Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.
Important Note: We're seeing some occasional connection errors when we connect to the CompPile databse. We're working on the problem and hope to have it addressed soon. In the meantime, if you get an error message when searching the database, please refresh the page. We apologize for the inconvenience.
Adler-Kassner, Linda; Peggy O'Neill. (2010). Reframing writing assessment to improve teaching and learning. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Public discourse about writing instruction is currently driven by ideas of what instructors and programs 'need to do,' 'should do,' or 'are not doing,' and is based on poorly informed concepts of correctness and unfounded claims about a broad decline in educational quality. This discussion needs to be reframed, say Adler-Kassner and O'Neill, to help policymakers understand that the purpose of writing instruction is to help sstudents develop critical thinking, read, and writing strategies that will form the foundation for their future education, careers, and civic engagement [publishing blurb]
Alaimo, Peter J.; John C. Bean; Joseph M. Langenhan; Larry Nichols. (2009). Eliminating lab reports: A rhetorical approach for teaching the scientific paper in sophomore organic chemistry. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 17-32.
Considers how an interdisciplinary team of faculty is striving to improve student performance on senior chemistry theses at Seattle University through an alternative approach to teaching the discourse of the scientific community within the year-long sophomore chemistry lab course. Drops the notion of teaching new students in formulaic, academic-specific ways, through utilization of rudimentary lab reports. Stresses the need to make students immediately aware of the inquiry-based, persuasive context of actual professional work and writing through collaborative-based experimentation that stresses multiple replications and use of evidence for conclusions. Suggests teaching the scientific paper over a year early in students' science careers and prioritizing students' 'writing process knowledge' through explicit instruction in writing within science courses. [Jaclyn Rossi]
Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Terri Hessler; Moira Konrad. (2007). Teaching writing for keeps. Education and Treatment of Children 30.3, 107-128.
This article outlines difficulties with the implementation of writing across multiple disciplines, grade levels, and individual abilities of students in a time of increased high-stakes accountability. Alba-Morgan, et al. argue that teachers must teach for generalizable writing outcomes and focus on big ideas. Offers six strategies for teachers to use to promote writing, the writing process, and the development of students' writing skills. [JeanMarie Dimitratos]
Allen, Michael; William Condon; Marcia Dickson; Cheryl Forbes; George Meese; Kathleen Blake Yancey. (1997). Portfolios, WAC, email, and assessment: An inquiry on Portnet. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Irwin Weiser (Eds.), Situating portfolios: Four perspectives; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Allenspach, Dee; Sandra Laurenson; Robin White; Ohio State University, Vocational Instructional Materials Laboratory. (1996). Alternative assessment: A family and consumer sciences teacher's tool kit. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 402 434.
Anson, Chris M.. (2006). Assessing writing in cross-curricular programs: Determining the locus of activity. Assessing Writing 11.2, 100-112.
Keywords: WAC, cross-curricular, program, retraining, assessment, spatial, activity-analysis, large-scale, local assessment, place, locus
Anson, Chris M.. (2012). Black holes: Writing across the curriculum, assessment, and the gravitational invisibility of race. In Inoue, Asao B.; Mya Poe (Eds.), Race and writing assessment; New York: Peter Lang.
Anson, Chris M.; Deanna Dannels. (2009). Profiling programs: Formative uses of departmental consultations in the assessment of communication across the curriculum. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
Implementation of communication-across-the-curriculum initiatives has outpaced their systematic assessment, leaving many stakeholders wondering whether faculty and students are benefiting from the emphasis on writing, speaking, and other communicative media in discipline-based courses and curricula. Increasing interest in assessment, however, has generated questions about which methods can best gauge the influence of CAC programs and activities on students' performance, faculty involvement, and curricular change. This essay describes a departmentally-based methodology for the formative assessment of CAC programs within academic disciplines. This methodology--the departmental profile--involves creating a status report of communication activities based on identified communication outcomes. Drawing on one departmental profile to illustrate this process, we explore ways in which the method can map a department's progress toward CAC implementation and thereby reinvigorate its attention to CAC as a sustained element of its teaching mission. [Authors' abstract]
Anstendig, Linda; Eugene Richie; Shannon Young; Pauline Mosley; Bette Kirschstein. (2004). Architects of change: Writing enhanced course program development and core reform. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 01.
Linda Anstendig and her colleagues report on the synergisms that developed as their university-wide Writing Enhanced Course Program was implemented in parallel with their university's new core curriculum. They evaluate their program and suggest the directions they plan to take now that it is firmly established within the core curriculum. (Published October 8, 2004) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, WID, gen-ed, general education, assessment, core-curriculum
Appelbaum, Mark I.. (1988). Assessment through the major. In Adelman, Clifford (Ed.), Performance and judgment: Essays on principles and practice in the assessment of college student learning; Washington, D.C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvvement, U. S. Department of Education.
Keywords: assessment, major, WAC
Arsenian, Seth. (1942). Own estimate and objective measurement. Journal of Educational Psychology 33.4, 291-302.
Artemeva, Natasha; Susan Logie. (2003). Introducing engineering students to intellectual teamwork: The teaching and practice of peer feedback in the professional communication classroom. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.1.
In this paper we report on the preliminary stages of a longitudinal study of the role and place of peer feedback in the development of students' writing.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, engineering, peer-response, peer-evaluation, data, longitudinal, teamwork
Bahls, Patrick. (2012). Student writing in the quantitative disciplines: A guide for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bailey, Richard W.; Fosheim, Robin Melanie (Eds.). (1983). Literacy for life: The demand for reading and writing. New York: Modern Language Association of America [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 253 880].
Batsche, Catherine; American Association of State Colleges and Universities; Illinois State University. (1989). Undergraduate writing program: Illinois State University. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 306 841.
Bazerman, Charles; Joseph Little; Lisa Bethel; Teri Chavkin; Danielle Fouquette; Janet Garufis. (2005). Reference guide to writing across the curriculum (Reference guides to rhetoric and composition). Fort Collins, CO: WAC Clearinghouse; West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press http://wac.colostate.edu/books/bazerman_wac/.
Beach, Richard; Lillian Bridwell. (1984). Learning through writing: A rationale for writing across the curriculum. In Pellegrini, Anthony D.; T. D. Yawkey (Eds.), The development of oral and written language in social contexts; Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Beadle, Mary E.. (1989). Evaluating writing across the curriculum: Struggles and insights. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 316 562.
Keywords: Walsh College [Ohio], WAC, program-validation, student-opinion, faculty-opinion, grades, data, improvement, data
Bean, John C.. (1994). Evaluating teachers in writing-across-the-curriculum programs. In Hult, Christine A. (Ed.), Evaluating Teachers of Writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 363 893].
Keywords: teacher-evaluation, WAC
Bean, John C.; David Carrithers; Theresa Earenfight. (2005). Transforming WAC through a discourse-based approach to university outcomes assessment. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 16, 5-21.
Beason, Larry; Laurel Darrow. (1997). Listening as assessment: How students and teachers evaluate WAC. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: WAC, assessment
Bechtel, Judith (Ed.). (1985). Improving writing and learning: A handbook for teachers in every class. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Bevis, Herbert A.; Ronald H. Carpenter; John Faricy; Daniel L. Kelly; Chris Morris; Kathleen Ritch; Jeanine Webb; War Hellstrom. (1978). Report of the Taskforce on Composition. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 177 570.
Beyer, Catharine Hoffman; Gerald M. Gillmore; Andrew T. Fisher. (2007). Inside the undergraduate experience: The University of Washington's study of undergraduate learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The University of Washington's Study of Undergraduate Learning (UW SOUL) tracked 304 entering freshmen and transfer students as they moved through their college experience from fall 1999 to spring 2003. Unparalleled in its scope, this longitudinal study focused on six areas of learning: writing, critical thinking/problem solving, quantitative reasoning, information literacy, understanding and appreciating diversity, and personal growth. This book provides faculty, staff, and administrators at two- and four-year institutions with a model of assessment that both captures the complexity of the undergraduate experience and offers practical information about how to improve teaching and learning. Data from surveys, open-ended email questions, interviews, focus groups, and portfolios make it possible for the authors to create case studies of individual learning paths over time, as well as to report the group s aggregate experience. Honoring the authenticity of student voices, this book illuminates the central roles played by the academic disciplines and by faculty in undergraduate learning, offering powerful evidence for the argument that assessment of student learning is most complete and most useful when conducted at the department level. [publisher's blurb]
Keywords: longitudinal, data, University of Washington, undergraduate, critical-thinking, problem-solving, quantitative reasoning, diversity, information literacy, personal growth, development, survey, focus group, case-study, portfolio, self-report, self-evaluation, argumentation, WAC, research-based, undergraduate
Blair, Rebecca. (1994). The Westminster writing assessment program: A model for small colleges. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 374 449.
