The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

— Justin Jory
Bibliography Editor

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WAC Practices

Abrams, Lowell. (2017). Seeing the forest and the trees when writing a mathematical proof. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 19-28.
Abstract: One of the typical challenges facing a mathematics student when writing a proof is the need to understand the interplay of details and broader concepts. I describe a multi-step proof-writing assignment used in a mid-level course for mathematics majors that is designed to help with this challenge by forcing students to incrementally increase their engagement with the various conceptual levels of the material at hand.
Addison, Joanne; Sharon James McGee. (2010). Writing in high school/writing in college: Research trends and future directions. College Composition and Communication 62.1, 147-179.
Outlines major large-scale writing research projects done within the ten years preceding article publication. Using student responses to the National Survey of Student Engagement’s (NSSE) 'writing-specific' questions, Addison and McGee identified five scales that 'describe the quality of undergraduate writing and establish that certain types of writing are substantially related to NSSE’s deep learning subscales, especially higherorder thinking and integrative learning,' through investigating: pre-writing activities, instructor articulation of clear expectations, the assignment of higher-order writing tasks, good instructor practices such as student collaboration, sample review and opportunities for writing practice, and evidence of student use of integrated media like the inclusion of visual content in their writing. Upon comparison of the aggregate data from the studies referenced above using these five scales, Addison and McGee found that college and high school faculty across the curriculum only diverged in their practices in terms of assigning higher-order writing tasks and using integrated media . Yet, college faculty tended to provide fewer opportunities for peer review and 'informal, exploratory' writing. Alternately, student and teacher as well as instructor-workplace perceptions and expectations about writing were far less congruent. In response, calls for the following future actions: the creation of 'WAC-centered vertical curriculum' between high schools and colleges that concretely emphasizes the transfer of skills related to not only essay but also narrative and critical research-based writing , including interdisciplinary rhetorical analysis and workplace genres; the establishment of future research partnerships between large organizations like NSSE and WPA jointly guided by the Committee on Research and Committee on Professional Visibility and Databases within CCCC; and the formation of an online repository by NCTE/CCCC to archive the raw data and tools used in writing studies as a resource for upcoming research and advocacy efforts [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Keywords: writing-studies, school-college, articulation, literacy, WAC, scale, deep learning, curriculum, workplace, genre, best-practices, academic, research-method, future, trend, National Survey of Student Engagement’s (NSSE), WPA Committee on Research and Committee on Professional Visibility and Databases, CCCC, data repository, digital, rhetorical-analysis, interdisciplinary, trend
Bateman, David N.. (1975). Corporate communications of advocacy: Practical perspectives and procedures. Journal of Business Communication 13.1, 3-11.
Keywords: business-communication, corporation, advocacy, workforce, public, best-practices, program, guidelines
Bird, Barbara. (2012). Rethinking our view of learning. Writing Lab Newsletter 36.5-6, 1-5.
Keywords: wcenter, theory-practice, evidence-based, deep learning, impressionistic thinking, self-efficacy, self-regulatory, assessment
Blau, Sheridan. (2010). Academic writing as participation: Writing your way in. In Sullivan, Patrick; Tinberg, Howard; Blau, Sheridan (Eds.), What is “college-level” writing? Volume 2: Assignments, Readings and Student Writing Samples; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Blau describes and models his methodology and classroom practice of a genre-specific approach that purports to enable the transition of high school, community college and first-year college students into the university academic discourse community. Blau bases his claims of efficacy on anecdotal reports, observations done in New York City community colleges and high school classrooms as well as the application of research and theory. Blau suggests that students ought to write share and discuss literary commentary so they can concretely enact the formation of genuine academic discursive practices. These student commentaries are used for longer papers where students read, respond to and cite each other’s work. Blau contends that this 'genre-creating program' promotes the 'critical thinking' that is essential to the reading and writing involved in 'college-level discourse' because it lends students academic authority, in that they are originators and evaluators of a shared classroom disciplinary textual [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Keywords: school-college, two-year, research-method, New York City, discourse-community, genre-specific, disciplinary, convention, WAC, critical-thinking, research-practice, theory-practice, discursive, praxis
Boland, Sally. (1989). How I started using WAC and ended up taking algebra again: A review of useful works on writing across the curriculum [review-essay]. [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 01, 71-76.
Keywords: WAC, history, theory, theory-practice, teacher-story
Boland, Sally. (1997). How I started using writing across the curriculum and ended up taking algebra again: A review of useful works on writing across the curriculum [reprint]. [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 110-114.
