Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.
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Writing in the Disciplines
Abrams, Lowell. (2017). Seeing the forest and the trees when writing a mathematical proof. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 19-28.
Abstract: One of the typical challenges facing a mathematics student when writing a proof is the need to understand the interplay of details and broader concepts. I describe a multi-step proof-writing assignment used in a mid-level course for mathematics majors that is designed to help with this challenge by forcing students to incrementally increase their engagement with the various conceptual levels of the material at hand.
Abrams, Nancy; Nadine Feiler. (2003). Greater than the sum of parts: A poetry/science collaboration. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
Collaborations between disciplines in middle school usually occur between language arts and social studies, or between math and science; however, we found a collaboration between language arts and science to be a fruitful experience for our students in their learning both disciplines and in improving our own teaching. Understanding poetry and science requires many of the same skills: close observation, description, and metaphorical thinking. To that end, we developed a curriculum that focused on those skills as our students studied barrier islands in sixth grade science and poetry in sixth grade language arts.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, science, poetry
Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald. (2006). Introductions in examination essays: The case of two undergratuate courses. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 03.
The author presents a study that employs a modified version of Swales' (1990) move analysis to investigates the generic structure of introductions in a total of 120 writing samples of Ghanaian undergraduates in English and Sociology. The study reveals differences between the two groups in their use of move-structures. (Published February 21, 2006) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Andrews, Deborah, Moderato. (2003). What leadership, goals, and policies can ensure that students communicate well in multicultural environments and intercultural commerce? [Panel 1 Summary]. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
A panel discussion addressing communication in multi-cultural environments. Panelists include Rebecca Burnett, Daniel Chavez, Jonathan Monroe, Neal Lane, and Carol Geary Schneider.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, leadership, multicultural, intercultural, commerce, business, intercultural
Anonymous. (1994). A new journal for WAC [Language and Learning Across the Disciplines]. Composition Chronicle Newsletter 07.5, 10.
Keywords: professional-periodical, LLAD, Language and Learning Across the Disciplines, WAC, WID
Anson, Chris M.. (1988). Toward a multidimensional model of writing in the academic disciplines. In Jolliffe, David A. (Ed.), Writing in academic disciplines (Advances in writing research, Vol. 2); Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Anson, Chris M.; Michael Carter; Deanna P. Dannels; Jon Rust. (2003). Mutual support: CAC programs and institutional improvement in undergraduate education. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
In this essay, we will first describe ways in which CAC programs can become an integral part of a broader, institution-wide mission to improve undergraduate education through a stronger focus on collaborations and partnerships with organizations and administrative units that share commonalities of mission. We will then describe and assess the results of such a partnership at North Carolina State University, where we have teamed up with those responsible for a major, institution-wide initiative involving every undergraduate program in continuous cycles of program review and assessment. By analyzing the successes and limitations of our work, we suggest some fruitful directions for programs seeking mutual support for their efforts.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, communication across the curriculum, CAC, improvement, mutuality, mutuality, undergraduate
Anstendig, Linda; Eugene Richie; Shannon Young; Pauline Mosley; Bette Kirschstein. (2004). Architects of change: Writing enhanced course program development and core reform. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 01.
Linda Anstendig and her colleagues report on the synergisms that developed as their university-wide Writing Enhanced Course Program was implemented in parallel with their university's new core curriculum. They evaluate their program and suggest the directions they plan to take now that it is firmly established within the core curriculum. (Published October 8, 2004) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, WID, gen-ed, general education, assessment, core-curriculum
Apostel, Shawn. (2003). 'Oh that wonderful stuff': Selected poetry by college and middle school students. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
When students use poetry to imagine and explore academic subjects, they examine the topic in new, creative ways, resulting in interesting and lively writings that stimulate thought and class discussions. The following poems presented in this article are examples of student poetry written in a variety of classes throughout the curriculum. I am pleased to showcase student writing in this section, and I hope reading these poems will suggest possibilities and adaptations for teachers and students elsewhere.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, middle-school, school-college, poetry
Archer, Arlene . (2011). Dealing with multimodal assignments in writing centers. Writing Lab Newsletter 35.9-10, 10-13.
Keywords: wcenter, multimodality, multimedia, multi-media, multi-modal, mixed genre, multiliteracy, multilateral, graphics, graphic elements, visuals, picture, eye-based, optical, pictorial, graph, chart, illustration, table, drawing, imagery, image, tutor-training, tutor training, training of tutors, writing center training, consultant training, communication across the curriculum, WAC/CAC, CAC/WAC, ECAC, disciplinary writing, writing in the disciplines, WID, writing across the curriculum, cross-campus, university wide, campus wide, writing-across-the-curriculum
Artemeva, Natasha; Susan Logie. (2003). Introducing engineering students to intellectual teamwork: The teaching and practice of peer feedback in the professional communication classroom. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.1.
In this paper we report on the preliminary stages of a longitudinal study of the role and place of peer feedback in the development of students' writing.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, engineering, peer-response, peer-evaluation, data, longitudinal, teamwork
Bahls, Patrick. (2012). Student writing in the quantitative disciplines: A guide for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Ballentine, Brian D.. (2009). Writing in the disciplines versus corporate workplaces: On the importance of conflicting disciplinary discourses in the open source movement and the value of intellectual property. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
Keywords: WAC, WID, open-source, professional movement, social movement, ideology, conflict, academy-workplace, intellectual property, value, legal, digital, disciplinary-discourse
Bamberg, Betty. (2000). WAC in the 90's: Changing contexts and challenges. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.2.
Bamberg discusses the theoretical dichotomy created by writing-to-learn and writing in the disciplines philosophies. She argues that viewing these philosophies as dichotomous oversimplifies a complex relationship.
Keywords: history, WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, writing to learn
Barber, John F.. (2000). All watched over by machines of loving grace: Promoting cybernetic ecology in writing classrooms. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
Howard Rheingold envisions 'cybernetic architectures' or worlds and ways to be in them (88). John Markoff writes about the creation of 'post-textual literacy' based on digital audio-visual rather than textual thinking that will offer us the opportunity to manipulate intertextuality in ways never before possible using only words and traditional face-to-face educational contexts (5). Building on these images, it is not a stretch to posit that computers and fiction and / or poetry classrooms can sustain each other in a 'cybernetic ecology' that might transcend the time, space, and place boundaries of the traditional classroom, provide access to far-flung resources, promote broader collaborative opportunities among colleagues, and orient such collaboration toward a broad spectrum of humanistic endeavor. The implications are not only interesting and challenging but necessary to address. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Bayer, Trudy; Karen Curto; Charity Kriley. (2005). Acquiring expertise in discipline-specific discourse: An interdisciplinary exercise in learning to speak biology. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 02.
Trudy Bayer and her colleagues report the results of a study with 70 senior undergraduate biological science majors enrolled in a required course on Writing and Speaking in the Biological Sciences. Their study indicates that students demonstrated significant expertise in enacting a highly discipline-specific oral communication task. They attribute these results to a combination of students' ability to successfully deploy discipline-specific discourse to their own tacit knowledge of their field and instruction in both the disciplines of rhetoric and biology. (Published June 26, 2005) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Bazerman, Charles. (1995). Response: Curricular responsibilities and professional definition. In Petraglia, Joseph (Ed.), Reconceiving writing, rethinking writing instruction; Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bazerman’s grants that engagement and situatedness are central to good writing and effective writing pedagogy. He also grants that, as other contributions to Petraglia's book point out, such qualities are often missing in required first-year courses, but does not accept that first-year courses must exhibit these lacks, arguing that the 'best way to learn the power of writing is to write and become engaged in a compelling discourse' (257). Since it is impossible to know which discourses will best serve students in years to come, Bazerman suggests that students in their first years be engaged with a variety of discourses and that that work be connected to upper-division instruction in the major. Acknowledging that transferability is difficult to achieve, he advocates that students be taught to recognize and compare situations as well as to adapt previously-learned procedures. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Bazerman, Charles; Anne Herrington. (2006). Circles of interest: The growth of research communities in WAC and WID/WIP [writing in the disciplines / writing in professions]. In McLeod, Susan H.; Margot Soven (Eds.), Composing a community: A history of writing across the curriculum; West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.
Keywords: WAC, history, WID, research-community
Bergmann, Linda S.. (2000). WAC meets the ethos of engineering: Process, collaboration, and disciplinary practices. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
This paper considers some ways in which WAC theory can conflict with disciplinary practices in applied or technological fields like engineering, so that even though there is a significant demand in engineering education for improving students' communication skills, in many local institutional situations WAC theory and practices may have little actual effect on the kind of writing projects that are set up or on the ways in which students actually learn to write.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, engineering, process, collabortion, pedagogy, pedagogy, ethos
Bird, Barabara; Doug Downs; Elizabeth Wardle. (2008). Downs and Wardle redux (June 2007 CCC). College Composition and Communication 60.1, 165-181.
Blalock, Glenn; Diana Cardenas; Joyce Hawthorne; and Susan Loudermilk. (2003). Using 'community' needs to promote and expand WAC. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
This article explores WAC efforts at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. Specifically, the article addresses efforts to extend WAC efforts to consider the needs of the larger community as well as the university community.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, community, community service, service-learning, techcomm, FYC, learning-community
Blythe, Stuart; Laura Gonzales. (2016). Coordination and Transfer across the Metagenre of Secondary Research. College Composition and Communication 67.4.