Keywords: WAC, program-validation, sampling, criteria, guidelines, Westminster College
Blakesley, David; Erin J. Harvey; Erica J. Reynolds. (2003). Southern Illinois University Carbondale as an institutional model: The English 100/101 Stretch and directed self-placement program. In Royer, Daniel; Roger Gilles (Eds.), Directed self-placement: Principles and practices; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Outlines implementation of a Stretch model concurrently with directed self-placement (DSP). The authors report that as administrators, they had to train their Graduate Assistants (GAs) in depth so they understood and could explain the new system (pre-semester workshop; detailed script on what to cover about Stretch and DSP during the first two weeks of class, etc.). Authors report that students, because they had more agency through the DSP model, were not as resistant to being placed into Stretch; the morale of GAs also was improved, as their students were happier about taking the basic writing class [Gregory Glau, Stretch Courses, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No.2]. David Blakesley, Eric Harvey, and Erica Reynolds' stretch program implementation at Southern Illinois University Carbondale is guided by Gregory Glau's research at Arizona State University (1996; 2007). Their decision to use DSP in the SIUC stretch program was guided by the initial research of Royer and Gilles (2003), and then confirmed as a valid placement procedure after subsequent readings on the topic of self-efficacy, confidence, and choice. The dilemma that the authors faced, and which they share in hopes that other writing program administrators may more easily overcome it, is the means by which a stretch and DSP program can be thoroughly and beneficially implemented within a complex bureaucracy. The authors see four major groups of stakeholders who need to be convinced. First are students who need access to program information. Second are the student advisors who need to disseminate information and choices to students. Third are university administrators who make financial decisions. And last are the personnel who teach in the classrooms, because they become de facto advisors. Blakesley et al. show brochures, testing procedures, and convincing analytical studies to help others implement a stretch and DSP program. Not content to rely on past research, they also produce research of their own, pointing out the need for future adopters of stretch or DSP programs to continue to collect data as the primary means of justifying adoption. Their stretch program was justified by data that showed a 9% higher pass rate for students who enrolled in the stretch program. Further figures show that while only 48% of students were aware of DSP, of those who were aware, 21% chose to enroll in the stretch program, and 93% valued their right to choose. [Asao B. Inoue, et al., Directed Self-Placement; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 16]
Keywords: Demythologizing Language Difference in the Academy: Establishing Discipline-Based Writing Programs, by Mark L. Waldo, WAC, disciplinary, discipline-based, evaluation, jargon, specialization
Booher, Sandra C.; Los Medanos College [Pittsburg, CA]. (1982). A report on the tutorial outreach model for reading and writing across the curriculum at Los Medanos College. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 221 252.
Brent, Doug. (2005). Dangerous partnerships: How competence testing can sabotage WAC. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 16, 78-88.
Challenges the use of institution-wide competence tests to implement WAC courses/programs. Illustrates the attractive nature of linking competence tests to developing WAC courses. Argues tests pinpoint student difficulties in writing, but prescribes the use of a WAC program as the solution of teaching strong writing skills. [JeanMarie Dimitratos]
Keywords: assessment, testing, competency, WAC, program, University of Calgary, needs-analysis, conflict, sabotage
Brent, Edward; Martha Townsend. (2006). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: finding common ground. In Ericsson, Patricia Freitag; Richard H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: machine-scoring, computer, computer-analysis, University of Missouri, sociology-course, intensive, grading, evaluation, cost-effective, computer-feedback, Qualrus, SAGrader, tricking, WAC, conflict
Brown, Jane Lightcap. (1984). Helping students help themselves: Peer evaluation of writing. Curriculum Review 23.1, 47-50.
Canovan, Becky; Anne Marie Gruber; Mary Anne AKnefel; Michele McKinlay. (2010). Many voices, one goal: Measuring student success through partnerships in the core curriculum. In Mackey, Thomas P.; Trudi E. Jacobson (Eds.), Collaborative information literacy assessments;New York: Neal-Schuman.
Keywords: team-teaching, linked, WAC, University of Dubuque, program-validation, quantitative-qualitative, student-opinion, teacher-opinion, data
Carroll, Lee Ann. (2002). Rehearsing new roles: How college students develop as writers (Studies in Writing and Rhetoric). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Carroll followed 20 college students for four years, interviewing them about writing tasks, challenges, successes and failures, and reading (with a team of faculty researchers from various disciplines) the texts the students produced and the writing logs they kept. The pattern of development they note aligns with a ‘Cultural/Environmental View of Development’ based in the work of Jerome Bruner, Michael Cole, and Urie Bronfenbrenner. This view holds that development is uneven and that progress entails increasing ability to understand and respond to the environment in which one finds oneself. The most successful students were those most willing to take on take on new challenges and to work toward the meta-cognitive awareness needed to figure out what a new challenge required and what they needed to do to meet it. (Significantly, such students frequently said they were able to give the teacher ‘what s/he wanted.’) Carroll concludes by recommending that faculty ‘[t]ake seriously questions about ‘what the professor wants’ and provide clearly explained assignments, guidelines for performance, models, specific feedback, and opportunities for self-assessment and improvement’ (134). Faculty and WPAs should also work to: (a) think of student work as literacy challenges and not writing tasks; (b) help students focus on writing differently, not better; (c) learn from other faculty what demands they will be making and help students anticipate; provide more options in required literacy environments; (d) develop projects and assignments that will challenge all students—even if finished projects are less than great; (e) provide scaffolding to support development by directly teaching discipline specific research and writing skills, using grading strategically to reward improvement, scheduling interim deadlines for longer projects, and requiring classroom workshops, study groups, and teacher conferences; (f) reconsider with students, colleagues, and other professionals whether ‘what the professor wants’ is, in fact, what the discipline needs or should want. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Carson, J. Stanton; Patricia G. Wojahn; John R. Hayes; and Thomas A. Marshall. (2003). Design, results, and analysis of assessment components in a nine-course CAC program. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.1.
Combining the interests of the various communities, a number of us at Robert Morris recently faced the question of how we could show our various stakeholders, including a faculty extraordinarily generous with its time, whether our one-of-a kind Communication Skills Program is effective in improving students' communications skills and worth a continuing investment. In this article, we argue that we have begun to find our answers in a uniquely tailored evaluation process made up of student portfolio reviews; course plan/syllabus evaluation; and a newly developed program evaluation involving pre, mid, and post-testing. To do so, we focus on the context surrounding the development of the latter, 'locally grown' program evaluation and on what we have learned from our initial study. We believe we can be very helpful in showing what a committed group with limited time and money can do to create effective evaluation for a comprehensive skills program. We also hope our experiences can serve as models for others interested in developing 'in-house' program evaluations.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, assessment, CAC, communication across the curriculum, pedagogy, pedagogy, portfolio
Carson, Jay. (1992). Recognizing and using context as a survival tool for WAC. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 346 497.
Carter, Michael. (2003). A process for establishing outcomes-based assessment plans for writing and speaking in the disciplines. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.1.
This paper focuses on helping faculty in the disciplines identify program outcomes and devise assessment procedures for measuring those outcomes. At my university, we have been involved in university-wide, outcomes-based assessment for over five years and have developed a procedure for working with program faculty to generate assessment plans. I will present that procedure in detail here as an aid to writing and speaking professionals interested in initiating or in taking a more prominent position in an outcomes-based program on their campuses.
Childers, Pamela B.. (1997). Alternative assessment methods across the disciplines. In Tchudi, Stephen (Ed.), Alternatives to grading student writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 409 577].
Keywords: grading, evaluation, WAC, WID, pedagogy
Chisholm, Richard. (1997). Peer coaching in a speech class. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 106-109.
Clark Deborah J.. (2005). The use of peer evaluations to foster critical analysis of writing in biology. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Coffinberger, Richard. (1982). Aligning reading-writing group sessions to distinct stages of the writing process. In Gallehr, Donald; Robert Gilstrap; Marian Mohr; Anne Legge; Marie Wilson-Nelson (Eds.), Writing processes of college students: Working papers of the Writing Research Center at the Northern Virginia Writing Project (Volume I); Fairfax, VA: George Mason University, The Project.
Keywords: WAC, process, group, peer-evaluation, process, process
Collins, Vicki Tolar. (2000). Freewriting in the middle: Self-help for college writers across the curriculum. In Smith, Jane Bowman; Kathleen Blake Yancey (eds.), Self-assessment and development in writing: A collaborative inquiry; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Condon, William. (2001). Accommodating complexity: WAC program evaluation in the age of accountability. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing-across-the-curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Condon, William; Diane Kelly-Riley. (2004). Assessing and teaching what we value: The relationship between college-level writing and critical thinking abilities. Assessing Writing 09.1, 56-75.
Keywords: Washington State University, assessment, placement, rising-junior, Critical Thinking Project, critical-thinking, WAC, test-design, learning-outcomes, data
Condon, William; Fiona Glade; Richard H. Haswell; Lisa Johnson-Shull; Diane Kelly-Riley; Galen Leonhardy; Jennie Nelson; Susan McLeod; Susan Wyche. (2001). Whither? Some questions, some answers. In Haswell, Richard H. (Ed.), Beyond outcomes: Assessment and instruction within a university writing program; Westport, CT: Ablex.
Keywords: institutional, Washington State University, assessment, pedagogy, program-longevity, WAC, research-method, ecological, student-resistance, teacher-resistance, distance, eportfolio, electronic, directed self-placement
Condon, William; interviewed by Carol Rutz. (2005). The tallest WAC expert in North America: An interview with Bill Condon. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 16, 70-77.
