The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

— Justin Jory
Bibliography Editor

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Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald. (2006). Introductions in examination essays: The case of two undergratuate courses. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 03.
The author presents a study that employs a modified version of Swales' (1990) move analysis to investigates the generic structure of introductions in a total of 120 writing samples of Ghanaian undergraduates in English and Sociology. The study reveals differences between the two groups in their use of move-structures. (Published February 21, 2006) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: data, Swales, move analysis, WAC, examination essays, introductions, WAC, WID, English, Sociology
Anderson, Leon; Mara Holt. (1990). Teaching writing in sociology: A social constructionist approach. Teaching Sociology 18 (April), 179-184.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, social, constructivist, team-teaching, constructionist, social
Berg, E. Z.. (1992). An introduction to sociology using short stories and films: Reshaping the cookie cutter and redecorating the cookie. Teaching Sociology 20 (October), 265-269.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, film, short story, literature, writing-about-lit, discipline-metaphor, cooking, cookie
Bizzell, Patricia; Royce Singleton, Jr.. (1988). What can we do about essay exams?. Teaching Sociology 16.2, 177-179.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, essay-exam, pedagogy, evaluation, criteria, style-content
Brent, Edward; Martha Townsend. (2006). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: finding common ground. In Ericsson, Patricia Freitag; Richard H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: machine-scoring, computer, computer-analysis, University of Missouri, sociology-course, intensive, grading, evaluation, cost-effective, computer-feedback, Qualrus, SAGrader, tricking, WAC, conflict
Brien, Michael. (1993). Naming our fears. [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 04, 31-36.
Keywords: prison, assignment, personal , prompt, word-list, list, WAC, sociology-course
Cadwallader, Mervyn L.; C. Allen Scarboro. (1982). Teaching writing within a sociology course: A case study in writing across the curriculum. Teaching Sociology 09.4, 359-582.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, freewriting, group, term-paper
Coker, Frances H.; Allen Scarboro. (1990). Writing to learn in upper-division sociology courses: Two case studies. Teaching Sociology 18.2, 218-222.
Keywords: advanced, WAC, intensive, sociology-course, religion, Millsaps College [Mississippi], write-to-learn
Crew, Keith. (1989). Writing processes and the sociological imagination. Crossover: A WAC Newsletter (fall), 3-6.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, process, imagination, process
Daughaday, Lillian. (1997). Postcards from the imagination: Using letters to teach sociological concepts. Teaching Sociology 25.3, 234-238.
Keywords: research-report, expressive, explorative, assignment, letter-writing, implied-reader, sample, sociology-course, WAC, imagination
Davis, Barbara; Linda Luvaas-Briggs; Sacramento City College. (1983). 'It's not my job'--basic skill development in a sociology course, a shared solution. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 231 496.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, basic-skills, teacher-cooperation, shared responsibility
Day, Susan. (1989). Producing better writers in sociology classes: A test of the writing-across-the-curriculum approach. Teaching Sociology 17.4, 458-464.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, Southwest Texas State University, contrast-group, volume-of-writing, grading, rigor, data, improvement
Denscombe, Martyn; Lynton Robins. (1980). Self-assessment and essay writing. Teaching Sociology 08.1, 63-78.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, first-year, self-evaluation, essay-writing
Disch, Estelle. (2004). 'Still cannot solve it': Engaging ESOL students in the classroom conversation. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, sociology-course, teacher-opinion, classroom, discussion
Draper, Virginia. (1991). Can writing programs change the university? Change from the margins. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 336 739.
Keywords: WAC, faculty-workshop, peer-evaluation, sociology-course, assignment, pedagogy, change, retraining, marginality, English-profession
Dunlap, Louise. (1992). Advocacy and neutrality: A contradiction in the discourse of urban planners. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Writing, teaching and learning in the disciplines; New York, NY: Modern Language Associates.
Keywords: sociology-discipline, WAC, urban-planning, advocacy, neutrality, discourse-analysis, institutional, contradiction, workplace, academy-workplace, empowerment, urban
Gardner, Frederick P.; Gladys W. Abraham. (1978). A grading procedure for student writing. Teaching Sociology 06.1, 31-35.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, grading, review-writing, book-review, scale, interrater-reliability, teacher-rater, commenting, objectivity, teacher-cooperation, criteria, grading, paper-load, student-writing
Gordy, Laurie; Alexandria Peary. (2005). Bringing creativity into the classroom: Using sociology to write first-person fiction. Teaching Sociology 33.4, 396-402.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, assignment, creative-writing, first-person, fiction-writing, pedagogy
Grauerholz, Liz. (1999). Creating and teaching writing-intensive courses. Teaching Sociology 27.4, 310-323.