Screencast videos were used to study the work of undergraduates enrolled in biology. Students were able to adapt to the writing requirements in biology because they implicitly understood the metagenre of "research from sources." Students coordinated multiple texts simultaneously to engage in processes akin to what Howard has called "patchwriting" but also similar to the habits of professional writers. The authors suggest that instructors spend more time helping students develop effective networks of information, including experts and organizations in addition to published sources.
Bolt-Lee, Cynthia; Sheila D. Foster. (2000). Examination retakes in accounting: Increasing learning by writing after the exam. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 04.2.
Bolt-Lee and Foster contend that examination retakes are beneficial because they offer students a maximum increase in knowledge and an opportunity to enhance written communication skills in exchange for a minimum increase in grades.
Brauer, Gerd. (2002). Drawing connections across education: The Freiburg Writing Center model. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
Considering the increasingly rapid turnover of knowledge and the growing need for multi-functional writing skills for successful knowledge management, including reflective practice and lifelong self-directed learning, the attitude that writing is more of an innate than learned skill has started to change, albeit too slowly. In this article, I will analyze the preconditions for a faster change regarding the redefinition of writing in higher education, on the level of the individual learner and instructor as well as within the frameworks of curriculum and institution. Based on this analysis, I will suggest a model for how to adapt the basic ideas of U.S. writing across the curriculum (WAC) in Germany.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, global, international, wcenter, Freiburg, Germany
Bridwell-Bowles, Lillian; Karen E. Powell; Tiffany Walter. (2009). Not just words any more: Multimodal communication across the curriculum. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
Carpenter, J. Harrison; Margie Krest. (2001). It's about the science: Students writing and thinking about data in a scientific writing course. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.2.
The problem for the teaching of discipline-specific writing is that disciplinary standards of style and form often trump writing teachers' concerns for fostering critical thinking; as a result, teachers overemphasize correctness and format. Our approach is based on the belief that a generative view of genre can be the basis for students learning how to think critically about science.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, conventions, science, critical thinking, writing to learn, genre, data-interpretation
Carrick, Tracy Hamler; Margaret Himley; Tobi Jacobi. (2000). Ruptura: Acknowledging the lost subjects of the service learning story. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
In this essay we turn to the crisis of representation in ethnography and to stories of rupturas from our own experiences as service learning teachers to explore the discursive, institutional, and psychological reasons why these breaks may be difficult to analyze, easy to suture over, and necessary for understanding the intellectual project of service learning theory and pedagogy.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, ethnography, 'ruptura', service-learning
Carroll, Lee Ann. (2002). Rehearsing new roles: How college students develop as writers (Studies in Writing and Rhetoric). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Carroll followed 20 college students for four years, interviewing them about writing tasks, challenges, successes and failures, and reading (with a team of faculty researchers from various disciplines) the texts the students produced and the writing logs they kept. The pattern of development they note aligns with a ‘Cultural/Environmental View of Development’ based in the work of Jerome Bruner, Michael Cole, and Urie Bronfenbrenner. This view holds that development is uneven and that progress entails increasing ability to understand and respond to the environment in which one finds oneself. The most successful students were those most willing to take on take on new challenges and to work toward the meta-cognitive awareness needed to figure out what a new challenge required and what they needed to do to meet it. (Significantly, such students frequently said they were able to give the teacher ‘what s/he wanted.’) Carroll concludes by recommending that faculty ‘[t]ake seriously questions about ‘what the professor wants’ and provide clearly explained assignments, guidelines for performance, models, specific feedback, and opportunities for self-assessment and improvement’ (134). Faculty and WPAs should also work to: (a) think of student work as literacy challenges and not writing tasks; (b) help students focus on writing differently, not better; (c) learn from other faculty what demands they will be making and help students anticipate; provide more options in required literacy environments; (d) develop projects and assignments that will challenge all students—even if finished projects are less than great; (e) provide scaffolding to support development by directly teaching discipline specific research and writing skills, using grading strategically to reward improvement, scheduling interim deadlines for longer projects, and requiring classroom workshops, study groups, and teacher conferences; (f) reconsider with students, colleagues, and other professionals whether ‘what the professor wants’ is, in fact, what the discipline needs or should want. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Carson, J. Stanton; Patricia G. Wojahn; John R. Hayes; and Thomas A. Marshall. (2003). Design, results, and analysis of assessment components in a nine-course CAC program. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.1.
Combining the interests of the various communities, a number of us at Robert Morris recently faced the question of how we could show our various stakeholders, including a faculty extraordinarily generous with its time, whether our one-of-a kind Communication Skills Program is effective in improving students' communications skills and worth a continuing investment. In this article, we argue that we have begun to find our answers in a uniquely tailored evaluation process made up of student portfolio reviews; course plan/syllabus evaluation; and a newly developed program evaluation involving pre, mid, and post-testing. To do so, we focus on the context surrounding the development of the latter, 'locally grown' program evaluation and on what we have learned from our initial study. We believe we can be very helpful in showing what a committed group with limited time and money can do to create effective evaluation for a comprehensive skills program. We also hope our experiences can serve as models for others interested in developing 'in-house' program evaluations.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, assessment, CAC, communication across the curriculum, pedagogy, pedagogy, portfolio
Carson, Jay; William Sipple; Mike Yahr; Thomas Marshall; John O'Banion.. (2000). A new heuristic for planning WAC programs: Ensuring successful collaboration from all stakeholders. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 3.3.
In this article, we focus on the one problem we believe is most crucial for the survival and effectiveness of our modern incarnation of writing across the curriculum: planning. This essay argues that Young, Becker and Pike's tagmemic discovery heuristic procedure is an ideal tool for planning a school-wide reform.
Carter, Duncan; Christie Toth; Hildy Miller. (2013). When the writing requirements went away: An institutional case study of twenty years of decentralization / abolition. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 37.1, 54-80.
Carter, Michael. (2003). A process for establishing outcomes-based assessment plans for writing and speaking in the disciplines. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.1.
This paper focuses on helping faculty in the disciplines identify program outcomes and devise assessment procedures for measuring those outcomes. At my university, we have been involved in university-wide, outcomes-based assessment for over five years and have developed a procedure for working with program faculty to generate assessment plans. I will present that procedure in detail here as an aid to writing and speaking professionals interested in initiating or in taking a more prominent position in an outcomes-based program on their campuses.
Carter, Michael. (2007). Ways of knowing, doing, and writing in the disciplines. College Composition and Communication 58.3, 385-418.
Drawing on the North American genre theories of Carolyn Miller, David Russell, and Charles Bazerman, as well as eight years’ work with outcomes descriptions and assessments, Carter proposes that disciplines define themselves by the genres or intellectual actions central to their work. This definition has several implications: (a) it defies the late 19th century notion of university disciplines as static bodies of declarative knowledge; (b) it forwards the more recent sense of disciplines as collaborations of scholars engaged in ongoing work; (c) it draws attention to the act of writing as the means by which the essential work of all disciplines is realized; (d) it makes it inevitable that all faculty are teachers of writing; and (e) it suggests fruitful areas of cooperation among disciplines. After describing the many genres through which intellectual work is realized, Carter describes four metagenres (Problem Solving, Empirical Inquiry, Research from Sources, Performance) that name intellectual actions common to many disciplines. He suggests that by concentrating on these metagenres, university specialists in WID can help all faculty better understand and teach the genres in which they are engaged and for which they are responsible. The article closes with an appendix listing program outcomes from three academic departments at NCSU, Carter’s home institution. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Keywords: WID, discipline, genre, meta, multidisciplinary, cross-discipline, Dave R. Russell, Carolyn R. Miller, Charles Bazerman, WAC, epistemological, write-to-learn, outcomes
Childers, Pamela B.. (1997). Alternative assessment methods across the disciplines. In Tchudi, Stephen (Ed.), Alternatives to grading student writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 409 577].
Keywords: grading, evaluation, WAC, WID, pedagogy
Childers; Pamela; Cindy Johanek; Jon Leydens; Joan Mullin; Michael Pemberton; Rebecca Rickly; Mike Palmquist. (2002/2003). FORUM: Writing centers and WAC. [Link]. Academic.Writing 03.
This Forum continues the practice of exploring fundamental relationships between key areas of writing studies. In this exchange, a group of scholars who have done substantial work with writing centers and writing-across-the-curriculum programs explore the relationships -- real and ideal -- between the two areas. The Forum opens with statements from each of the participants, and continues with responses to two follow-up and one closing question. In addition to responses to the formal questions, the participants also commented directly on each others' posts. Members of this Forum communicated with each other via electronic mail and the Web over a period of roughly one month. Their interactions are represented here using links among and beyond the texts that they produced. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Connor-Greene, Patricia A.; Janice W. Murdoch. (2000). Does writing matter? Assessing the impact of daily essay quizzes in enhancing student learning. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
This paper addresses the impact of brief daily essay quizzes as a strategy for simultaneously assessing and promoting student learning.
Contributors to C&W Online 2001. (2001). FORUM: Special forum: Electronic communication across the curriculum: A community discussion drawn from Computers & Writing Online 2001. [Link]. Academic.Writing 2.