Keywords: William Condon, WAC, scholar-story, scholar-autobiography, University of Michigan, Washington State University, assessment, technology, computer, pedagogy
Connor-Greene, Patricia A.; Janice W. Murdoch. (2000). Does writing matter? Assessing the impact of daily essay quizzes in enhancing student learning. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
This paper addresses the impact of brief daily essay quizzes as a strategy for simultaneously assessing and promoting student learning.
Cottell, Philip G., Jr.. (1991). Classroom research in accounting: Assessing for learning. In Angelo, Thomas A. (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc..
Covill, Amy E.. (2012). College students' use of a writing rubric: Effect on quality of writing, self-efficacy, and writing practices . link to full text
. Journal of Writing Assessment 05.1.
Fifty-six college students enrolled in two sections of a psychology class were randomly assigned to use one of three tools for assessing their own writing: a long rubric, a short rubric, or an open-ended assessment tool. Students used their assigned self-assessment tool to assess drafts of a course-required, five-page paper [author's abstract]
Cox, Michelle. (2010). Identity, second language writers, and the learning of workplace writing. In Cox, Michelle; Jay Jordan; Christina Ortmeier-Hooper; Gwen Gray Schwartz (Eds.), Reinventing identities in second language writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Drawing from case studies of graduate students in a Communication Science and Disorders masters program, Cox compares the writing experiences of a L2 writer with native English speaking writers in the same program, concluding that the ways in which the L2 writer was identified as ‘ESL’ by faculty had negative consequences for this student’s progress through the master’s program. However, the same student’s bilingualism was seen more positively by supervisors in off-campus internships. Cox calls on WAC administrators to learn more about how L2 writers fare in the workplace in order to work more productively with faculty preparing students for different professions. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 2: Studies Focused on L2 Writers in Specific Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Dillon, Timothy J.; Monroe County Community College. (1995). Writing Across the Curriculum annual report, 1994-95. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 385 301.
Keywords: WAC, Monroe Community College [Michigan], two-year, teaching-fellow, wcenter, peer-tutor, data, program-validation, questionnaire, newsletter, frequency, assignment, genre, mode, disciplinary, data, student-opinion, faculty-opinion, annual-report
Dillon, Timothy J.; Monroe County Community College [Michigan]. (1996). Monroe County Community College Writing Across the Curriculum annual report, 1995-96. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 398 994.
Keywords: Monroe Community College, two-year, WAC, program-validation, data, assignment, student-opinion, wcenter, teacher-opinion, annual-report
Dobie, Ann B.. (1998). Working together: WAC, the departments, and the writing center. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 420 870.
Keywords: wcenter, WAC, program-validation, data, survey, administrator-opinion, teacher-cooperation, line of authority
Donahue, Tiane. (2007). Notes of a humbled WPA: Dialogue with high school colleagues. link to full text. Writing Instructor Beta 04.0.
Donahue sets up the framework for this study by supplying an account of published scholarship on high-school-college writing connections. She cites lack of: existing collaboration, high school faculty articulation, actual high school-to-college transitional period research and connections between cognitive-developmental and social theory. In response to the needs identified above and in order to develop the college readiness of Maine high school students, Donahue crafts a set of research questions gleaned from three exploratory focus groups and 'key informants' from Maine high schools and colleges. A sample of the questions surrounding the 'eight areas of concern' that both sets of instructors share are: How are the writing process, peer review and collaborative writing enacted in each arena? With what criteria is writing evaluated? What is the function of research and citation work? What forms and structures of writing are made dominant unintentionally? Why? [Rachel E. H. Edwards, Alignments and Alliences: Smoothing Students' Transitions from High School English to First-Year College Writing, WPA-CompPile Bibliographies, No. 20]
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-Year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
Downs and Wardle describe WAW curricula that extend beyond students reading and writing about existing scholarship in rhetoric and composition (cf. Dew) to having students conduct primary research on related topics. They frame the pedagogy as an ‘Introduction to Writing Studies’ that explicitly rejects the traditional FYC goal of teaching a universal academic discourse and instead seeks to teach (1) metacognition about writing via procedural and declarative knowledge of writing, and (2) a version of the activity of inquiry that centers universities and spans disciplines. The article theorizes the shortcomings of traditional FYC courses in terms of genre and activity theory and describes WAW curricula that can better respond to these theories of how writing works and thus needs to be learned. It then reports on early results from the curriculum as taught in multiple sections at three institutions, illustrating effects through two particular student experiences in the course. Student feedback and results suggest that the WAW curriculum results in increased self-awareness about writing, improved reading abilities and confidence, and raised awareness of researched writing as conversation. The article concludes with challenges that the curriculum presents, including the challenging nature of the course for students, the resulting imperfections in student work, limited textbook support for the approach, and the need for extensive instructor preparation. [Doug Downs, Writing-About-Writing Curricula: Origins, Theories, and Initial Field-Tests, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 12]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
While much of this article is an explication and defense of the authors' proposed 'writing about writing' pedagogy, there are explicit connections to transfer explored. Downs and Wardle address two prevalent misconceptions about FYC: that FYC can teach students 'academic writing' (a concept that defies singular definition), and that writing skills learned in FYC transfer to other writing contexts. They contend there is 'little empirical verification' of such transfer, and, in fact, some evidence to suggest that such transfer does not occur. To address these two misconceptions, the authors suggest a transformation of FYC into 'Introduction to Writing Studies,' a course that 'could teach about the ways writing works in the world' and about writing as a mediating tool. Based on the results of a pilot study with a research sample of eighty-four students in two universities, the authors conclude that this curriculum results in students' 'increased self awareness about writing,' increased confidence and improved reading ability, and increased understanding of writing (particularly research) as a conversation among writers. While not without its challenges and its critics (which are acknowledged and addressed), this curriculum, the authors assert, has the potential to increase transfer through reflective activities, a focus on abstracting generalities about writing, and increased context awareness, each of which helps students to understand how rhetorical strategies are realized in particular contexts for writing. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Drain, Susan; Kenna Manos. (1986). Testing the test: Mount Saint Vincent University's English writing competency test (1984). English Quarterly 19.4, 267-281.
Keywords: testing, competency, assessment, sample, criteria, Mount Saint Vincent University, data, Canada, placement, competency, pass-fail, dichotomous, holistic, WAC
Draper, Virginia. (1991). Can writing programs change the university? Change from the margins. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 336 739.
Field, William J.; Daniel R. Wachter; Anthony V. Catanese. (1985). Alternative ways to teach and learn economics: Writing, quantitative reasoning, and oral communication. Journal of Economic Education 16.3, 213-217.
Flynn, Elizabeth A.; George A. McCulley; Ronald K. Gratz. (1986). Writing in biology: Effects of peer critiquing and analysis of models on the quality of biology laboratory reports. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
Freedman, Aviva. (1995). The what, where, when, why, and how of classroom genres. In Petraglia, Joseph (Ed.), Reconceiving writing, rethinking writing instruction; Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Keywords: composing, learning-theory, social action, genre, situational, language acquisition, review-of-scholarship, general writing skills instruction (GWSI), academic, evaluation, epistemic, pedagogy, ethical, ideology, change, WAC
Freisinger, Diana; Jill Burkland. (1982). Talking about writing: The role of the writing lab. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Fulweiler, Toby. (1988). Evaluating writing across the curriculum programs. In McLeod, Susan H. (Ed.), Strengthening programs for writing across the curriculum; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: WAC, program-validation
Fulwiler, Toby. (1982). The personal connection: Journal writing across the curriculum. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Fulwiler, Toby. (1986). The argument for writing across the curriculum. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
Fulwiler, Toby; Robert Jone. (1982). Assigning and evaluating transactional writing. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.), Language connections: Writing and reading across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 218 667].
Glade, Fiona; Diane Kelly-Riley; Susan McLeod; William Condon. (2001). Faculty opinion and experience: The writing portfolio. In Haswell, Richard H. (Ed.), Beyond outcomes: Assessment and instruction within a university writing program; Westport, CT: Ablex.
Keywords: institutional, Washington State University, assessment, pedagogy, faculty-opinion, WAC, data, portfolio
Goetz, Donna. (1990). Evaluation of writing-across-the-curriculum programs. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 328 917.
Halpern, Sheldon; Elmer Spreitzer; Stuart Givens; Bowling Green State University. (1977). Evaluation of student writing: A comparative study. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 157 434.
Keywords: assessment, interrater-reliability, WAC, Bowling Green State University, exit-exam, FYC, data, frequency, correlation, cross-disciplinary, student-writing
Hamilton, Sharon. (2002). Showdown at Midwestern U: The first-year composition war between English and economics. In Anson, Christopher M. (Ed.), The WAC casebook: Scenes for faculty reflection and program development; New York: Oxford University Press.
Harley, Kay. (1991). Contrasts in student and faculty perceptions of student writing ability. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 332 192.