Keywords: writing-intensive, WAC, assignment, sequence, volume-of-writing, syllabus, sociology-course
Green, C. S., III; H. G. Klug. (1990). Teaching critical thinking and writing through debates: An experimental evaluation. Teaching Sociology 18.4, 462-471.
Action research that addresses the issue of providing high quality instruction and feedback in large introductory level classes. Green and Klug explore several methods to find one by which students improve writing and critical thinking abilities, increase class participation and interest, and better learn the course content. Additionally, Green and Klug sought a method that avoided making "the grading load...simply too high" (462). They investigated classroom debate as a way to achieve their goals. Students in the experimental groups participated in debates regarding course material and the control group received instruction by lecture with some class discussion. Those in the control groups were randomly assigned their debate topics, including whether they would take the pro or con side to the issues. Results were measured through various means for each of their goals. The experimental groups showed significant improvement in student performance on multiple choice exams covering course material, rate of enthusiastic class participation, and students’ positive evaluations of instructors, as well as modest gains in writing and critical thinking skills. Students wrote papers collaboratively with their debate teams, creating only a small number of essays to grade rather than 50 - 75 individual papers. Green and Klug end by citing their study's limitations which include issues of sample size and randomness, and also address ethical issues of teaching critical thinking. They call for larger studies to better determine the effects of debate as a pedagogical tool in large introductory courses. (June W. Hurt)
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, critical-thinking, debate, gain, data, experimental
Hackett, Herbert Lewis. (1952). An experimental investigation of the effects of introducing writing skills training into the framework of an introductory course in sociology [doctoral thesis]. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
Keywords: WAC, sociology, experimental, framework, introductory
Harley, Kay. (1991). Contrasts in student and faculty perceptions of student writing ability. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 332 192.
Keywords: teacher-student, evaluation, self-evaluation, conflict, Saginaw Valley State University, WAC, history-course, political-science-course, business-course, philosophy-course, sociology-course, student-opinion, skill-level, decline, data, student-writing
Hartmann, David J.. (1992). Program assessment in sociology: The case for the bachelor's paper. Teaching Sociology 20.2, 125-128.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-program, senior thesis, assignment, program-validation
Hegtvedt, Karen A.. (1991). Teaching sociology of literature through literature. Teaching Sociology 19.1, 1-12.
Keywords: sociology-course, critique, literature, writing-about-lit, syllabus, WAC
Hinrichs, Donald W.. (1990). Teaching communication skills in the context of introductory sociology. Teaching Sociology 18.1, 32-38.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, talk-write, listening, gain, data, introductory
Hudd Suzanne S.. (2005). Evaluating writing across the curriculum programs. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, program-validation, sociology
Hylton, Jaime; John Allen. (1993). Setting specific purposes for writing-to-learn assignments: Adapting the dialogue notebook for a human services course. Teaching Sociology 21.1, 68-78.
Keywords: WAC, write-to-learn, assignment, dialogue journal, notebook, sociology-course, human services, journal-writing, services
Ingram, Larry C.. (1979). Teaching the sociology of religion: The student's religious autobiography. Teaching Sociology 06.2, 161-171.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, religion-course, assignment, autobiography, grading, response
Kainose, Motoko. (2004). Motoko's reflections on learning across the curriculum. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, Japanese-English, philosophy-course, sociology-course, literature-course, student-story
Kalia, Narendra Nath. (1984). The sociological book review: A substitute for the standard term paper. Teaching Sociology 11.2, 213-217.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, review-writing, book-review, term-paper
Kamali, Ali. (1991). Writing a sociological student term paper: Steps and scheduling. Teaching Sociology 19.4, 506-509.
Keywords: sociology-course, term-paper, guidelines, WAC, due-date, composing, piecemeal, topic choice, critical-thinking, outline, information retrieval, analysis, drafting, apprehension, improvement
Karcher, Barbara C.. (1988). Sociology and writing across the curriculum: An adaptation of the sociological journal. Teaching Sociology 16.2, 168-172.
Keywords: sociology-program, WAC, paper-load, grading, journal-writing, write-to-learn
Karcher, Barbara; Barbara Stevenson. (1986). Writing and thinking sociologically. Writing Across the Curriculum [Southern Technical Institute] 04.1, 8.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, journal-writing, assignment
Keller, R. A.. (1982). Teaching from the journals. Teaching Sociology 09 (July), 407-409.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, journal-writing, letter-writing, data, gain
King, K. M.. (1987). Using retrospective autobiographies as a teaching tool. Teaching Sociology 15, 410-413.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, autobiography, assignment, retrospective
Kinney, Marjory Ann. (1991). Writing in the disciplines: The use of writing in the undergraduate sociology curriculum at Bowling Green State University [doctoral thesis]. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University.