Keywords: WAC, history, theory, theory-practice, teacher-story
Cassity, Kathleen J.. (2015). What cognitive psychology suggests about the teaching and assessment of writing. Journal of Teaching Writing 28.2, 19-40.
Keywords: cognitive, psychology, Ronald Kellogg, Alison Whiteford, learning-theory, skill-acquisition, development, regression, WAC, pedagogy, 'deliberate practice', working-memory, automaticity, review-of-scholarship, practice, patience, process, feedback, freewriting, assessment, evaluation, Academically Adrift, Richard Arum, Josipa Roksa
Comprone, Joseph J.. (1987). The new rhetoric: A way of connecting community and discourse conventions in writing across the disciplines courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 279 019.
Keywords: Toulmin, Perelman, Olbrechts-Tyteca, new rhetorical-theory-practice, disciplinary, universal audience, argumentation, WAC
Dixon, Dwayne. (2017). Imagining the essay as digital assemblage: Collaborative student experiments with writing in scalar. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 35-46.
Abstract: This essay describes a digital, collaboratively designed and interconnected series of essays that were the final project for a first-year class in media and anthropology. These essays were composed using a digital, publically accessible, scholarly publishing platform that allows students to experiment architecturally with arguing related ideas through non-linear text. The result is an intricate, flexible pathway of pages. The assignment is informed by, and attempts to experimentally enact, Felix Guattari's concept of the assemblage, emphasizing movement and process of argument and evidence over static, reified trajectories of traditional essay composition. By examining the periphery of their own ideas, students encounter the interpretations of their classmates and discover alternate readings of key themes, which they can then fold into their own writing networks, ultimately creating a textual flow which challenges the singularity of the author and the boundaries of disciplinary thinking.
Ennis, Michael. (2017). Explaining a scientific concept for page and screens. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 47-54.
Abstract: While students learn valuable skills by composing multimodal works, these assignments can also help students master traditional writing genres by defamiliarizing some of the "design choices" they make when writing. Requiring students to revise a traditional written essay into a video accomplishes two key goals in both lower level and advanced writing classes. It updates writing curricula to provide students experience with the kind of writing they will do in other classes. Furthermore, reflecting on the revision process enhances student appreciation for the importance of clear prose, careful exposition, and logical organization.
Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.). (1990). Programs that work: Models and methods for writing across the curriculum. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.
Keywords: WAC, program, survey, best-practices
Grimes, Dorothy G.. (1982). The English department, the teaching of writing, and the academic community: Particle, wave, and field. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 220 855.
Keywords: University of Montevallo [Alabama], process, WAC, FYC, write-to-learn, theory-practice, agenda
Grobman, Laurie. (2017). The policy brief assignment: Transferable skills in action in a community-engaged writing project. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 8-18.
Abstract: The policy brief assignment in my capstone course in professional writing was designed as a community-engaged project in partnership with a nonprofit organization whose mission is to grow Reading, Pennsylvania's economy. The assignment was intended to do real work in the world: the nonprofit's director, a city council member, and an outreach manager for the city of Reading plan to use the policy briefs to convince Reading's City Council to adopt the recommended policies to enhance citizen participation and representation in local governance and to address deficiencies identified through the STAR Community Rating System(r) (STAR), the nation's leading sustainability framework and certification program (STAR 2016). I welcomed the collaboration and designed the assignment with the goal that students would experience what writing faculty always tell them: fundamental concepts in composition and rhetoric/writing studies are operational in the workplace, and understanding writing and communication rhetorically opens up possibilities for them to enter diverse and unfamiliar writing contexts.
Hall, Susanne; Jonathan Dueck. (2017). Editors' introduction: Presenting writing assignments as intellectual work and as disciplinary practice. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 1-7.
This editors' introduction shares the history and articulates the goals and format of the journal Prompt.
Jones, Robert; Joseph J. Comprone. (1993). Where do we go next in writing across the curriculum?. College Composition and Communication 44.1, 59-68.
Keywords: WAC, program, objective, best-practices
Knoblauch, C. H.. (1988). Rhetorical constructions: Dialogue and commitment. College English 50.2, 125-140.