This Forum provides access to an edited version of a discussion of electronic communication across the curriculum (ECAC) that took place between April 19 and 30, 2001, on the 2001 Computers & Writing Online Conference (http://web.nwe.ufl.edu/cwonline2001/). The ECAC Strand was hosted by several members of the editorial board of Academic.Writing and included participants [http://wac.colostate.edu/aw/forums/spring2001/participants.htm] from inside and outside the writing-across-the-curriculum community. Participants communicated with each other via the C&W Online electronic mail list and during a MOO session in the Connections MOO [http://web.nwe.ufl.edu/cwonline2001/archives/ecac-0425.html]. Their discussion is represented here using links among and beyond the texts that they produced. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: ECAC, WAC, WID, digital, technology, computer, new media
Cox, Michelle. (2010). Identity, second language writers, and the learning of workplace writing. In Cox, Michelle; Jay Jordan; Christina Ortmeier-Hooper; Gwen Gray Schwartz (Eds.), Reinventing identities in second language writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Drawing from case studies of graduate students in a Communication Science and Disorders masters program, Cox compares the writing experiences of a L2 writer with native English speaking writers in the same program, concluding that the ways in which the L2 writer was identified as ‘ESL’ by faculty had negative consequences for this student’s progress through the master’s program. However, the same student’s bilingualism was seen more positively by supervisors in off-campus internships. Cox calls on WAC administrators to learn more about how L2 writers fare in the workplace in order to work more productively with faculty preparing students for different professions. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 2: Studies Focused on L2 Writers in Specific Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Cox, Michelle. (2010). WAC/WID and second language writers (WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8). CompPile database [filed in the Annotation Field--enter: WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8].
In his 2009 article, 'WAC/WID in the Next America: Redefining Professional Identity in the Age of the Multilingual Majority,' Jonathon Hall argues for WAC/WID administrators to be inclusive of second language (L2) students in WAC/WID programs, research, and faculty development. This annotated bibliography takes up that call by providing WAC/WID administrators with reviews of 26 journal articles, book chapters, and monographs that together provide a range of resources useful for providing support for the L2 students writing across the curriculum, in the majors, and in graduate programs. This annotated bibliography is organized in three sections: WAC/WID administrative issues and L2 writers, studies focused on L2 writers in particular disciplines, and studies focused on L2 writers across disciplines. Many of the studies included are case studies tracking the experiences of undergraduate students writing in general education courses as well as courses in their majors, and graduate students writing across master and doctoral programs. What emerges from these studies is a picture of the complex linguistic, cultural, and identity transitions made by L2 students as they write across varying social, disciplinary, and rhetorical contexts. What also emerges is a map of the many opportunities available to WAC/WID professionals for advocating for L2 students. Positioned at the crossroads of teaching and learning as agents of institutional change, WAC/WID professionals are key to making our institutional landscapes, classrooms, and assessment practices more equitable for L2 students, a group not at the margins but at the center of US institutions of higher education. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Cross, Geoffrey A.; Katherine V. Wills. (2005). Bridging disciplinary divides in writing across the curriculum. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 02.
Geoffrey Cross and Katherine Wills report the results of a longitudinal study that assessed whether faculty writing workshops could facilitate writing in heterogeneous disciplines by linking specific, workaday writing activities (Tschudi, 1986) with Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (1974). Results show that participating faculty reported increases in reflective pedagogical practice, more critical selection of writing activities, and decreased time required to construct writing strategies to achieve discipline-related instructional goals. (Published June 26, 2005) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Day, Michael; Tharon Howard; Christine Hult; Charles Moran; Donna Reiss; Mike Palmquist. (2000). FORUM: The role of technology in WAC/CAC programs. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
This Forum, which brought together five scholars [http://wac.colostate.edu/aw/forums/fall2000/participants.htm]with divergent experiences in and views about writing across the curriculum, was designed to consider the role of technology in WAC/CAC programs. The participants communicated with each other via electronic mail and the Web over a period of months. Their interactions are represented here using links among and beyond the texts that they produced. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, CAC, communication across the curriculum, WID
DeDominicis, Benedict E.; Tracy Santa. (2002). WAC in Bulgaria: Benefits and challenges. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
From the perspective of a writing program director functioning within an American-style post-secondary institution in the Balkans, WAC is a 'global' phenomenon in that it has transcended the national boundaries of its origin. In discussing our local instance of the globalization of WAC, we would like to examine the nature of the interdependencies between WAC shareholders as well as explicate who the actors in this realpolitic scenario are and how policy changes have (or have not) affected the educational climate at AUBG.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, Bulgaria, global, international
Devet, Bonnie . (2011). A tale of two UK writing centres. Writing Lab Newsletter 35.7-8, 10-13.
Keywords: wcenter, international, global, case-analysis, case analysis, case study, analysis of cases, British, WAC, writing across the curriculum, WID, writing in disciplines
Dixon, Dwayne. (2017). Imagining the essay as digital assemblage: Collaborative student experiments with writing in scalar. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 35-46.
Abstract: This essay describes a digital, collaboratively designed and interconnected series of essays that were the final project for a first-year class in media and anthropology. These essays were composed using a digital, publically accessible, scholarly publishing platform that allows students to experiment architecturally with arguing related ideas through non-linear text. The result is an intricate, flexible pathway of pages. The assignment is informed by, and attempts to experimentally enact, Felix Guattari's concept of the assemblage, emphasizing movement and process of argument and evidence over static, reified trajectories of traditional essay composition. By examining the periphery of their own ideas, students encounter the interpretations of their classmates and discover alternate readings of key themes, which they can then fold into their own writing networks, ultimately creating a textual flow which challenges the singularity of the author and the boundaries of disciplinary thinking.
Donahue, Christiane. (2004). Writing and teaching the disciplines in France: Current conversations and connections. Arts and humanities in higher education, an international journal of theory, research and practice 03, 59-79.
Keywords: WAC, WID, France, review-of-scholarship, international
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-Year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
Downs and Wardle describe WAW curricula that extend beyond students reading and writing about existing scholarship in rhetoric and composition (cf. Dew) to having students conduct primary research on related topics. They frame the pedagogy as an ‘Introduction to Writing Studies’ that explicitly rejects the traditional FYC goal of teaching a universal academic discourse and instead seeks to teach (1) metacognition about writing via procedural and declarative knowledge of writing, and (2) a version of the activity of inquiry that centers universities and spans disciplines. The article theorizes the shortcomings of traditional FYC courses in terms of genre and activity theory and describes WAW curricula that can better respond to these theories of how writing works and thus needs to be learned. It then reports on early results from the curriculum as taught in multiple sections at three institutions, illustrating effects through two particular student experiences in the course. Student feedback and results suggest that the WAW curriculum results in increased self-awareness about writing, improved reading abilities and confidence, and raised awareness of researched writing as conversation. The article concludes with challenges that the curriculum presents, including the challenging nature of the course for students, the resulting imperfections in student work, limited textbook support for the approach, and the need for extensive instructor preparation. [Doug Downs, Writing-About-Writing Curricula: Origins, Theories, and Initial Field-Tests, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 12]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Downs, Douglas; Elizabeth Wardle. (2007). Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions: (Re)envisioning 'First-year Composition' as 'Introduction to English Studies'. College Composition and Communication 58.4, 552-584.
While much of this article is an explication and defense of the authors' proposed 'writing about writing' pedagogy, there are explicit connections to transfer explored. Downs and Wardle address two prevalent misconceptions about FYC: that FYC can teach students 'academic writing' (a concept that defies singular definition), and that writing skills learned in FYC transfer to other writing contexts. They contend there is 'little empirical verification' of such transfer, and, in fact, some evidence to suggest that such transfer does not occur. To address these two misconceptions, the authors suggest a transformation of FYC into 'Introduction to Writing Studies,' a course that 'could teach about the ways writing works in the world' and about writing as a mediating tool. Based on the results of a pilot study with a research sample of eighty-four students in two universities, the authors conclude that this curriculum results in students' 'increased self awareness about writing,' increased confidence and improved reading ability, and increased understanding of writing (particularly research) as a conversation among writers. While not without its challenges and its critics (which are acknowledged and addressed), this curriculum, the authors assert, has the potential to increase transfer through reflective activities, a focus on abstracting generalities about writing, and increased context awareness, each of which helps students to understand how rhetorical strategies are realized in particular contexts for writing. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Keywords: FYC, pedagogy, WAW, writing-studies, objective, metacognition, activity-theory, genre-theory, curriculum, student-opinion, data, case-study, self-evaluation, research-awareness, student-confidence, gain, needs-analysis, teacher-training, academic, AP English, content-analysis, contextual, basic-skills, honors, recursive, reflection, rhetorical, skill-transfer, writing-studies, WAC, WID, Charles Bazerman, Larry Beason, Carol Berkenkotter, John Dawkins, Linda Flower, James Paul Gee, Christian Haas, John R. Hayes, Thomas N. Huckin, George Lakoff, Mark Johnson, Sondra Perl, John Swales, misunderstanding
Edwards, Lynell. (2001). Writing, religion, and the complex spiritual site of evolution. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 05.2.
Grim as academia can sometimes be, few of us would own up to being in alliance with the 'dark side,' or confess to having encouraged students to engage in heretical behaviors. But the comments above from students enrolled in a seminar on evolution taught at a small, private religious college suggest that, in fact, there are considerable moral consequences associated with certain disciplinary practices. We know that what students may vaguely refer to as their 'values' or their 'belief systems' likely contributes to their reluctance to engage in Marxist and feminist critiques of capitalist culture. We know that students sometimes use the word 'sin' when confronted with questions about homosexuality and gay rights. But the ways in which students' religious values guide their participation in disciplinary discourse needs further investigation if we are to understand why a student, when enrolled in a course on evolution, would refer to academic practice as 'the dark side.' Further, what pedagogical practices best help students navigate these difficult sites for composing? What role do instructors play in modeling character and the habits of ethical discursive practice?