Keywords: teacher-student, evaluation, self-evaluation, conflict, Saginaw Valley State University, WAC, history-course, political-science-course, business-course, philosophy-course, sociology-course, student-opinion, skill-level, decline, data, student-writing
Harms, Patricia C.; David R. Russell. (2002). The blind men and the elephant called writing. In Anson, Christopher M. (Ed.), The WAC casebook: Scenes for faculty reflection and program development; New York: Oxford University Press.
Haswell, Richard. (2002). Whatever things are true: A scenario in four acts. In Anson, Christopher M. (Ed.), The WAC casebook: Scenes for faculty reflection and program development; New York: Oxford University Press.
Haswell, Richard H.; Susan Wyche-Smith. (1994). Adventuring into writing assessment. College Composition and Communication 45.2, 220-236.
Keywords: assessment, test-design, WAC, placement, teacher-rater, faculty-participation, review-of-scholarship, implementation, testing-program, maintenance, Washington State University
Haswell, Richard; Susan McLeod. (1997). WAC assessment and internal audiences: A dialogue. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Haviland, Carol Petersen. (1994). Writing-across-the-curriculum discourse community lines: Nature, criteria, and purpose in university classrooms [doctoral thesis]. Riverside, CA: University of California, Riverside.
Hayes, Christopher G.; Michele L. Simpson; Norman A. Stahl. (1994). The effects of extended writing on students' understanding of content-area concepts. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 10.2, 13-34.
Hayes, John R.; Diana M. Bajzek; Susan Lawrence; Erwin R. Steinberg. (2007). Developing an online writing tutor: The interaction of design principles and assessment. In O'Neill, Peggy (ed.), Blurring boundaries: Developing writers, researchers and teachers: A tribute to William L. Smith; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran. (2009). Writing, assessment, and new technologies. In Paretti, Marie C.; Katrina Powell (Eds.), Assessment in writing (Assessment in the disciplines, Vol. 4); Tallahassee, TN: Association of Institutional Researchers.
Holderer, Robert W.. (1995). Holistic scoring: A valuable tool for improving writing across the curriculum. In Stay, Byron L.; Christina Murphy; Eric Hobson (Eds.), Writing center perspectives; Emmitsburg, MD: National Writing Centers Association Press.
Holladay, John M.; Monroe County Community College [Michigan]. (1990). Writing across the curriculum annual report, 1989-90: Comprehensive report. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 326 260.
Keywords: wcenter, Monroe County Community College, WAC, program-validation, survey, faculty-opinion, student-opinion, tutor-opinion, data, teaching-fellow, conferencing, annual-report
Holladay, John M.; Sue Zwayer; Monroe County Community College [Michigan]. (1992). Monroe County Community College writing across the curriculum: Annual reports 1990-1991 and 1991-1992. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 353 014.
Keywords: Monroe County Community College, WAC, program-validation, data, annual-report
Holmes, Lynda A.. (2001). What do students mean when they say, I hate writing. Teaching English in the Two-Year College 29.2, 172-178.
Hudd Suzanne S.. (2005). Evaluating writing across the curriculum programs. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, program-validation, sociology
Hughes, Gail F.. (1996). The need for clear purposes and new approaches to the evaluation of writing-across-the-curriculum programs. In White, Edward M.; William D. Lutz; Sandra Kamusikiri (Eds.), Assessment of writing: Politics, policies, practices; New York: The Modern Language Association of America.
Hughes-Wiener, Gail; Susan K. Jensen-Cekalla. (1991). Organizing a WAC evaluation project: Implications for program planning. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Huot, Brian. (1997). Beyond accountability: Reading with faculty as partners across the disciplines. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Huot, Brian; Emily Dillon. (2009). WAC and writing program assessment take another step: A response to Assessment of Writing. Paretti, Marie C.; Katrina Powell (Eds.), Assessment in writing (Assessment in the disciplines, Vol. 4); Tallahassee, TN: Association of Institutional Researchers.
Jacobs, Suzanne E.. (1979). Student writing in the academic context: A linguistic study of well-shaped vs. poorly-shaped essays with implications for learning and teachings. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 191 074.
Johns, Ann. (1991). Faculty assessment of ESL student literacy skills: Implications for writing assessment. In Hamp-Lyons, Liz (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts; Norwood, NJ: Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 396 583].
Johns, Ann M.. (1991). Interpreting an English competency exam: The frustrations of an ESL science student. Written Communication 08.3, 379-401.
Johns uses a case study approach to examine why a L2 student writing successfully in upper-level courses in the major would repeatedly fail a writing proficiency exam. Through interviews with a L2 science student, comparison of the student’s writing in response to the writing exam prompt and to a biology assignment, analysis of the writing instruction the student received within composition courses and courses across the curriculum, Johns presents a portrait of a system gone awry and opens questions on the ethics of administering writing proficiency exams to L2 students. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Journet, Debra; Steve Cohen; Rachel Gramer; Megan Faver Hartline; Keri Mathis; Tony O'Keeffe; Kendra Sheehan; Jessica Winck. (2015). ClarissaBlogs: Narrative, writing, and the self. Link to full text
. Kairos: A journal of rhetoric, technology, and pedagogy 19.2.
"Our goals in this webtext are to 1) document our reflexive examination of the connections among narrative, writing, and the self that we performed as we read, responded to, analyzed, and wrote about Clarissa and blogs; and 2) offer a series of interpretive claims about how narrative functions as a powerful tool for the construction of a self, especially when that self is built within rhetorical interchange."
Kiefer, Kate; Jamie Neufeld. (2002/2003). Making the most of response: Reconciling, coaching, and evaluating roles for teachers across the curriculum. [Link]. Academic.Writing 03.
In this paper, we illustrate specific techniques to help teachers across the curriculum incorporate supportive responses into their repertoire of response strategies and then suggest how teachers can shift more comfortably from coaching into final evaluation of papers. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Kiniry, Pamela. (1997). Raising standards in a variety of middle-school settings. In Purves, Alan C.; Sarah L. Jordan; James H. Peltz (Eds.), Using portfolios in the English classroom; Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon.
Kinkead, Joyce. (1997). Documenting excellence in teaching and learning in WAC programs. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Kincead illustrates how assessment ìcan help students, teachers, and administrators in writing across the curriculum (WAC) programs learn about what they are doing well and about how they might do better [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, assessment, excellence, quality
Kistler, Ruth; Kathleen Blake Yancey; Kara Taczak; with Natalie Szysmanski. (2009). Introduction: Writing across the curriculum and assessment [special issue]. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
Keywords: WAC, assessment, change
Kitzhaber, Albert R.. (1963). Themes, theories, and therapy: Teaching of writing in college. New York: McGraw-Hill [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 020 202].
Landsburg, David; Stanley Witt. (1984). Writing across the curriculum: One small step. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 248 922. Innovation Abstracts 06.13 (April).
A writing-across-the-curriculum program has been initiated at the East Campus of Pima Community College in an effort to improve student literacy. The program operates in the following manner: (1) faculty in all disciplines on campus are asked to get involved in the program, those who participate being paid a one-time fee of $100 for their efforts; (2) participating faculty develop a writing assignment which meets prescribed criteria, such as proper formatting, acceptable documentation, and correct language usage; (3) students complete the assignment and submit their paper to the course instructor; (4) the course instructor submits the papers to a "Collateral Grader," a writing instructor who grades the papers for mechanics; (5) the "Collateral Grader" marks all detected errors in each paper and makes an overall evaluation indicating that the paper passes or must be rewritten; (6) the course instructor grades the passing papers for content and determines the course grade; and (7) participating faculty evaluate the process at the end of the course. The use of the "Collateral Grader" has several advantages; e.g., students receive writing feedback from an instructor who has the skills to effectively grade grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage; awareness of the need for campus-wide writing standards is generated; and student-teacher negotiation concerning the importance of writing skills is reduced. Survey results show positive responses from both students and faculty. [ERIC]
Keywords: WAC, Pima Community College [Arizona], two-year, program, outside grading, evaluation
Larson, Richard L.. (1991). Using portfolios in the assessment of writing in the academic disciplines. In Belanoff, Pat; Marcia Dickson (Eds.), Portfolios: Process and product; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.
Law, Joe. (1998). Evaluating writing across the curriculum. Composition Studies 26.1, 73-82.
Keywords: WAC, program-validation
Lawrence, Barbara M.; Anne E. Mullin; Richard L. Sagness. (1996). Do composition courses prepare students for upper-division writing?. In Banta, Trudy W.; Jon P. Lund; Karen E. Black; Frances W. Oblander (Eds.), Assessment in practice: Putting principles to work on college campuses; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Leahy, Richard. (1999). When a writing center undertakes a writing fellows program. In Barnett, Robert W.; Jacob S. Blumner (Eds.), Writing centers and writing across the curriculum programs: Building interdisciplinary partnerships; Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Lee, Virginia S.. (2004). Assessing the impact of inquiry-guided learning at NCSU [North Caroline State University]. In Lee, Virginia S. (Ed.), Teaching and learning through inquiry: A guidebook for institutions and instructors; Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Keywords: inquiry-based, WAC, program-validation, North Caroline State University]
Libbee, Michael; Dennis Young. (1983). Teaching writing in geography classes. Journal of Geography 82.1, 23-26.
