the problems of freshman writers. College Teaching 34.3, 94-98.
Keywords: University of California, FYC, underprepared, basic, pedagogy, WAC, read-write, critical-thinking, arrangement, style
Lesnak, Richard J.. (1993). Using linguistics in the teaching of developmental and remedial algebra. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 366 383.
Keywords: data, gain, contrast-group, pre-post, mathematics-course, basic, Robert Morris College [Pennsylvania], WAC, write-to-learn, clarity
Marx, Michael Steven. (1987). Joining the composition classroom and the content course: A contextualized approach for teaching developmental writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 285 175.
Keywords: basic, University of Michigan, WAC, write-to-learn, syllabus, assignment, journal-writing, conferencing, placement, data, contextualization
Miller, Carol; Thomas Brothen; Jay Hatch; Norman Moen. (1988). Beyond functional literacy: An integrated writing across the curriculum package for basic writers. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 05.1, 5-16.
Keywords: functional literacy, WAC, basic, learning-community, history-course, environmental-science-course, FYC, University of Minnesota, critical-thinking, course-content, integrated, environmental, write-to-learn
National Council of Teachers of English Executive Committee. (1979). Standards for basic skills writing programs. College English 41.2, 220-222.
Keywords: basic, program, objectives, form, content, audience, arrangement, genre, WAC, standard written English, error
New Jersey Basic Skills Council [Trenton, NJ]. (1984). Teaching reading & writing in college, in high school, in every subject. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Basic Skills Council [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 303 788].
Keywords: read-write, WAC, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, assessment, bibliography, teacher-training
North, Stephen M.. (2011). On the place of writing in higher education (and why it doesn't include composition). In Massey, Lance; Richard C. Gebhardt (Eds.), The changing of knowledge in composition: Contemporary perspectives; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: writing-studies, profession, history, writing-major, University of Albany, poetics, curriculum, development, advanced, teacher-knowledge, basic, wcenter, WAC, change
Pallmann, Margot. (1983). Verbal language processes in support of learning mathematics. Mathematics in College, 49-55.
Keywords: mathematics-course, basic, WAC, write-to-learn, problem-solving, data, improvement, verbal
Press, Harriet Baylor. (1979). Basic motivation for basic skill: The interdependent approach to interdisciplinary writing. College English 41.3, 310-313.
Calls for fostering a symbiotic relationship between composition and beginning courses in other subjects, making composition interdisciplinary. Emphasizes having a dual purpose--reinforcing materials taught in other courses and teaching rhetoric, style, and technique. Describes author's composition/psychology course. [Sue Hum]
Keywords: basic, interdisciplinarity, first-year, syllabus, psychology-course, WAC, write-to-learn, interdependence, student-motivation
Rose, Mike. (1982). Remedial writing courses: Do they limit more than foster growth in writing?. In Cronnell, Bruce; Joan Michael (Eds.); Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development; California State University, Long Beach, Writing: Policies, problems, and possibilities: Proceedings of a conference co-sponsored by SWRL Educational Research and Development and by California State Unversity, Long Beach (held at SWRL, Los Alamitos, California, May 7, 1982); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 221 872.
Keywords: basic, growth, improvement, survey, UCLA, WAC, assignment, data, error, topic, correctness model, read-write, thinking, seriation, classification
Stempien, Margaret; Raffaella Borasi. (1985). Students' writing in mathematics: Some ideas and experiences. For the Learning of Mathematics--An International Journal of Mathematics Education 05.3, 14-17.
Keywords: mathematics-course, WAC, narrative, essay-writing, emotion, diary-writing, anecdotal, dialogue, basic, pedagogy
Tate, Gary; Amy Rupiper; Kurt Schick (Eds.). (2001). A guide to composition pedagogies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Keywords: pedagogy, composition, composition-studies, content, basic, expressive, feminism, liberatory, cultural-studies, rhetorical, writing-across-the-curriculum, WAC, WID, wcenter, technology, computer, pedagogy
Williamson, Michael W.. (1987). Basic writers writing across the disciplines I: An historical and theoretical introduction. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 04.1, 57-70.
Keywords: WAC, basic, history, curriculum, write-to-learn, discipline-specific, functional, social, purpose, academic, disciplinary
[various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2087toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school