Keywords: WAC, WID, religion, evolutionary, value, pedagogy, science-course, spiritual, site
Ellis, Viv; Donna LeCourt. (2002). Literacy in context: A transatlantic conversation about the future of WAC in England. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
This is a story of WAC efforts that are indelibly marked by national differences in higher education and institutional structures which account not only for differing statuses for WAC efforts in our respective countries, but also for, surprisingly, different conceptions about writing itself and its function in higher education.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, global, international, England, literacy
Ellner, Carolyn L.; Carol P. Barnes. (1982). Writing in the disciplines: An external evaluation. San Luis Obispo, CA: California Polytechnic State University.
Keywords: WID, WAC, California Polytechnic State University, faculty-workshop, student-opinion, teacher-opinion, program-validation, data, questionnaire, Likert
Emerson, Lisa; Bruce R. MacKay; Keith A. Funnell; Marion B. MacKay. (2002). Writing in a New Zealand tertiary context: WAC and action research. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
This article explores the unique context of WAC in New Zealand Universities.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, New Zealand, global, international
Ennis, Michael. (2017). Explaining a scientific concept for page and screens. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 47-54.
Abstract: While students learn valuable skills by composing multimodal works, these assignments can also help students master traditional writing genres by defamiliarizing some of the "design choices" they make when writing. Requiring students to revise a traditional written essay into a video accomplishes two key goals in both lower level and advanced writing classes. It updates writing curricula to provide students experience with the kind of writing they will do in other classes. Furthermore, reflecting on the revision process enhances student appreciation for the importance of clear prose, careful exposition, and logical organization.
Flower, Linda; Shirley Brice Heath. (2000). Drawing on the local: Collaboration and community expertise. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
A short history of community/university collaboration is buried in the phrase .service learning.. In the grammar of its implied narrative, the agent, actor, and source of expertise--the server--is the academy not the community. And the act of learning is more often a personal reflection by students on a broadening experience than it is a public act of shared knowledge making. But what if we attempted to turn the tables: to transform service into a collaboration with communities and learning into a problem-driven practice of mutual inquiry and literate action? And what would it take to do so? Our reflection on this issue comes in part from watching these questions come to life in an unusual forum--a community problem-solving dialogue with 180 stakeholders, including leaders in the urban community, leaders and staff from city youth organizations, and university faculty and students.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, collaboration, community service, service-learning, academy-community, academy-public, expertise
Frazier, Dan. (2010). First steps beyond the first year: Coaching transfer after FYC. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 33.3, 34-57.
Through an exploratory study, Frazier investigates the potential of 'alternative teaching spaces' as a bridge between the writing completed in traditional FYC courses and discipline-specific expectations for writing. Employing a combined methodology of survey, one-on-one meetings, and focus group discussions, Frazier follows eight students' transition from FYC to courses in their majors that require writing during the first semester of their sophomore year. As he coaches these students in the concepts of genre analysis, discourse communities, and meta-cognitive reflection, Frazier concludes that work with transfer strategies and cross-disciplinary discussions of writing are best located in a 'third space' environment outside of either FYC or WAC/WID courses. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Gaillet, Lynee Lewis. (2009). Writing in the disciplines: America's assimilation of the work of Scottish 'pedagogic' George Jardine. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 91-105.
Keywords: George Jardine, 18th-19th-century, history, WAC, WID, tecchnical-communication, peer-evaluation, Scottish, influence, Scotland-USA, Alexander Campbell, James McCosh, pedagogy
Geller, Anne Ellen
. (2011). When in Rome. link to full text
. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 20 (Spring)
For this special issue on Study Abroad and the City, 'When in Rome' describes the development of St. John Universityâ€™s Summer Faculty Writing Institute at its Prati campus in Rome and explores how faculty participants' learning experiences abroad are enriched by the institutionâ€™s deep historical and religious connection to Rome as well as the modern city of Rome. 'When In Rome' also contends that creating a scholarly, reflective space for faculty to build a learning community far from their daily life on a campus in the United States is a powerful institutional investment in both faculty development and global education. The kind of faculty study abroad discussed in 'When in Rome' can lead to new collaborations within and across departments and the development of new courses with an international perspective. As well, having experienced study abroad themselves, faculty return to their home campuses with new perspectives on their disciplines as well as the value of international experiences in cities [author abstract]
Keywords: WAC, WID, faculty-workshop, teacher-as-writer, retreat, cross-disciplinary, abroad, contextual, St. John Universityâ€™s Summer Faculty Writing Institute, Prati, Rome
Gladstein, Jill. (2008). Conducting research in the gray space: How writing associates negotiate between WAC and WID in an introductory biology course. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 05.
Gottschalk, Catherine K.. (2011). Writing from experience: The evolving roles of personal writing in a writing in the disciplines program. full text. Across the Disciplines 08.1.
Gottschalk, a professor in the English department at Cornell, traces the history of the English 135 course offered at that university. Initially called Writing from Experience, the course began in the sixties as a way for students to eliminate the inherent limitations of writing in a particular genre. Gottschalk discusses the pedagogical evolution of the course, focusing on the politics of the academy since the sixties. She details each stage of the courseâ€™s development, as the English department transitioned into a genre-specific Writing in the Disciplines program. The course is no longer offered as a separate entity, but instead has been incorporated into the WID program, and the latter half of her article is devoted to analyzing the intersection of WID courses and expressivist writing. She advocates for keeping the essence of the English 135 course in current introductory writing courses, and she defines this essence as a balance of the personal and the professional in academic writing. By presenting anecdotal examples of courses offered at Cornell that blend the personal and the academic, she demonstrates how professors can incorporate both aspects of writing in their classes.
Keywords: WAC, WID, Cornell University, history, 20th-century, 'Writing from Experience', first-year seminar, personal experience
Griffin, Jo Ann. (2007). Making connections with writing centers. In Selfe, Cynthia L. (ed.), Multimodal composition: Resources for teachers; Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Grobman, Laurie. (2017). The policy brief assignment: Transferable skills in action in a community-engaged writing project. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 8-18.
Abstract: The policy brief assignment in my capstone course in professional writing was designed as a community-engaged project in partnership with a nonprofit organization whose mission is to grow Reading, Pennsylvania's economy. The assignment was intended to do real work in the world: the nonprofit's director, a city council member, and an outreach manager for the city of Reading plan to use the policy briefs to convince Reading's City Council to adopt the recommended policies to enhance citizen participation and representation in local governance and to address deficiencies identified through the STAR Community Rating System(r) (STAR), the nation's leading sustainability framework and certification program (STAR 2016). I welcomed the collaboration and designed the assignment with the goal that students would experience what writing faculty always tell them: fundamental concepts in composition and rhetoric/writing studies are operational in the workplace, and understanding writing and communication rhetorically opens up possibilities for them to enter diverse and unfamiliar writing contexts.
Keywords: SERVICE-LEARNING, WRITING-MAJOR, WID, WAC, ASSIGNMENT-WRITING, ASSIGNMENT, PEDAGOGY, REFLECTIVE PRACTICE
Halasz, Judith; Maria Brincker with the help of Deborah Gambs; Denise Geraci; Andrea Queeley; Sophie Solovyova. (2006). Making it your own: Writing fellows re-evaluate faculty 'resistance'. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 03.
Drawing on research and experience as doctoral Writing Fellows in the Borough of Manhattan Community College WAC Program, the authors explore faculty resistance through the lens of institutional, disciplinary, departmental, and personal constraints. The authors suggest that, if we listen and respond to faculty concerns, they become means to facilitate faculty engagement with and ownership of WAC. (Published August 24, 2006) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, WID, fellows, data, resistance
Hall, Jonathan. (2005). Plagiarism across the curriculum: How academic communities can meet the challenge of the undocumented writer. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 02.
Jonathan Hall argues that there is 'a specifically WAC/WID approach to plagiarism' that can help us reduce plagiarism, help students incorporate sources into their writing effectively and honestly, and improve learning. (Published February 9, 2005) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Hall, Jonathan. (2006). Toward a unified writing curriculum: Integrating WAC/WID with freshman composition. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 17, 5-22.
Identifies points of contention between WAC and composition studies. Argues that instructors of both freshman composition and WAC should think in terms of the development of writing in the larger frame of students’ academic careers. Proposes a Unified Writing Curriculum to reflect the trajectories of students as writers from freshman composition through senior year. In this curricular approach, all instructors will have a unified and coherent approach to writing and writing competency as featured course goals. The intended outcome of this approach is a smooth succession of experiences with writing instruction for students rather than a disjunctive collection of writing pedagogies. Concludes that the focus of freshman composition should be assisting students with the transition to discipline-specific writing at the introductory level and that faculty in the disciplines should recognize the needs of post-composition students making this transition, all of which can be facilitated by the common approach to writing pedagogy of the Unified Writing Curriculum. [Lauren Williams]
Hall, Jonathan. (2009). WAC/WID in the next America: Redefining professional identity in the age of the multilingual majority. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 33-49.
Drawing from data depicting the fast rise of linguistically diverse students in k-12 and in higher education, as well as the trend toward globalization in the workplace, Hall calls for WAC administrators to prepare for this ‘New America’ by shifting faculty development programming to be inclusive of second language writing. Hall provides areas of L2 writing research useful to WAC administrators for educating themselves on working with L2 writers as well as enrich faculty development programming to be inclusive of L2 writing issues. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Hall, Susanne; Jonathan Dueck. (2017). Editors' introduction: Presenting writing assignments as intellectual work and as disciplinary practice. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 1-7.