Light, Richard J.. (1990). The Harvard Assessment Seminars: Explorations with students and faculty about teching, learning, and student life: First report, 1990. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Graduate School of Education.
Long, Casey M.; Milind M. Shrikhande. (2010). Using citation analysis to evaluate and improve information literacy instruction. In Mackey, Thomas P.; Trudi E. Jacobson (Eds.), Collaborative information literacy assessments;New York: Neal-Schuman.
Keywords: citation-analysis, information literacy, pedagogy, George State University, WAC, program-validation, WAC, research-method
Lord, Russell. (1994). Writing assessment at Plymouth State University. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 05, 45-52.
Keywords: WAC, assessment, Plymouth State University
Lory, Alice; Gene Coggshall; Barbara Adams; Patricia Pesoli-Bishop. (1977). We must all teach writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 145 475.
Lovitt, Carl R.. (1992). Assessment as a team effort: The Pearce Center assessment research team. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 345 259.
Keywords: Clemson University, WAC, Pearce Center, program-validation, teamwork
Luebke, Steven R.. (2002/2003). Using linked courses in the general education curriculum. link to full text. Academic Writing 03.
In this case study of a pilot project at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls, Luebke explores the challenges faced in developing a link between a first-year English and an environmental studies course. The goal of the linked-course was to challenge students to see connections across the disciplines, while also building skills important to both classes. Leubke comments on the 'significant preparation' necessary to teach in a linked course model (3), especially the time commitment involved. He speaks to the institutional obstacles that linked courses may face and how the territoriality of faculty can complicate teaching in linked courses. He also discusses the assessment of the pilot link and the quite positive perceptions of students in the linked courses. He concludes that the advantages of linked course outweigh the difficulties of reorientation and on-going negotiation that may arise when a new link is implemented. This article's cautionary information about the issues entailed in linking courses is useful for researchers, program administrators, and instructors alike. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: gen-ed, program, linked, WAC, interdisciplinary, WID, learning-community, pedagogy, response, University of Wisconsin--River Falls, site-analysis, environmental-science-course, student-opinion, data, program-validation, turf, institutional, teaching-load
Lynch, David H.. (1985). For teachers of business communication: A review of research on peer evaluation of writing. NABTE Review 12, 42-46.
Magruder, Jack; Michael A. McManis; Candace C. Young. (1997). The right idea at the right time: Development of a transformational assessment culture. In Gray, Peter J.; Trudy W. Banta (Eds.), The campus-level impact of assessment: Progress, problems, and possibilities; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: assessment, program, Truman State University, Northeast Missouri State University, implementation, portfolio, WAC, maintenance, validity, reliability, transformative
Maimon, Elaine P.. (1979). Administering a cross-disciplinary writing program. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 172 253.
McCulley, George A.; Jon A. Soper. (1986). Assessing the writing skills of engineering students: 1978-1983. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
McGee, Diane; Christine Starnes; John Abbott College [Sainte Anne de Bellevue, Quebec]. (1988). Evaluation as empowerment: Holistic evaluation across the curriculum. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 319 425.
Keywords: John Abbott College [Montreal], Canada, assessment, holistic, WAC, write-to-learn, faculty-opinion, student-opinion, grading, contrast-group, data, sample rating rubric
McGovern, Thomas V.; Deborah L. Hogshead. (1990). Learning about writing, thinking about teaching. Teaching of Psychology 17.1, 5-10.
Keywords: WAC, retraining, faculty-workshop, Virginia Commonwealth University, psychology-course, teacher-evaluation, bibliography
McLeod, Susan. (2008). The future of WAC [plenary address, Ninth International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, May 2008, Austin, Texas]. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 05.
Michael, William B.; Phyllis Shaffer. (1979). An evaluation of alternative measures for assessing language proficiency skills of junior level students in a school of communications and professional studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement 39.4, 879-889.
Keywords: assessment, Test of Standard Written English (TSWE), Diagnostic Test in Written English (DTWE), essay-exam, CAPS Essay Examination, rising-junior, proficiency level, WAC, concurrent-validity, communications-school, data, correlation, placement, predictive, GPA, grades, language proficiency, diagnosis, proficiency
Migliaccio, Todd; Dan Melzer. (2011). Using grounded theory in writing assessment. link to full text. WAC Journal 22, 79-89.
Moran, Charles; Anne Herrington. (1997). Program review, program renewal. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: WAC, program-validation, assessment
Morgan, Meg. (1997). The crazy quilt of writing across the curriculum: Achieving WAC program assessment. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Noting that the term ëassessment; sounds formal and institutional and frequently generates fear and anxiety, this [essay is taken from a book which] presents 14 essays that demonstrate that assessment can help students, teachers, and administrators in writing across the curriculum (WAC) programs learn about what they are doing well and about how they might do better. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Morrison, Julie Bauer; Jean-Paul Nadeau. (2003). How was your session at the writing center? Pre- and post-grade student evaluations. link to full text. Writing Center Journal 23.2, 25-42.
The authors know that students' initial attitudes about writing centers are overwhelmingly positive after a writing center visit (25, 30). They wanted know if this positive attitude changed over time, how extensive was the change, and what variables might correlate with the change, especially grades on papers. The authors gathered data with three surveys of undergraduate psychology students: a survey given immediately after the writing center visit (53 students), a survey given after the professor gave the paper grade (53 students), and a survey given one year after the second post-grade survey (16 students) (28). Analysis of the data (p <.05) reveals the usual positive results of most writing-center studies on student perceptions, 'regardless of semester, staff member, or month' (30); students expressed less satisfaction with the writing center after learning their paper grades irrespective of grade given, although students earning As lowered their ratings less than students earning a B or below (31-32); students who earned lower than an A thought that they could have worked harder; and students who earned an A thought they couldn't have done much more (32). Excepting one student's responses, the ratings collected by the third survey replicated the results of the first survey, and students report that their satisfaction with the writing center was 'directly influenced' by the paper grade (32). While contexts might have affected the satisfaction negatively, the authors suspect that the students' lower satisfaction of the writing center relates to the psychological 'idea of self-serving bias,' where these students did not want to take responsibility for their grade (33). The authors suspect, based on this psychological theory, that students blamed the writing center for the lower grade, thinking the staff members would 'fix' their papers for them (33-34). The authors recommend primarily that writing center staff and faculty work together to promote clear expectations of what writing centers and students can accomplish during sessions. They recommend 'forcefully encouraging' students to visit writing centers (writing center-based model of situating), but not requiring them to visit (curriculum-based model of situating). [Eliot F. Rendleman, Writing Centers and Mandatory Visits, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 22
Moss, Andrew Ian. (1976). Toward a rhetoric of inquiry: A study of the theory, application, and evaluation of the interdisciplinary writing course. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 130 285.
Keywords: University of California, Los Angeles, interdisciplinary, ancillary, WAC, write-to-learn, inquiry, pedagogy, evaluation, validation, data, contrast-group, pedagogy, current-traditional, inquiry, applied
Moss, Andrew; Carol Holder. (1988). Improving student writing: A guidebook for faculty in all disciplines. Pomona, CA: California State Polytechnic University; Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Intended for college faculty in all disciplines, this guidebook offers practical methods and ideas intended to help teachers clarify writing assignments so that students' writing will improve, as has been seen to happen when teachers sharpen their responses to students' papers. Contents include: (1) "Assigning Writing," which describes ways of designing effective assignments including journals and ungraded writing, provides 17 suggestions for making and presenting writing assignments, and includes a checklist for evaluating assignments; (2) "Assignments That Work," which consists of a collection of writing assignments developed by instructors in various fields, including agricultural engineering, American studies, biology, chemistry, counseling, and criminal justice; (3) "Essay Examinations," which discusses how to write effective essay questions and how to help students write better exams; (4) "Strategies for Helping Students," which includes guidelines on brainstorming, research, and planning, drafting and revising, as well as a writer's checklist; (5) "Integrating Reading and Writing," which examines anticipation guides, selective reading guides, graphic organizers, vocabulary previews, and student journals; and (6) "Evaluating Students' Writing," which covers pre-evaluation, evaluation, paper marking, scores and scoring guides, and post-evaluation. (Eleven references are included, and appended are a sample of on-the-job writing tasks for professionals, a sample accounting assignment, and a techniques inventory for assigning writing and reading in the disciplines.) [ERIC; WAC Clearinghouse]
Muffo, John A.; Nancy Metz. (1996). Preparing faculty for writing across the curriculum. In Banta, Trudy W.; Jon P. Lund; Karen E. Black; Frances W. Oblander (Eds.), Assessment in practice: Putting principles to work on college campuses; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Murphy, Maureen. (1992). Directed reading guides yield creative assessment procedures. In Mahony, Elizabeth M. (Ed.); Saint Louis Community College at Meramec [Missouri]; Building community from diversity: Connecting students to their learning environments. An anthology of classroom projects undertaken for the Kellogg Beacon Grant: Final report; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 064.
Nelson, Gayle L.. (1997). How cultural differences affect written and oral communication: The case of peer response groups. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
New Jersey Basic Skills Council [Trenton, NJ]. (1984). Teaching reading & writing in college, in high school, in every subject. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Basic Skills Council [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 303 788].