Keywords: Freire, praxis, rhetorical, constructivist, critical consciousness, theory-practice, ontological, objectivist, expressionism, sociological, dialogic, political, individualism, reflexivity, WAC, commitment
Larson, Richard L.. (1994). Curricula in college writing programs: Much diversity, little assessment (Ford Foundation report, No. 850-0584). New York: City University of New York, Research Foundation.
Keywords: program-validation, USA, survey [1986; 1990], WAC, exit-exam, curriculum, formalist, content, process, audience, process, freewriting, brainstorming, practice-research, objective, validation, textbook, mode, grammatical, sentence combining, revising, peer-evaluation, advanced, WAC, assignment, sequence, read-write, genre, data-analysis, teacher-training
Lauer, Janice M.; Gene Montague; Andrea Lunsford; Janet Emig. (1991). Four worlds of writing. 3rd edition [textbook with readings]. New York: Harper & Row.
Keywords: English-profession, pedagogy, theory-practice, WAC, disciplinary, readings
Mantler, Gordon. (2017). 12 Years a Slave as a bridge to primary source research. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 29-34.
Abstract: This historical analysis essay on the film 12 Years a Slave and several primary sources bridges earlier skills-based writing prompts with the final research project. It asks students to practice several essential writing moves that reflect the disciplinary approach of historians, without forgetting the concerns of film studies and literature scholars, and even filmmakers. Such moves include conducting careful primary source analysis and interrogation as a historian would; beginning to find sources on one's own (rather than being provided already curated materials); and formally analyzing a film in-depth, including commenting on filmmakers' techniques and how such choices impact the content that viewers witness.
McClure, Randall. (2009). Examining the presence of advocacy and commercial websites in research essays of first-year composition students. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 32.3, 49-74.
Keywords: FYC, advocacy, web, digital, NCTE, information-literacy, practice-research, teacher-research, librarian-teacher, website, commercial, text-analysis
Menges, Robert J.; Marilla D. Svinicki (Eds.). (1991). College teaching, from theory to practice (New directions for teaching and learning, No. 45). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: theory-practice, academy, WAC
Parker, Robert P.. (1988). Theories of writing instruction: Having them, using them, changing them. English Education 20.1, 18-40.
Keywords: theory, WAC, theory-practice, learning-theory, change
Roen, Duane H.; Stuart C. Brown. (1986). A sampling of the best: Interviews with fourteen writing emphasis instructors [in-house report]. Tempe, AZ: University of Arizona, University Composition Board for the Intercollegiate Writing Committee.
Keywords: intensive, WAC, teacher-opinion, best-practices, in-house
Rossi, Michael J.. (1996). Walking the tightrope: Negotiating between the ideal and the practical in the writing center. Part 2: The real. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 399 538.
Keywords: wcenter, WAC, Muriel Harris, Stephen North, change, theory-practice, idealized, negotiation
Smith, Raymond; Christine Farris. (1997). Adventures in the WAC assessment trade: Reconsidering the link between research and consultation. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: WAC, assessment, practice-research
Soffree-Cady, Flore. (1987). A pedagogical theory and practice for college writing courses and writing across the curriculum courses: A social constructionist perspective on learning through argument. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 384 911.
Keywords: pedagogy, theory-practice, assignment, sequence, cognitive development, logical, social, constructivist, FYC, WAC, constructionist, pedagogy, social
Warriner, John. (1980). The Rite-Aid Spiral Theme Notebook. [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 01.2, 30-31, 49.
Keywords: skill-level, teaching-load, best-practices, guidelines, WAC program, assignment, topic, MX, error, rules, textbook, notebook
Winterowd, W. Ross. (1986). Composition/rhetoric: A synthesis. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 271 789.
Keywords: theory-practice, review-of-scholarship, composing, process, invention, form-style, read-write, pedagogy, English-profession, brain, dramatism, coherence, transactional, rhetorical, program-design, WAC, humanities
Witkowski, Susan. (1998). Philosophy of writing from a developmental education perspective. Learning Assistance Review 03.1, 53-57.
Keywords: basic, pedagogy, pedagogy, disciplinary, theory-practice, WAC, philosophy
Yavarow, Alexandra . (2012). From the interior design studio to the writing center: One tutor's unconventional journey to designing a tutorial [Tutor's Column]. Writing Lab Newsletter 36.9-10, 14-15.
Keywords: wcenter, tutor training, WAC-WID, theory-practice
Young, Art; Fulwiler, Toby (Eds.). (1986). Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
A collection that traces the development of the writing across the curriculum program at Michigan Technological University in the 1970s and 1980s. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, practice-research