This editors' introduction shares the history and articulates the goals and format of the journal Prompt.
Haswell, Richard. (2006). The complexities of responding to student writing; or, looking for shortcuts via the road of excess. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 03.
Responding to student writing in a formative way is time consuming for teachers in every discipline. Shortcuts such as correction symbols and checksheets are common, but how effective are they? In this article, Richard Haswell surveys the research into teacher response, using a discourse-activity model to cover all major aspects, and finds complications everywhere. He argues that the complexity of response cautions teachers about shortcuts yet also suggests ways to cull or revamp them. (Published November 9, 2006) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Haswell, Richard H.; interviewed by Carol Rutz. (2009). Richard H. Haswell: A conversation with an empirical romanticist. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 5-15.
Keywords: Richard H. Haswell, scholar-story, bridging, empirical, research-method, data-based, development, expertise, WAC, WID, context-switching, prolepsis, English-profession, Wordsworth, Romanticism, authoring
Hatmaker, Elizabeth A.. (2003). City confidential: On the lyric mapping of urban space. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, urban, poetry, lyric, urban
Heckelman, Ronald J.; Will-Matthis Dunn III. (2003). Models in algebra and rhetoric: A new approach to integrating writing and mathematics in a WAC learning community. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
This paper documents an ongoing experiment designed to integrate the teaching of college algebra and college rhetoric and writing at Montgomery College in Conroe, Texas. These are the first two college-level math and English courses that students take within the college's core curriculum. Our approach focuses on the concept of models and model building and might be easily adapted to a variety of math and writing classes. We believe we have maintained the necessary rigor of both disciplines while providing a foundation which links them.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, mathematics-course, learning-community, writing to learn, algebra, integrated
Hembroff, Larry. (1983). On writing in the disciplines. In Writing Across the Curriculum Program (Ed.), Working papers on writing and learning; Radford, VA: Radford University.
Keywords: WAC, WID, interdisciplinary
Henry, Jim; Ka'alele, Scott; Shea, Lisa; Wiggins, Chase. (2016). Teaching the liberal arts across the disciplines through place-based writing. Currents in Teaching and Learning 08.2, 18-31.
Keywords: liberal arts, WAC/WID, place-based writing, Creative Commons, student growth
Hessler, H. Brooke. (2000). Composing an institutional identity: The terms of community service in higher education. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
This essay examines how the rhetoric of community service can both hinder and help efforts to strengthen service-learning institutionally, professionally, and pedagogically. My research draws from an extensive review of college and university mission statements and other institutional artifacts used to compose and communicate the modern vocation of American higher education--its idealized roles, responsibilities, and contributions to society.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, community service, service-learning, data, identity
Hirsch, Linda; Carolina DeLuca. (2003). WAC in an urban and bilingual setting: Writing-to-learn in English y en Español. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
Hirsh and DeLuca research the effectiveness of writing-to-learn pedagogies in a writing-intensive section of an Introductions to Humanities course taught in Spanish as part of a bilingual program. Hirsh and DeLuca argue that for L2 students, writing-to-learn in their first language enables them to create meaning and further understand course material, a benefit of WAC not always available to L2 writers when faculty insist on the use of English even in low-stakes writing activities. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Hocks, Mary E.; Elizabeth Sanders Lopez; Jeffrey T. Grabill. (2000). Praxis and institutional architecture: Designing an interdisciplinary professional writing program. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
This is a story – a story of institutional and programmatic change, a story of faculty and student aspirations, a story of a collective journey. By telling our story – that of a specific institution at a specific time – we hope to start a conversation about how programs develop and how institutions change. Our philosophy of program design presupposes that design is an active verb as well as a noun. As we will explain, while some parts of programs may develop through serendipity or through unrelated events over time, programs are always being designed – both through theory and our actions. It is this planned change, the intersection between theoretical and practical forces that leads us to see design as praxis, as situated action. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Holder, Carol; Susan McLeod. (2006). The start of writing in the disciplines/writing across the curriculum in the California State University system. In McLeod, Susan H.; Margot Soven (Eds.), Composing a community: A history of writing across the curriculum; West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.
Keywords: WAC, WID, history, California State University
Jamieson, Sandra. (1996). Shaping the contact zone: Designing WAC/WID assignments for composition courses [writing across the curriculum/writing in disciplines]. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 404 644.
Jamison, Robert E.. (2000). Learning the language of mathematics. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
This paper is about the use of language as a tool for teaching mathematical concepts. In it, I want to show how making the syntactical and rhetorical structure of mathematical language clear and explicit to students can increase their understanding of fundamental mathematical concepts.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, mathematics, pedagogy, writing to learn, pedagogy
Johnson, J. Paul; Ethan Krase. (2013). Affect, experience, and accomplishment: A case study of two writers, from first-year composition to writing in the disciplines. Journal of Teaching Writing 27.2, 1-26.
Jones, Robert W.. (1997). The Harcourt Brace guide to writing in the disciplines. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Keywords: WAC, WID, disciplinary, academic
Juzwik, Mary M.. (2004). The dialogization of genres in teaching narrative: Theorizing hybrid genres in classroom discourse. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 01.
Mary M. Juzwik draws on a grounded study to propose a hybrid theory of classroom genres that builds on Bauman's conceptualization of the 'dialogization of genres.' This perspective foregrounds Bakhtin's earlier and more literary work, while backgrounding Bakhtin's later, more social scientific perspectives on genre. In particular, Juzwik considers problems with Bakhtin's distinctions between primary and secondary genres as they have been understood by researchers conducting genre analysis in academic contexts. (Published June 25, 2004) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Kells, Michelle Hall. (2007). Writing across communities: Deliberation and the discursive possibilities of WAC. Reflections: A Journal of Writing, Service-Learning, and Community Literacy 6.1, 87-108.
This article argues that traditional models of WAC too narrowly privilege academic discourse over other discourses and communities shaping the worlds in which our students live and work. Writing Across Communities
represents a shift in paradigm informed by Ecocomposition, New Literacy Studies, and Sociolinguistics. A Writing Across Communities
approach to writing program reform foregrounds dimensions of ethnolinguistic diversity and civic engagement in contrast to other models of WAC currently institutionalized across the nation. Writing Across Communities, as a resistance discourse, calls for transdisciplinary dialogue that demystifies the ways we make and use knowledge across communities of practice. [Reflections]
Kiefer, Kate; Jamie Neufeld. (2002/2003). Making the most of response: Reconciling, coaching, and evaluating roles for teachers across the curriculum. [Link]. Academic.Writing 03.
In this paper, we illustrate specific techniques to help teachers across the curriculum incorporate supportive responses into their repertoire of response strategies and then suggest how teachers can shift more comfortably from coaching into final evaluation of papers. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Kruse, Otto. (2006). The origins of writing in the disciplines: Traditions of seminar writing and the Humboldtian ideal of the research university. Written Communication 23.3, 331-352.
The introduction of seminars to university teaching marks the onset of a new teaching philosophy and practice in which writing is used to make students independent learners and researchers. Although the beginnings of writing pedagogy at American universities are well documented, little is known about its origins in Germany. The article tracks the history of seminar teaching back to its roots and reviews its historical development from the very beginnings to the point when seminars became the pedagogical flagship of the Humboldtian research university. Twenty seminar regulations from Prussian universities, written between 1812 and 1839, are reviewed with respect to the prescriptions they contain about writing. They reveal that a writing-to-learn pedagogy was elaborated as early as about 1820. The most important claim of the article is that an early concept of writing in the disciplines was central to the development of the Humboldtian research university [journal abstract]
Kutney, Joshua P. . (2007). Will writing awareness transfer to student performance? Response to Downs and Wardle [Interchanges]. College Composition and Communication 59.2, 276-279.
Keywords: Case studies, community-service, FYC, transferability, WAC, WID, knowledge-transfer
Larson, Richard L.. (1993). Writing in the disciplines: Facilitating invention. Composition Chronicle Newsletter 05.7, 8-9.
Keywords: WAC, WID, invention
Lerner, Neal. (2001). A history of WAC at a college of pharmacy. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.1.
In this narrative, I attempt to accomplish two purposes: 1) to describe the intertwined relationship between specific student writing activities, the college's perceived demands of pharmacy professionals, and specific cultural/social forces; and 2) to demonstrate that local historical research via documents that most of our institutions archive--course catalogs, bulletins, brochures, student newspapers, yearbooks, and committee reports--can tell us a great deal about the contexts for previous WAC efforts and the potential for the success of future ones.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, history, pharmacy
Lettner-Rust, Heather G.; Pamela J. Tracy; Susan L. Booker; Elizabeth Kocevar-Weidinger; Jená B. Burges. (2007). Writing beyond the curriculum: Transition, transfer, and transformation. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Part service-learning, part civic engagement, part student-directed research, and part interdisciplinary senior seminar, the course at the heart of Longwood University's mission combines a variation of writing-as-process with a ninety-degree rotation of writing-across-the-curriculum practices. Why and how it happened, and what we learned along the way, exemplifies the transformation of higher education's mission from an instructional paradigm to a learning paradigm. (Published October 8, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Lewis, Andrea; Kathryn Palmer. (2001). A critical thinking / discipline specific model for teaching writing through service learning. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.2.