Keywords: read-write, WAC, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, assessment, bibliography, teacher-training
Newell, James A.. (1998). Using peer review in the undergraduate laboratory. Chemical Engineering Education 32.3, 194-196.
O'Neill, Peggy. (2012). How does writing assessment frame college writing programs?. In Elliot, Norbert; Les Perelman (Eds.), Writing assessment in the 21st century: Essays in honor of Edward M. White; New York: Hampton Press.
Odell, Lee. (1992). Context-specific ways of knowing and the evaluation of writing. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Writing, teaching and learning in the disciplines; New York, NY: Modern Language Associates.
Olds, Barbara M.; Jon A. Leydens; Ronald L. Miller. (1999). A flexible model for assessing WAC programs. http://wac.colostate.edu/atd/archives.cfm [full-text]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 03.2, 123-127.
These authors have developed an assessment matrix that provides both structure and flexibility while assuring that all essential steps of the assessment process are included. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, program-validation, assessment, flexibility, model
Olmsted, John, III. (1991). Using classroom research in a large introductory science class. In Angelo, Thomas A. (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc..
Pajares, Frank; Gio Valiante. (2005). Self-efficacy beliefs and motivation in writing development. In MacArthur, Charles A.; Steve Graham; Jill Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research; New York: Guilford Press.
Pajares, Frank; James Hartley; Gio Valiante. (2001). Response format in writing self-efficacy assessment: Greater discrimination increases prediction. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 33, 214-221.
Keywords: predictive, assessment, self-efficacy, format, measurement, data, discriminant-analysis
Pajares, M. Frank. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in an academic setting. Review of Educational Research 66.4, 543-578.
Paretti, Marie C.; Katrina Powell. (2009). Bringing voices together: Partnerships for assessing writing across contexts. Paretti, Marie C.; Katrina Powell (Eds.), Assessment in writing (Assessment in the disciplines, Vol. 4); Tallahassee, TN: Association of Institutional Researchers.
Keywords: assessment, program, WAC
Paretti, Marie C.; Katrina Powell (Eds.). (2009). Assessment in writing (Assessment in the Disciplines, Vol. 4). Tallahassee, TN: Association of Institutional Researchers.
Parish, George. (1983). Writing and testing. In Writing Across the Curriculum Program (Ed.), Working papers on writing and learning; Radford, VA: Radford University.
Keywords: WAC, testing, assessment
Patchan, Melissa M.; Davida Charney; Christian D. Schunn. (2009). A validation study of students' end comments: Comparing comments by students, a writing instructor, and a content instructor. [Link]. Journal of Writing Research 01.2, 124-152.
In order to include more writing assignments in large classrooms, some instructors have been utilizing peer review. However, many instructors are hesitant to use peer review because they are uncertain of whether students are capable of providing reliable and valid ratings and comments. Previous research has shown that students are in fact capable of rating their peers papers reliably and with the same accuracy as instructors. On the other hand, relatively little research has focused on the quality of students' comments. This study is a first in-depth analysis of students' comments in comparison with a writing instructor's and a content instructor's comments. Over 1400 comment segments, which were provided by undergraduates, a writing instructor, and a content instructor, were coded for the presence of 29 different feedback features. Overall, our results support the use of peer review: students' comments seem to be fairly similar to instructors' comments. Based on the main differences between students and the two types of instructors, we draw implications for training students and instructors on providing feedback. Specifically, students should be trained to focus on content issues, while content instructors should be encouraged to provide more solutions and explanations. [journal abstract]
Patton, Marty; Ed Nagelhout. (2004). Literacy and learning in context: Biology students in the classroom and the lab. In Huot, Brian; Beth Stroble; Charles Bazerman (Eds.), Multiple literacies for the 21st century; Cresskill, NJ: 2004.
Paulsen, Kathleen East. (1984). A test of two strategies: Effects on performance and perceived self-efficacy of students in a community college writing skills program [doctoral thesis]. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California, Santa Barbara.
Keywords: subliminal-stimulation, gain, imaging, self-evaluation, self-efficacy, two-year
Pearce, Daniel L.. (1983). Guidelines for the use and evaluation of writing in content classrooms. Journal of Reading 27.3, 212-218.
Perelman, Les. (2009). Data driven change is easy: Assessing and maintaining it is the hard part. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines.
At MIT in the 1990's, data from two sources, a study of the writing ability of a small group of randomly selected MIT juniors correlated to their overall academic performance and a survey of alumni from various years provided the major motivation for the development by MIT faculty and administration of a very ambitious Communications-in-the-Disciplines Program. The study of random juniors demonstrated that student writing ability had no effect on overall student grade-point-average, thereby giving students no immediate incentive to work on improving their writing skills within the context of an extremely intensive MIT undergraduate curriculum. The alumni survey displayed a significant disparity between the importance alumni attached to communication and leadership skills and the alumni's low estimation of MIT's contribution to the development of these skills. Once the new curriculum was in place, however, assessing its effectiveness became much more complex. The end result was an assessment that, given all the cross currents, was successful primarily in raising consciousness and acceptance levels for integrating instruction and practice in writing and speaking throughout the undergraduate curriculum.
Keywords: CAC, assessment, junior, alumn-opinion, data, WID, CAC, WAC, GPA, outcomes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, maintenance
Perkins, Joan; Monica Stitt-Bergh; Thomas Hilgers. (2002). Requiring revision, juggling the work load. In Anson, Christopher M. (Ed.), The WAC casebook: Scenes for faculty reflection and program development; New York: Oxford University Press.
Peters, Brad; Julie Fisher Robertson. (2007). Portfolio partnerships between faculty and WAC: Lessons from disciplinary practice, reflection, and transformation. College Composition and Communication 59.2, 206-236.
Petersen, Meg J.. (2009). Making it easy [book review]. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 107-110.
Keywords: Rethinking Rubrics in Writing Assessment, by Maja Wilson, rubric, WAC, constructivist. grading, school
Peterson, Meg. (1997). Back in the circle [afterword to Meg Peterson, 'The circle'. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 51-53.
Plumb, Carolyn; Catherine Scott. (1998). Using student portfolios to evaluate and improve an engineering writing program: A case study at the University of Washington. In 1998 ASEE annual conference proceedings engineering education: Contributing to U. S. competitiveness; Washington, D. C.: American Society for Engineering Education.
Keywords: portfolio, engineering-course, WAC, University of Washington, evaluation
Prior, Paul; Gail E. Hawisher; Sibylle Gruber; Nicole MacLaughlin. (1997). Research and WAC evaluation: An in-progress reflection. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
This essay reflects on the development of the Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) program supported by the Center for Writing Studies (CWS) at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. It provides a model of a program assessment as a distributive evaluation, engaging multiple audiences and agendas. The authors argue that this distributive model of assessment is needed to encourage dialogic interactions among faculty working across departmental and disciplinary boundaries. The essay discusses stances, resources, and strategies used in the multi-year WAC program evaluation. One of the findings of the study is that faculty in different disciplines value different aspects of their students’ writing. The essay suggests that ‘learning from those in other disciplinary cultures’ can make WAC programs stronger and help writing faculty enrich students’ experiences as writers in college. [Carl Whithaus, Distributive Evaluation, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 3]
Keywords: WAC, assessment, program, University of Illinois, program-validation, distributive evaluation
Procidano, Mary E.. (1991). Students' evaluation of writing assignments in an abnormal psychology course. Teaching of Psychology 18.3, 164-167.
Quesenberry, Legene, et al. (2000). Assessment of the writing component within a university general education program. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether flagged 'writing-intensive' courses within Clarion University's General Education Curriculum impacted on students' abilities to write. The major research question to be explored was, 'what effect does taking writing intensive courses have on students' writing ability, when factors such as initial matriculation ability and total coursework are taken into account?' After providing an overview of Clarion University and the State System of Higher Education (of which Clarion University is a part), this paper provides an overview of Clarion University's General Education program. This is followed by a description of the study's methodology, demographics of the research population, review of results, and discussion of results. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: gen-ed, general education, assessment, writing-intensive, WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, data
Rafiq, Yaqub; Hazel Fullerton. (1996). Peer assessment of group projects in civil engineering. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 21.1, 69-81.
Reiss, Donna. (1996). From WAC to CCCAC: Writing across the curriculum becomes communication, collaboration, and critical thinking (and computers) across the curriculum at Tidewater Community College. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 412 553.