Keywords: Bowling Green State University, curriculum, sociology, academic, WAC, undergraduate
Limbert, Claudia A.. (1992). Writing across the curriculum: A how-to plan for a 'writing-in-the-social sciences' class that works. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 350 620.
Keywords: syllabus, FYC, sophomore, WAC, sociology-course, social-science, community, primary-research, historiography, interviewing, pedagogy, how-to, social
Little, Craig B.. (1982). Teaching by examples. Teaching Sociology 09.4, 401-406.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, pedagogy, teacher-strategy, sample
Mathison, Maureen A.; Linda Flower; National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy. (1993). Writing from academic sources: Critiquing texts in sociology: A longitudinal study: Project 9 (Study 2, Phase 2). Final report. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 366 951.
Keywords: sources, academic, critique-writing, sociology-course, WAC, longitudinal, data, integrative, bibliographic-search, final-report
McMillan, Fay C.. (1988). Writing in different disciplines: Problems and possibilities. Writing Across the Curriculum [Southern Technical Institute] 05.2, 12-16.
Keywords: WAC, program, needs-analysis, interdisciplinary, discipline-specific, assignment, mathematics-course, engineeringcourse, chemistry-course, vocational, literature-course, biology-course, history-course, psychology-course, sociology-course, business education
Migliaccio, Todd; Dan Melzer. (2011). Using grounded theory in writing assessment. link to full text. WAC Journal 22, 79-89.
Keywords: assessment, validation, grounded-theory, contextuality, fit, relevance, workability, modifiability, WAC, sociology-course, coding, critical-thinking, rubric, research-method
Miller, Robert S.. (1989). Collaborative writing in social psychology: An experiment. [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 01, 95-103.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, social-psychology, collaboration, pedagogy, social, social-psychology
Miller, Ron; Rita Seiden Miller. (1976). The student's sociological diary. Teaching Sociology 04.1, 67-82.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, diary-writing, evaluation, growth, gain, data
Minor, Harold C.. (1986). The buck stops here. Writing Across the Curriculum [Southern Technical Institute] 04.1, 6-7.
Keywords: decline, syllabus, WAC, syllabus, testing, term-paper, grading, sociology-course
O'Flaherty, Kathleen M.. (1992). Introducing students to the concept of the sociological imagination: A written assignment. Teaching Sociology 20.4, 326-328.
Keywords: sociology-course, social imagination, write-to-learn, personal-social, assignment, WAC, imagination
Peters, Sandra; Deborah Saxon. (1997). Simulation and collaborative learning in political science and sociology classrooms. In Orr, Thomas (Ed.); Aizu University [Aizuwakamatsu, Japan], Center for Language Research; Proceedings 1997: The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 774.
Keywords: ESL, ESP, technical-communication, WAC, simulation, collaboration, political-science-course, sociology-course
Peters, Sandra; Deborah Saxon. (1998). Simulation and collaborative learning in political science and sociology classrooms. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 784.
Keywords: collaboration, simulation, pedagogy, WAC, political-science-course, sociology-course, ESP, ESL
Peters, Sandra; Deborah Saxon. (1998). Simulation and collaborative learning in political science and sociology classrooms. In Orr, Thomas (Ed.), The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997); Aizu University [Japan], Center for Language Research, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 774.
Keywords: ESP, ESP, pedagogy, WAC, political-science-course, sociology-course, simulation, collaboration
Phillips, Suzanne M.. (1996). A writing workshop for sophomores. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 405 035.
Keywords: WAC, workshopping, sociology-course, skills-level, sophomore, response, commenting, feedback, evaluation, peer-evaluation, pedagogy
Pittendrigh, Adele S.; Patrick C. Jobes. (1984). Teaching across the curriculum: Critical communication in the sociology classroom. Teaching Sociology 11.3, 281-296.
Keywords: environmental-science-course, problem-solving, write-to-learn, WAC, sociology-course
Reinertsen, Priscilla S.; M. Cyrene Wells. (1993). Dialogue journals and critical thinking. Teaching Sociology 21.2, 182-186.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, dialogue journal, journal-writing, collaboration, critical-analysis, textbook, write-to-learn, sample
Riedmann, Agnes. (1991). We wrote our own book: Teaching introductory sociology by helping students to tell their own stories with sociological insight. Teaching Sociology 19.4, 477-482.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, student publishing, sudent-anthology, book-writing, collaboration, improvement, assignment, syllabus, introductory
Roberts, Keith A.. (1993). Toward a sociology of writing. Teaching Sociology 21.4, 317-324.
Keywords: sociology-course, disciplinary, rhetorical, C. Wright Mills, sociological imagination, WAC, write-to-learn
Roth, Robin L.. (1985). Learning about gender through writing: Student journals in the undergraduate classroom. Teaching Sociology 12.3, 325-338.