The course we discuss in this article is an attempt to develop students' high-order cognitive skills in the context of specific disciplinary knowledge. We believe that this approach not only gives students the critical consciousness they need to produce valuable academic work and to live as active citizens beyond the ivory tower, but also helps institutionalize service learning as a credible pedagogical approach. This paper, then, will outline the pedagogical basis of our course and will explain how that basis translates into a host of practical matters including pre-course project development and agency liaison, the nature of specific projects and the necessity of matching students with appropriate projects, actual classroom instruction, and agency-student-academy dynamics. Moreover, it will examine—in the contexts of classroom instruction and actual student work—the way in which the course encourages the development of knowledge as the product of critical inquiry within a student's particular field of study. Ultimately, the paper works towards articulating how this approach can further institutionalize service learning by prioritizing critical thinking in the context of disciplinarity.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, service-learning, critical thinking
Linda Driskill, Linda, Moderator. (2003). Plenary panel summary: processes for thinking about WAC's future [Panel Summaries]. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
A panel discussion on the future of WAC efforts. Panelists include Chriss Thaiss, Carl Lovitt, Julie Zeleznik, Carol Holder, and Susan McLeod.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, future
Luebke, Steven R.. (2002/2003). Using linked courses in the general education curriculum. link to full text. Academic Writing 03.
In this case study of a pilot project at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls, Luebke explores the challenges faced in developing a link between a first-year English and an environmental studies course. The goal of the linked-course was to challenge students to see connections across the disciplines, while also building skills important to both classes. Leubke comments on the 'significant preparation' necessary to teach in a linked course model (3), especially the time commitment involved. He speaks to the institutional obstacles that linked courses may face and how the territoriality of faculty can complicate teaching in linked courses. He also discusses the assessment of the pilot link and the quite positive perceptions of students in the linked courses. He concludes that the advantages of linked course outweigh the difficulties of reorientation and on-going negotiation that may arise when a new link is implemented. This article's cautionary information about the issues entailed in linking courses is useful for researchers, program administrators, and instructors alike. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: gen-ed, program, linked, WAC, interdisciplinary, WID, learning-community, pedagogy, response, University of Wisconsin--River Falls, site-analysis, environmental-science-course, student-opinion, data, program-validation, turf, institutional, teaching-load
Malinowitz, Hawiet. (1998). A feminist critique of writing in the disciplines. In Jarratt, Susan C.; Lynn Worsham (Eds.), Feminism and composition studies: In other words; NY: Modern Language Association of America.
Mantler, Gordon. (2017). 12 Years a Slave as a bridge to primary source research. link to full text. Prompt: A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments, 29-34.
Abstract: This historical analysis essay on the film 12 Years a Slave and several primary sources bridges earlier skills-based writing prompts with the final research project. It asks students to practice several essential writing moves that reflect the disciplinary approach of historians, without forgetting the concerns of film studies and literature scholars, and even filmmakers. Such moves include conducting careful primary source analysis and interrogation as a historian would; beginning to find sources on one's own (rather than being provided already curated materials); and formally analyzing a film in-depth, including commenting on filmmakers' techniques and how such choices impact the content that viewers witness.
Matsuda, Paul Kei; Jeffrey Jablonski. (2000). Beyond the L2 metaphor: Towards a mutually transformative model of ESL/WAC collaboration. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
In this landmark essay, Matsuda and Jablonski argue that the metaphor often used in WAC that characterizes all students as second language students when writing in unfamiliar discourses renders ESL writers invisible in WAC programs and elides the additional challenges ESL students have when writing across the curriculum. Matsuda and Jablonski call for a rethinking of this metaphor as well as increased collaboration between WAC and ESL specialists. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
McLeod, Susan; Elaine Maimon. (2000). Clearing the air: WAC myths and realities. College English 62.5, 573-583.
McLeod and Maimon respond to 'WAC Myths' they have encountered at conferences, and particularly in articles by C. Knoblauch and Lil Brannon, and by Daniel Mahala. They feel that the history of WAC is misunderstood, leading to misconceptions about WAC today; therefore, they try to re-historicize and redefine WAC. They deny that WAC began as 'grammar across the curriculum.' They deny that there is a 'technical correctness' camp in WAC, and that this campís goals are expressed in WID. They answer Mahala in particular, and say that WAC has always taught both exploratory, ìwriting to learnî assignments, and disciplinary writing. But the latter does not imply teaching 'correctness.' Instead, WID is rhetorical. It allows students to learn the purposes and expectations of writing in their field; it also makes faculty express and clarify what they expect out of disciplinary writing. For the authors, WID is part of WAC, and should be, and always has. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: writing across the curriculum, WAC, myth, demystification, WID, writing in the disciplines, pedagogy, pedagogy, curriculum, faculty development
McQueeney, Pat. (1999). Cementing writing: A writing partnership with civil engineering. http://wac.colostate.edu/atd/archives.cfm [full-text]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 03.2, 118-122.
McQueeney explores the WAC and Civil Engineering partnership at the University of Kansas. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Melzer, Dan. (2003). Assignments across the curriculum: A survey of college writing. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.1.
This essay will present the results of a study that looks to address the need for both a large-scale study of college writing and an unsolicited sample: a textual analysis of the aims, audiences, and genres of nearly 800 writing assignments from across the college curriculum at forty-eight institutions, collected via course websites on the Internet. The study emulates Britton's and Applebee's research by exploring the nature of writing across disciplines on a broader scale than has yet been attempted at the college level, and at the same time it looks to avoid the problems of teacher self-reporting found in previous WAC surveys.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, data, survey, Britton, Applebee
Miles, Libby; Michael Pennell; Kim Henley Owens; Jeremiah Dyehouse; Helen O'Grady; Nedra Reynolds; Robert Schwelger; Linda Shamoon. (2008). Thinking vertically [Interchanges: Commenting on Douglas Downs and Elizabeth Wardle's 'Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions']. College Composition and Communication 59.3, 503-511.
O'Brien Liam. (2005). Building a scaffolding for student writing across the disciplines in communication studies. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
O'Neill, Peggy. (2012). How does writing assessment frame college writing programs?. In Elliot, Norbert; Les Perelman (Eds.), Writing assessment in the 21st century: Essays in honor of Edward M. White; New York: Hampton Press.
O'Neill, Peter. (2008). Using peer writing fellows in British universities: Complexities and possibilities. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 05.
This article examines the potential role of peer tutors and writing fellows in higher education in the United Kingdom. It argues that scepticism surrounding the use of peer tutors in writing is unfounded. In fact, the disciplinary nature of UK Higher Education suggests that undergraduate peer tutors and writing fellows may have an important role in helping other students to develop academic literacies and in promoting Writing-in-the-Disciplines initiatives among academic staff. It looks at recent initiatives in this area at London Metropolitan University
Keywords: teaching fellow, Britain, peer-tutor, United Kingdom, academic, literacy, WAC, WID, London Metropolitan University
Oberleitner, Melinda Granger. (2001). Responding in writing to clinical cases: The development of clinical reasoning in nursing. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.1.
The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate, by presenting a sample case, the concept of clinical reasoning examinations used in the baccalaureate nursing program at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (UL Lafayette).
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, cases, clinical, clinical reasoning, response, pedagogy, pedagogy
Ochnser, Robert; Judy Fowler. (2004). Playing devil's advocate: Evaluating the literature of the WAC/WID movement. Review of Educational Research 74.2, 117-140.
This review considers evidence cited in support of and in opposition to Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) and Writing in the Disciplines (WID). After defining WAC and WID terms and concepts and reviewing the literature on key developments of the WAC/WID movement, the authors recommend that key terms be defined more precisely and that multimodal learning be adopted more consistently to address varied learning styles. Noting the complexities of affirming student achievement, specifically when success is attributed without qualification to WAC/WID initiatives, the authors question evidence cited in support of WAC/WID goals and pedagogies. They also consider the monetary costs of WAC/WID initiatives. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Odell, Lee; Burt Swersey. (2003). Reinventing invention: Writing across the curriculum without WAC. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
We propose that writing specialists collaborate with faculty in other disciplines in making explicit—and demonstrating to students—the often tacit processes of thinking that are important for a given assignment in a given discipline. In other words, we propose that writing faculty collaborate with their colleagues in understanding and teaching the processes of invention that are fundamental to understanding a given academic subject. As faculty do this, we argue, they can concentrate on the primary business at hand (teaching engineering, for example) while contributing to one aspect of effective writing—the development of well-thought-out claims and arguments. To illustrate our proposal, we'll analyze excerpts from two design reports created by a team of students in an engineering course, Inventors' Studio.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, invention, reinvention
Patton, Martha D.. (2011). Writing in the research university: A Darwinian study of WID with cases from civil engineering [writing in the disciplines]. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
How do engineers learn to think and write like engineers? How do art historians learn to think and write like art historians? How do journalists or biologists learn to think and write like the professionals that they become? Do we learn to think and write primarily by enculturation-or can we be taught how to write in various disciplines? If anything can be taught, what practices stand out as best practices? Needed to address these questions is a cohesive theory of writing in the disciplines (WID), one that accounts for both discipline-specific features of writing and features that cut across many disciplines. To that end, this book re-examines contemporary sociohistoric theories of writing from an evolutionary perspective. An evolutionary perspective of WID suggests that disciplines (complexes of academic arguments) not only change, but they evolve much like species do via a dual process of variation and selection in forums of competition. An evolutionary perspective puts a spotlight on what endures as well as what changes in complexes of academic arguments [author abstract]
Perelman, Les. (2009). Data driven change is easy: Assessing and maintaining it is the hard part. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines.