Keywords: Tidewater Community College [Virginia], two-year, WAC, faculty-workshop, program-validation, critical-thinking, interdisciplinary
Reynolds, Erica J.. (2003). The role of self-efficacy in writing and directed self-placement. In Royer, Daniel; Roger Gilles (Eds.), Directed self-placement: Principles and practices; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Reynolds reviews studies on self-efficacy in relation to academic reading and writing for students, considering how it affects DSP (75). According to the literature she summarizes, self-efficacy is defined as 'people’s judgment of their capabilities to organize and excuse courses of action required to attain designated types of performance' (74). Reynolds' literature review finds that self-efficacy appears to be directly related to perceptions of writing ability by experienced raters, academic reading and writing achievement, and diminished anxiety over multiple writing assignments over a semester (76-79). Through these studies, Reynolds discovers that self-efficacy, and self-confidence are related to student writing abilities in and outside the classroom. She recommends that universities that implement DSP should be more specific about the types of good writing that they are looking for and that students should pick their class the same day that they receive information about DSP. Reynolds notes that factors such as apprehension and self-efficacy should be taken into account before a student begins to place herself in an English class. In the final section, Reynolds compares how males and females respond to writing feedback. Males have more apprehension about writing; females are more likely to respond to negative feedback on their writing; and females are less confident about their writing. Reynolds argues for more research on confidence, apprehension, self-efficacy, and gender, and how these factors affect a student's decision in a DSP program. [Asao B. Inoue, et al., Directed Self-Placement; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 16]
Rhodes, Lynne A. (2000). Gaining Grounds revisited: Sustaining tales of development. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.2.
Rhodes argues that the term 'sustainable development' can serve as ecological metaphor through which to view environments associated with writing assessment and writing program development.
Keywords: Gaining Ground, Haswell, development, assessment, WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum,
Richardson Dennis J.. (2005). Protracted peer-reviewed writing assignments in biology: Confessions of an apostate cynic of writing across the curriculum. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Robinson, Tracy Ann; Vicki Tolar Burton. (2009). The writer's personal profile: Student self assessment and goal setting at start of term. [fulltext]. Across the Discipline 06.
Keywords: WAC, assessment, assessment profile, profiling, self-assessment, goal-setting, Oregon State University, Writer's Personal Profile (WPP), data, assessment profile, profiling
Roen, Duane H.; Stuart C. Brown. (1986). Writing emphasis courses at the University of Arizona [in-house report]. Tempe, AZ: University of Arizona, University Composition Board for the Intercollegiate Writing Committee.
Keywords: intensive, WAC, University of Arizona, program-validation, in-house
Explains how to incorporate writing into drama classes. The author examines writing in her field, observing that drama students improvise, and learn by doing. Thus, teachers need to teach revision and structure. At the same time, writing should be practical: journals about students' own acting, group scene writing, and research papers that culminate in performances. Also explains how to work in peer response. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Rose, Mike. (1979). When faculty talk about writing. College English 41.3, 272-279.
Describes UCLA's Writing Research Project, a campus wide writing conference involving faculty and teaching assistants from a variety of disciplines. Distinguishes between writing practices, standards, and evaluation in other disciplines and those of the English department. Maintains the importance of inter departmental involvement in writing instruction, rewarding faculty involvement in writing instruction and research, and developing new curricula and evaluation standards. [Sue Hum]
Russell, David R.. (2002). The kind-ness of genre: An activity theory analysis of high school teachers' perception of genre in portfolio assessment across the curriculum. In Coe, Richard; Lorelei Lingard; Tatiana Teslenko (Eds.), The rhetoric and ideology of genre: Strategies for stability and change; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Rutz, Carol. (2007). Scoring by Machine [review essay]. College Composition and Communication 59.1, 139-144.
Keywords: Patricia Freitag Ericsson and Richard Haswell, 'Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences', assessment, case-studies, CCCC, ethics, global, machine-scoring, computer, pedagogy, WAC, WID, machine-scoring, computer
Rutz, Carol; Nathan D. Grawe. (2009). Pairing WAC and quantitative reasoning through portfolio assessment and faculty development. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines.
Schmidt, Katherine M.; Joel E. Alexander. (2012). The empirical development of an instrument to measure writerly self-efficacy in writing centers. full text
. Journal of Writing Assessment 05.1 .
The objective of this study was to develop a college-level writing self-efficacy scale that can be used across repeated sessions in a writing center, as self-efficacy has been identified as an important construct underlying successful writing and cognitive development [authors' abstract]
Scribner, Alicia Paredes. (1999). Using student advocacy assessment practices. In Reyes, Pedro; Jay D. Scribner; Alicia Paredes Scribner (Eds.), Lessons from high-performing Hispanic schools: Creating learning communities; New York: Teachers College Press.
Scroggins, Fredna Carlson. (1992). Improving assessment in general psychology. In Mahony, Elizabeth M. (Ed.); Saint Louis Community College at Meramec [Missouri]; Building community from diversity: Connecting students to their learning environments. An anthology of classroom projects undertaken for the Kellogg Beacon Grant: Final report; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 064.
Selfe, Cynthia L.. (1997). Contextual evaluation in WAC programs: Theories, issues, and strategies for teachers. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: engineering-course, WAC, journal-writing, problem-solving, expressivism, assessment, record-keeping, contrast-group, write-to-learn, gain, data
Shea, Renee Hausmann. (1987). The influence of writing prompt on process and product: An exploratory study using the LSAT writing sample [doctoral thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.
Sheidley, William E.; Karen Jambeck; Emily Stauffer. (1985). Evaluating writing across the curriculum. In Sheidley, William E.; Karen Jambeck; Emily Stauffer (Eds.), What is good writing? Proceedings of a conference at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, Connecticut, December 6, 1980); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 260 440.
Keywords: WAC, validation, evaluation
Sherman, Lawrence W.. (1990). A cooperative pedagogical strategy for teaching developmental theories through writing: Dyadic confrontations (draft). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 321 721.
Shumaker, Arthur W.. (1981). How can a major in composition be established? Suggestions through the sunshine and shadows of seventy years' experience at DePauw University. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 200 985.
The English program at DePauw University (Greencastle, Indiana) has undergone many changes. Today, English majors at DePauw may choose from either a literature or a composition course of study. The capstone course in the 70-year-old composition program is the seminar, in which students write whatever they choose and distribute copies to the other members of the seminar, who write critiques of the work. Other courses offered include expository and creative writing, criticism, linguistics, and newswriting. Over the years, enrollment in the composition curriculum has been high compared to that of the literature program. The advantages of offering a composition degree program far outweigh the disadvantages, particularly since such a program is designed to fit the needs of individual students and offers scholarships and apprenticeships for journalism and creative writing. The DePauw Program illustrates that a school committed to developing a composition degree program must have sufficient qualified staff, should phase in the program gradually, should invite successful writers to present lectures to composition students, and should secure recognition on the part of other departments of the need for a university-wide emphasis on composition. [ERIC]
Simmons, JoAn McGuire (Ed.); with Joan Clemons, Howard Cohen, Porter Ewing, Fay Hall, Mary Ellen Guffey; Betty Hartwig; William Loiterman; Miriam Minkoff; Lee Musgrave; Rodney Oakes; Edward Serrano; Beverly Shue; Gwendolyn Spears; Sue Verity; George Wistreich; University of California, Los Angeles, Office of Academic Interinstitutional Programs; Los Angeles Community College District. (1983). The shortest distance to learning: A guidebook to writing across the curriculum. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 241 073.
Smith, Raymond; Christine Farris. (1997). Adventures in the WAC assessment trade: Reconsidering the link between research and consultation. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: WAC, assessment, practice-research
Smithson, Isaiah. (1995). Assessment of writing-across-the-curriculum projects. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 382 994.
Keywords: Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, WAC, program-validation, economics-course, write-to-learn, contrast-group, gain, data, intensive
Snyder, Cheryl. (1978). The most precise tool in science is language. http://comppile.org/archives/WLA/WLA12.pdf [full text]. Writing as a Liberating Activity Newsletter, No. 12, 1-2, 4.
Soliday, Mary. (2005). General readers and classroom tutors across the curriculum. In Spigelman, Candace; Laurie Grobman (Eds.), On location: Theory and practice in classroom-based writing tutoring; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Sterling-Deer, Carolyn. (2009). Writing in the disciplines, technology, and disciplinary grounding. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
Drawing on Boix Mansilla’s (2004) criteria for assessing students’ disciplinary knowledge and potential to make interdisciplinary connections, Sterling-Deer’s study explores the use of Blackboard eLearning course management technology and ePortfolio technology to share course materials and to increase student reflection. Sterling-Deer discusses students’ writing and their abilities to link to supporting documents as demonstrates of their learning. She argues that these ePortfolios illustrate students’ struggles to provide their own academically and/or professionally focused ePortfolios despite the general-purpose ePortfolio templates. Her work suggests that students at LaGuardia Community College, CUNY are aware of the potential distribution of their work to multiple audiences, whereas the templates in the ePortfolio software insist on a single format/audience approach. [Carl Whithaus, Distributive Evaluation, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 3]
Keywords: WAC, WID, education-course, capstone, undergraduate, childhood, LaGuardia Community College/CUNY, two-year, eportfolio, writing-intensive, interdisciplinary, validation, learning-community, evaluation, distribution
Stetson, Nancy E.. (1991). Implementing and maintaining a classroom research program for faculty. In Angelo, Thomas A. (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc..
Stitt-Bergh, Monica; Thomas Hilgers. (2009). Program assessment: Processes, propagation, and culture change, transcript-analysis, text-analysis, interview, focus-group, data, survey, outcomes. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines.
Keywords: program-validation, assessment, WAC, cultural, change, University of Hawaii, gen-ed, stakeholder, local assessment, multiple measures, interview, outcomes
Stout, Roland P.. (2011). 'It's a shame to put such wonderful thoughts in such poor language': A chemist's perspective on writing in the disciplines. full text. Across the Disciplines 08.1.