Keywords: sociology-course, journal-writing, WAC, gender, questioning, problem-posing, write-to-learn, undergraduate
Sills, Caryl K.. (1991). Paired composition courses: 'Everything relates'. College Teaching 39.2, 61-64.
Sills notes that paired courses assist students in becoming aware of the 'connections among ideas and issues across disciplinary boundaries, and [helps] them gain intellectual sophistication by confronting and assessing multiple perspectives' (p. 61). She discusses the linkage between an English Composition course and Introduction to Sociology, where 'the professors were free to design two separate but related courses that would serve the goals of both the English and sociology departments' (p. 61). In this link, 'we focused on interpreting and communicating information as a component of the learning process,' Sills writes, 'accurate and effective use of language became a means of knowing sociology, rather than a separate exercise called ‘writing’' (p. 62). Sills comments that paired courses require a larger time commitment from faculty and that the relationship between the two courses must be actively managed by both instructors. Working together, the two faculty members can find an appropriate balance for 'pacing, methodology, and goals' (p. 64).[Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: Monmouth College [New Jersey], linked, FYC, EAP, ESL, learning-community, sociology-course, WAC, comparison, text-analysis, argumentation, student-attitude, faculty-commitment
Simon, Barbara L.; Margot Soven. (1989). The teaching of writing in social work education: A pressing priority for the 1990's. Journal of Teaching in Social Work 03.2, 47-63.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, social-work, assignment, advanced, journal, personal, double-entry, bibliography-writing, priority, social
Singh, Raghu N.; N. Prabha Unnithan. (1989). Free to write: On the use of speculative writing in sociology courses. Teaching Sociology 17.4, 465-470.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, speculative, assignment, pedagogy
Soliday, Mary. (2005). Mapping genres in a science in society class. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, science-course, sociology-course
Stoddart, Kenneth. (1991). Lifestory: A device for dispersing authority in the introductory course. Teaching Sociology 19.1, 70-73.
Keywords: sociology-course, autobiography-writing, peer-response, ethnocentrism, student-authority, WAC, introductory
Stoddart, Kenneth. (1991). Writing sociologically: A note on teaching the construction of a qualitative report. Teaching Sociology 19.2, 243-248.
Keywords: sociology-course, WAC, assignment, research-report, ethnographic, component-process, qualitative
Vazquez, John D.. (1992). Implementation of integrated skills reinforcement teaching and learning strategies in the social sciences, behavioral sciences and Puerto Rican and Latin-American studies courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 343 165.
Keywords: data, gain, WAC, Skills Reinforcement, La Guardia Community College, two-year, student-centered, ESL, native-nonnative, sociology-course, oral-presentation, collaborative, narrative-log, vocabulary, academic, social-science, behavioral, implementation, integrated, learner-strategy, Puerto Rico, Latin America, social
Wagenaar, Theodore C.. (1984). Using student journals in sociology courses. Teaching Sociology 11.4, 419-437.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, journal-writing, pedagogy, sample
Weitz, Rose. (1991). Teaching writing for publication. Teaching Sociology 19.3, 414-417.
Keywords: WAC, sociology-course, graduate, publishing
Wieler, S. H.. (1986). A context-based study of the writing of eighteen year olds, with special reference to A-level biology, English, geography, history, history of art, and sociology [doctoral thesis]. London: University of London Institute of Education.
Keywords: ethnographic, WAC, England, contextual, data, A-level, biology-course, geography-course, history-course, sociology-course, art-history-course
Williamson, Michael M.. (1984). The function of writing in three college curricula: The modes of discourse and the registers of writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 252 884.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, sociology-course, teacher-interview, ethnographic, response, register, epistemological, certainty, individuality, teacher-perspective, discourse mode, data
Williamson, Michael McKay. (1984). The function of writing in three college undergraduate curricula [doctoral thesis]. Buffalo, NY: State University of New York at Buffalo.
Keywords: WAC, biology, sociology, disciplinary, functional, contextual, academic, undergraduate
Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.). (2004). Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
This edited collection brings together the perspectives of L2 students, ESOL and composition researchers, and faculty in different disciplines on what it means for L2 students to write and learn through writing across the curriculum and into specific disciplines. The first section is devoted to case study research on undergraduate L2 students’ experiences as they write across the curriculum; the second section features reflections by a L2 biology major and L2 sociology major on their writing and learning experiences in courses in their majors and across the curriculum; and the third section shares chapters written by faculty in anthropology, philosophy, nursing, literature, sociology, and Asian American studies on their attempts to address the needs of L2 writers in their classrooms. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: ESL, skill-transfer, multilingual, WAC, academic, case-study, student-opinion, biology-major, sociology-major, pedagogy