At MIT in the 1990's, data from two sources, a study of the writing ability of a small group of randomly selected MIT juniors correlated to their overall academic performance and a survey of alumni from various years provided the major motivation for the development by MIT faculty and administration of a very ambitious Communications-in-the-Disciplines Program. The study of random juniors demonstrated that student writing ability had no effect on overall student grade-point-average, thereby giving students no immediate incentive to work on improving their writing skills within the context of an extremely intensive MIT undergraduate curriculum. The alumni survey displayed a significant disparity between the importance alumni attached to communication and leadership skills and the alumni's low estimation of MIT's contribution to the development of these skills. Once the new curriculum was in place, however, assessing its effectiveness became much more complex. The end result was an assessment that, given all the cross currents, was successful primarily in raising consciousness and acceptance levels for integrating instruction and practice in writing and speaking throughout the undergraduate curriculum.
Keywords: CAC, assessment, junior, alumn-opinion, data, WID, CAC, WAC, GPA, outcomes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, maintenance
Persky, Charles; Ann Raimes (Chairs); Faculty Seminar on the Teaching of Writing in the Subject Areas. (1981). Report of the Hunter College Faculty Seminar on the Teaching of Writing in the Subject Areas. New York: Hunter College of the City University of New York.
Petraglia, Joseph (Ed.). (1995). Reconceiving writing, rethinking writing instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Petraglia’s collection had its roots in three years of sessions at annual meetings of the CCCC on abolishing the first-year writing requirement. Its contributors argue that the traditional first-year course in composition does not and cannot prepare students for the writing that will be expected of them throughout their university careers, arguing instead for first-year writing courses that can serve as disciplinary apprenticeships or as introductions to rhetoric or writing studies. [A. Patricia Burnes, Supporting Undergraduate Writers Beyond the First Year, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 6]
Poe, Mya. (2000). On writing instruction and a short game of chess: Connecting mulitple ways of knowling and the writing process. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
Argues that writing should be regarded as both an expansive concept and as a communicative medium students can imbue with academic and non-academic knowledge; includes an abridged definition of multiple intelligence theory to validate the assertion that learning and writing can be developed and made applicable in a myriad number of ways; concludes that alternative composing and translating using metaphors are two classroom practices which treat writing as a learning process and tap into and reveal varying degrees of intellectual acumen and creativity. Offers many pedagogical examples to help students become metacognitive about their learning and writing. [Blaise Bennardo]
Quesenberry, Legene, et al. (2000). Assessment of the writing component within a university general education program. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether flagged 'writing-intensive' courses within Clarion University's General Education Curriculum impacted on students' abilities to write. The major research question to be explored was, 'what effect does taking writing intensive courses have on students' writing ability, when factors such as initial matriculation ability and total coursework are taken into account?' After providing an overview of Clarion University and the State System of Higher Education (of which Clarion University is a part), this paper provides an overview of Clarion University's General Education program. This is followed by a description of the study's methodology, demographics of the research population, review of results, and discussion of results. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: gen-ed, general education, assessment, writing-intensive, WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, data
Rebhorn, Marlette. (1985). What does 'writing across the disciplines' mean to historians?. Teaching English in the Two-Year College 12.4, 265-268.
Drawing on bibliographies compiled by John Lauckner and Brad Hughes and Emily Hall and expanded by Jill Reglin, this list includes the most recent articles (as of May 2011) on writing fellows programs and writing centers with robust writing fellows programs.
Keywords: writing fellows, writing fellow, WAC, WiD, writing across the curriculum, writing in the disciplines, writing-to-learn, interdisciplinary, cross-campus, campus wide
Reid, Gwendolynne; Robin Snead; Keon Pettiway; Brent Simoneaux. (2016). Multimodal communication in the university: Surveying faculty across disciplines. link to full text . Across the Disciplines 13.1.
While a strong case has been made for addressing multimodality in composition, the case has been less clear for WAC/WID and CxC programs and research. Studies of disciplinary communication have documented the use of multiple modes in a number of fields, but few engage directly with theories of multimodality or with multimodality in context of changes related to networked, digital media. This study presents a snapshot of multimodal communication practices and assignments across disciplines developed through a survey of faculty at a research-intensive public university. Quantitative results indicate that, with some disciplinary variation, faculty across disciplines use multiple modes of communication in their professional work, their scholarly communication, and their pedagogy. Qualitative analysis of faculty responses complicates this picture with diverse conceptualizations of the relationships between modes. Themes related to faculty experiences of genre change and to the challenges of communicating about multimodality across disciplines are also addressed. These results justify the need for professional development efforts focused on multimodality in the context of WAC/WID and CxC programs and for continued research on multimodality in university contexts, even as they point to the challenges of communicating across disciplines that lack shared vocabulary.
Keywords: multimodality, WAC, WID, CAC
Remington, Ted . (2010). But it is rocket science! E-mail tutoring outside your comfort zone. Writing Lab Newsletter 35.1, 5-8.
Keywords: wcenter, online tutoring, email, tutor-training, tutor training, training of tutors, writing center training, consultant training, WID, WAC, style, interdisciplinary
Rhodes, Lynne A. (2000). Gaining Grounds revisited: Sustaining tales of development. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.2.
Rhodes argues that the term 'sustainable development' can serve as ecological metaphor through which to view environments associated with writing assessment and writing program development.
Keywords: Gaining Ground, Haswell, development, assessment, WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum,
Richardson, Mark; Alison Morrison Shetlar; Robert Shetlar. (2003). 'Because his shell is empty': Writing poems about biology. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
This paper will review a poetry writing assignment used in both an introductory level General Biology class of 148 students and in a 200-level Cellular Biology class of 34 students. In addition, it will consider two group-written poems composed in a first-year composition course linked to the General Biology class, demonstrating how writing poetry about technical material not only promotes the acquisition of knowledge but also stimulates critical and creative thinking, leading to a more accurate understanding of the material and to a deeper appreciation of the subject.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, biology
Keywords: Learning to Communicate in Science and Engineering: Case Studies from MIT, by Mya Poe, Neal Lerner, and Jennifer Craig, wcenter, WID, WAC, science writing, engineering writing, interdisciplinary
Rose, Shirley K. (Spring 2016). WAC and second language writers: Research towards linguistically and culturally inclusive programs and practices [book review]. Composition Studies 44.1, 181-184.
Keywords: WAC and Second Language Writers, edited by Zawacki and Cox; L2; WID; WAC; multilingual; transnational; world Englishes
Russell, David R.. (2001). Where do the naturalistic studies of WAC/WID point?. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing-across-the-curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Ruszkiewicz, John J.. (1982). Writing 'in' and 'across' the disciplines: The historical background. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 224 024.
Keywords: WAC, WID, Aristotle, Cicero, Renaissance, Peter Ramus, Francis Bacon, cross-disciplinary, write-to-learn, development, classical-rhetoric
Rutz, Carol. (2007). Scoring by Machine [review essay]. College Composition and Communication 59.1, 139-144.
Keywords: Patricia Freitag Ericsson and Richard Haswell, 'Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences', assessment, case-studies, CCCC, ethics, global, machine-scoring, computer, pedagogy, WAC, WID, machine-scoring, computer
Ryden, Wendy. (2007). Writing in anger: Emotions and the revision process in writing across the curriculum. Kassabgy, Nagwa; Amani Elshimi (Eds.), Sustaining excellence in 'communicating across the curriculum': Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press
Scholarship in Composition and Rhetoric has increasingly paid attention to the role of emotions in writing and critical pedagogy. This chapter analyzes the attention WAC theory gives to the pathetic dimension of rhetoric in regard to composing and revision strategies. [author summary]
Keywords: WAC, WID, emotion, revising, commenting, student-response, process
Salem, Lori; Peter Jones. (2010). Undaunted, self-critical, and resentful: Investigating faculty attitudes toward teaching writing in a large university writing-intensive course program. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 34.1, 60-83.
Keywords: writing-intensive, WAC, WID, teacher-attitude, retraining, survey, quantitative, WPA, data
Samraj, Betty; John M. Swales. (2000). Writing in Conservation Biology: Searching for an interdisciplinary rhetoric?. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 3.3.
The authors of this article explore interdisciplinary writing in the environmental area.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, biology, interdisciplinary, environmental
Savini, Catherine . (2011). An alternative approach to bridging disciplinary divides. Writing Lab Newsletter 35.7-8, 1-5.
Keywords: wcenter, tutor-training, tutor training, training of tutors, writing center training, consultant training, WAC, writing across the curriculum, WID, writing in disciplines
Schaub, Mark. (2002). Managing diverse disciplines in a junior-level WID course. In Moore, Cindy; Peggy O'Neill (Eds.), Practice in context: Situating the work of writing teachers; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Schick, Kurt; Lincoln Gray; Cindy Hunter; Nancy Poe; Karen Santos. (2011). Writing in action: Scholarly writing groups as faculty development. full text. Journal on Centers for Teaching and Learning 03, 43-63.
The authors trace the five-year development and implementation of scholarly writing groups at a public, teaching-oriented university. Using modest resources, writing groups thrive because they efficiently serve all stakeholders: faculty members get much needed support for their scholarly writing; facilitators (writing center professionals) learn about writing across disciplines; and the university benefits from an enhanced academic culture. Another outcome is helping faculty identify with student experiences and, as a result, improving teaching and writing across the curriculum.