Templeton, Jeff. (1978). From the student perspective: Writing instruction in economics classes. http://comppile.org/archives/WLA/WLA12.pdf [full text]. Writing as a Liberating Activity Newsletter, No. 12, 3-4.
Keywords: student-opinion, WAC, economics-course, group, peer-evaluation, term-paper, revising, school
Thaiss, Chris. (1987). Writing across the curriculum--the state of the art. [full text]. The Quarterly of the National Writing Project and the Center for the Study of Writing 09.1, 14-17.
Thaiss, Christopher; Terry Myers Zawicki. (1997). How portfolios for proficiency help shape a WAC program. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Thomas, Freddy L.. (2009). Developing a culture of writing at Virginina State University: A new writing emphasis. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines.
Thomas discusses how eportfolios are used as part of a Quality Enhancement Program (QEP) at Virginia State. The article provides the historical context of Virginia State, and then discusses moves to define and encourage a culture of writing at there. WAC/WID and eportfolios are essential tools in the operationalizing of this culture of writing. Readers of these multi-year eportfolios represent multiple disciplines and a commitment to using writing to develop critical thinking in courses across the curriculum. [Carl Whithaus, Distributive Evaluation, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 3]
Keywords: WAC, assessment, Virginia State University, African-Am, accreditation, eportfolio, critical-thinking, distribution
Townsend, Martha A.. (1997). Integrating WAC into general education: An assessment case study. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: WAC, assessment, gen-ed, University of Missouri, integrated
Townsend, Martha A.. (2007). Negotiating the risks and reaping the rewards: Reflections and advice from a former jWPA. In Dew, Debra Frank; Alice S. Horning (Eds.), Untenured faculty as Writing Program Administrators: Institutional practices and politics; West Lafayetter, IN: Parlor Press.
Keywords: WPA, jWPA, anecdote, Rhetoric and Composition, English, tenure, reward, University of Missouri-Columbia, WAC, power, responsibility-administrative, faculty-evalution, WI, CCCC, Ernest Boyer, Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate, Glasick, Huber, Maeroff, Scholarship Assessed: The Evaluation of the Professoriate, part-time, untenured, WPA, institutional, political, English-profession, negotiation
Townsend, Martha; interviewed by Carol Rutz. (2006). Martha 'Marty' Townsend: A different kind of pioneer. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 17, 43-52.
Keywords: Marty Townsend, scholar-story, scholar-autobiography, WAC, University of Missouri, funding, international, program-validation, feminization, pioneer
Ulisse, Peter; Housatonic Community College [Stratford, CT]. (1988). Writing across the curriculum. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 310 828.
Keywords: Housatonic Community College [Connecticut], WAC, program-validation, write-to-learn, guidelines, implementation
Van't Hul, Bernard. (1980). Who should teach writing . . . and why . . . and how. http://comppile.org/archives/fforum/fforum1(3).htm [fulltext]. fforum: A Newsletter of the English Composition Board, University of Michigan 01.3, 74-76.
Walker, Charles J.. (1991). Classroom research in psychology: Assessment techniques to enhance teaching and learning. In Angelo, Thomas A. (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success; San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc..
Walvoord, Barbara. (1997). From conduit to customer: The role of WAC faculty in WAC assessment. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Watkins-Goffman, Linda; G. Joyce Dunston. (1994). Writing across the curriculum in a data processing class: An ethnographic investigations. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education 11.1, 31-35.
Wigand, Derise J.; Kathleen Smith-Meadows. (1986). Whose territory? Watch it!. In Golub, Jeff (Ed.), Activities to promote critical thinking: Classroom practices in teaching English, 1986 [Vol. 22]; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Williamson, Michael M. (1997). Pragmatism, positivism, and program evaluation. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Wolcott, Willa; with Sue M.Legg. (1998). An overview of writing assessment: Theory, research, and practice. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 423 541].
Surveys recent developments in writing assessment within the context of the assessment field as a whole. Includes practical examples, applications, and teaching tips. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Wright, Ann. (1981). School writing assessment: A first step toward writing-across-the-curriculum. In Flinn, Jane Zeni (Ed.), Reflections on writing: Programs and strategies from classrooms K-12 (Gateway Writing Project); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 262 421.
Keywords: assessment, school, program, WAC
Wygal, Donald E.; David E. Stout. (1989). Incorporating writing techniques in the accounting classroom: Experience in financial, managerial, and cost courses. Journal of Accounting Education 07, 245-252.
Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian A. Huot (Eds.). (1997). Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices. Greenwich, CT: Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: assessment, WAC, validation
Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot. (1997). Introduction--assumptions about assessing WAC programs: Some axioms, some observations, some context. In Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot (Eds.), Assessing writing across the curriculum: Diverse approaches and practices; Greenwich, CT:Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 445 351].
Keywords: WAC, assessment
Yancey, Kathleen Blake; Brian Huot. (1999). Assessing journals in the disciplines: An inductive inquiry. In Gardner, Susan; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.); The journal book: For teachers in technical and professional programs; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.
Young, Beth Rapp; Barbara A. Fritzsche. (2002). Writing center users procrastinate less: The relationship between individual differences in procrastination, peer feedback, and student writing process. link to full text. Writing Center Journal 23.1, 45-58.
The authors conducted a study to 'examine the relationships between procrastination tendency, peer feedback, and student writing success' and 'to determine whether a writing center helps writers avoid procrastinating' (46). The study had 206 traditional student participants from writing intensive classes requiring'at least 6,000 words of assessed writing' ) and from all undergraduate class standings. To gather data, they administered the Procrastination Assessment Scale--Students (PASS), a self-report measure of six academic activities; the Writing Behaviors Assessment, which the researchers designed for this particular study; and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, which assesses current anxiety and tendency toward anxiety. After the semester, they also gathered participants' paper grades, courses grades, and overall GPA (48). The researchers found that 'writing center use was associated with higher satisfaction and fewer procrastination behaviors' (50). The researchers also discovered that students who were required to visit 'were significantly more likely to report delay behavior' (52). Yet for some students the 'requirement [might add] the necessary motivation for procrastinators to drag themselves into the writing center' (54). The authors recommend that bureaucratic paperwork should be reduced in order to increase visits of procrastinating students. [Eliot F. Rendleman, Writing Centers and Mandatory Visits, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 22]
Zarate, Eloy. (1998). Cyberspace, scholarship, and survey courses: A prototype for teaching world history. History Teacher 32.1, 57-65.
Keywords: history-course, internet, position paper, group discussion, networked, debate, peer-evaluation, critical-analysis, student-opinion, sample, WAC, prototype
Zawacki, Terry Myers; E. Shelley Reid; Ying Zhou; Sarah E. Baker. (2009). Voices at the table: Balancing the needs and wants of program stakeholders to design a value-added writing assessment plan. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
[various]. (1985). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Third National Testing Network in Writing Conference, San Francisco, California, March 1985]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2085toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 05, 2-26.
Keywords: testing, assessment, K-12, portfolio, proficiency, procedure, teacher-certification, holistic, rating, rater-training, primary-trait, research-method, research, WAC [at Stanford University], Research in the Effective Teaching of Writing Project, discourse-feature, gain, classroom-research, longitudinal, development, regression, analytic, funding, program, ESL, teacher-training minority, curriculum, G5, response, administering, cost, data-analysis, peer-evaluation, topic, large-scale, Canada, placement, feature
[various]. (1986). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fourth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Cleveland, Ohio, April, 1986]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2086toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 06, 3-25.
[various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2087toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school
[various]. (1988). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Sixth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April, 1988]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 08, 4-33.
Keywords: testing, K-12, mode, portfolio, WAC, rising-junior [Governors State University], revamping, exit-exam [Ball State University], proficiency, rising-junior [University of Massachusetts], WAC, program, campus-wide, universal, literacy, validity, direct, reliability, scale stability, rater-training, holistic, discrepant-essay, primary-trait, placement, rhetorical, rater-training, video, program-program-validation, longitudinal, growth, regression, mode, rhetorical-task, pedagogy, reader-response, holistic, self-assessment, computer, style-checker, legal, national, international, Written Composition Study [International Association for Educational Achievement], criteria, contrastive, topic, classroom-research, computer-analysis, feature
[various]. (1990). [synopses of conference talks, Seventh National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Montreal, Canada, April, 1989]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 09, 2-48.
Keywords: testing, computer, process, large-scale, standards, WPA, international, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, ESL, literacy, competency, holistic, University of Minnesota, validity, construct-validity, topic, assessment, Scotland, classroom, portfolio assessment, program, self-evaluation, peer-evaluation, self-validation, professional-school, veterinary, WAC, rater-training, program-validation, empowerment, rising-junior [East Texas State University], wcenter, transfer-student, James Britton, Peter Elbow, campus-wide, universal, computer, individual-differences, ESL, community, contrastive, City University of New York, disciplinary, rising-junior [University of Missouri-St. Louis], rising-junior [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee], prompt, argumentation, validity, primary-trait, physics-department, feminist, pedagogy, placement, minimum competency, scale, score stability, response, local assessment, feature