Schuldberg, Jean; Lorie Cavanaugh; Gabriel Aguilar; Jessica Cammack; Timmie Diaz; Noble Flournoy Jr.; Kimberly Taylor; Sarah Nicole Olson; Christine Sampson. (2007). Fear of the blank page: Teaching academic and professional writing in social work. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Jean Schuldberg and her colleagues report the results of a qualitative study of a pilot writing course for baccalaureate social work. They conclude that 'the collaborative effort in the course and research study facilitated the development of [students'] professional writing and increased confidence for continued work.' (Published April 1, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: data, qualitative, social-work, professional writing, WAC, WID, apprehension, social
Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.). (2005). Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, WID
Shahn, Ezra; Robert K. Costello. (2000). Evidence and interpretation: Teachers' reflections on reading writing in an introductory science course . [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.2.
The use of writing as a means of assisting students to learn and of assessing their understanding in an introductory science course intended primarily as a terminal course for non-science majors is considered in the context of a discussion of cognitive development. We suggest that, particularly where students are asked to justify their understanding by referring to concrete evidence, writing samples are a sensitive indicator of cognitive position. We demonstrate this with examples of four different types of writing used in our course: short answer exam questions, exam essays, take-home essays which may be revised, and informal journal writing. The information gained from writing assignments can be useful as feedback to an instructor regarding (a) an individual student's assumptions about what can be known in science and what form this knowledge takes, (b) what individuals and the class as a whole are prepared to understand, and (c) in what ways particular subject material is likely to be misunderstood. We conclude that these different probes can reveal different aspects of development, and that the use of any of them requires attentive reading by the instructor.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, science, writing to learn, data, development, introductory
Sitler, Helen Collins. (2001). The workplace meets the academy: The hybrid literacy of returning RNs in journal writing for introductin to theology [registered nurse]. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.1.
Like window glass, most workplace writing is transparent. Although integral to work done well, writing is not the goal in and of itself and occurs at a subconscious level of the writer's awareness. In contrast, writing for school is often opaque, occurring with the writer's attention consciously focused on the task. The writing itself, as evidence of learning accomplished, may be its sole purpose. The writer, graded on her/his writing, cannot afford to let the words on the page become transparent, nor can the instructor, who uses the writing to assess learning which has occurred (Dias, Freedman, Medway, & Pare, 1999). The transparency or opaqueness of writing, one of the key differences between writing in the workplace and writing in school, raises questions about how students who find themselves simultaneously in both worlds manage contradictory writing demands. What happens when writers with well-developed workplace writing practices return to school? How do they respond when writing is suddenly no longer transparent?
Slevin, James F.. (1988). Genre theory, academic discourse, and writing within disciplines. In Smith, Louise Z. (Ed.), Audits of meaning: A festschrift in honor of Ann E. Berthoff; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Heinemann [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 297 366].
Slomp, David H.; M. Elizabeth Sargent. (2009). Responses to responses: Douglas downs and Elizabeth wardle's 'Teaching about writing, righting misconceptions'. full text. College Composition and Communication 60.3, 595-96, W25-W34.
Keywords: Curriculum-design, discourse-community, FYC, major, part-time, praxis, process, program-design, writing-major, WAC, WID, writing, Douglas Downs, Elizabeth Wardle, misunderstanding
Smit, David William. (2004). The end of composition studies. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
As the pun of his title suggests, David Smit's The End of Composition Studies focuses both on the goal of composition courses, as well as on his proposal that we end composition courses as they are currently conceived--as courses in 'general' writing skill that is expected to transfer to any writing situation. Smit devotes one chapter specifically to the concept of transfer, noting the 'unpredictable' nature of transfer, and arguing that transfer depends on a writer's 'background and experience,' neither of which can be controlled by the instructor. He further maintains that transfer, when it does occur, results from a writer's ability to perceive similarities between contexts or writing situations. That given, Smit contends that teachers can best increase the chances of transfer by helping students recognize similarities between contexts. Smit also argues for writing instruction that immerses novice writers in domain and context-specific writing situations (taught by practitioners, not general 'writing instructors'), as well as instruction that 'makes writing in different courses more related and systematic,' drawing explicit attention to not only the differences, but also the similarities in writing in different contexts. He proposes a three-course sequence beginning with an 'Introduction to Writing as Social Practice,' followed by two courses that engage writers in writing within a discourse community. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Sorrell, Jeanne. (2001). Stories in the nursing classroom: Writing and learning through stories. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.1.
This article discusses the use of stories to teach students important meanings of course content. In this discussion, the author discusses: (a) background information from the literature to make a case for teaching with stories, (b) therapeutic uses of storytelling, (c) strategies for using storytelling in teaching, and (d) telling stories beyond the classroom.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, writing to learn, nursing, story-telling, stories
Sterling-Deer, Carolyn. (2009). Writing in the disciplines, technology, and disciplinary grounding. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
Drawing on Boix Mansilla’s (2004) criteria for assessing students’ disciplinary knowledge and potential to make interdisciplinary connections, Sterling-Deer’s study explores the use of Blackboard eLearning course management technology and ePortfolio technology to share course materials and to increase student reflection. Sterling-Deer discusses students’ writing and their abilities to link to supporting documents as demonstrates of their learning. She argues that these ePortfolios illustrate students’ struggles to provide their own academically and/or professionally focused ePortfolios despite the general-purpose ePortfolio templates. Her work suggests that students at LaGuardia Community College, CUNY are aware of the potential distribution of their work to multiple audiences, whereas the templates in the ePortfolio software insist on a single format/audience approach. [Carl Whithaus, Distributive Evaluation, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 3]
Keywords: WAC, WID, education-course, capstone, undergraduate, childhood, LaGuardia Community College/CUNY, two-year, eportfolio, writing-intensive, interdisciplinary, validation, learning-community, evaluation, distribution
Stout, Barbara R.; Joyce N. Magnotto. (1991). Building on realities: WAC programs at community colleges. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Sutton, Brian. (1997). Writing in the disciplines, first-year composition, and the research paper. http://wac.colostate.edu/atd/archives.cfm [full-text]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 02.1, 45-57.
In this article, the author argues that the research-paper assignment can help students learn to negotiate academic discourse and begin to select academic disciplines to pursue, examines the relative merits of encouraging composition students to produce 'generic' research papers or encouraging them to adopt genre conventions of more specific academic disciplines, and also argues against criticisms of the research paper from those who reject entirely the 'service course' rationale and instead favor emphasis on helping the student find his or her 'authentic voice.' [WAC Clearinghouse]
Swarts, Jason. (2001). Speaking in tongues: Coordinating multiliterate work of tutors and students across disciplines . [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.2.
By paying attention to genres and to texts as 'tools' that reveal the routine activity those genres embody, tutors and students of different disciplinary backgrounds will find ways to share their expertise. To develop this position, we must first consider the role of genre in scaffolding a writer's progress toward disciplinary literacy. Following this discussion, I will focus on texts and why they are not adequate tools for talking about the multiliterate uses of genres across disciplines. By discussing the results of a case study, I will argue for a new tool that supplements text, making it a richer tool that is capable of crossing disciplinary boundaries.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, multiliteracy, literacy, genre, interdisciplinary, tutoring
Szymanski, Erika A.. (2014). Instructor feedback in upper-division biology courses: Moving from spelling and syntax to scientific discourse. link to full text. Across the Disciplines 11.2
Tapper, Joanna; Paul Gruba. (2000). Using a 'conference model' to teach communication skills in a Communication Across the Curriculum Program. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
This article addresses one Communication Across the Curriculum program at a large Australian research university. The authors argue that a major course project which involves students in the organization and execution of a public conference is an effective way to achieve the programs aims.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, conference, FTF, Australia, CAC, communication across the curriculum, pedgagogy, pedagogy, tutor
Tarabochia, Sandra L.. (2013). Language and relationship building: Analyzing discursive spaces of interdisciplinary collaboration. link to full text. Across the Disciplines 10.2
In this article, I use textual discourse analysis to build a deeper understanding of the discursive spaces through which interdisciplinary collaboration takes place. Drawing on Norman Fairclough's (2001) framework for interactional analysis, I examine the linguistic features of a handout I composed to facilitate a WID meeting with biology faculty. Mapping links between discourse, language, and social interaction, I argue, allows writing specialists to critically examine our communicative strategies and their impact on the professional relationships we broker, empowering us to more creatively navigate the challenge of interdisciplinary collaboration.
Thaiss, Chris. (2010). The international WAC/WID mapping project: Objectives, methods, and early results. In Bazerman, Charles; et al. (Eds.), Traditions of writing research; London: Routledge.
Keywords: WAC, WID, international, survey, networking, data
Thaiss, Chris; Tara Porter. (2010). The state of WAC/WID in 2010: Methods and results of the U.S. survey of the international WAC/WID mapping project. College Composition and Communication 61.3, 534-570.
Keywords: interdisciplinarity, international, survey, WAC, WID, wcenter, data
Thaiss, Chris; Tara Porter. ([ongoing]). International WAC / WID Mapping Project: Statistical results [Interactive Maps of United States and Canada]. [Link to Site].
The following statistics are derived from the more than 1300 responses (50% return rate) to the U.S./Canada survey undertaken by Tara Porter and Chris Thaiss as part of the International WAC/WID Mapping Project. The online survey itself is closed as of July 1, 2008. Statistical results based on earlier readings of the data have been reported at conferences in 2007 and 2008. Articles based on the survey data are scheduled to appear beginning in 2009. If you wish more information about these publications, please write to Chris Thaiss (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Tara Porter (email@example.com).
If you do not know if your institution replied to this survey, please contact Tara Porter (firstname.lastname@example.org).
As more statistics are derived from the complete data set, we will post them to this website, as appropriate. Please keep in mind that the following statistics represent the most minimal analysis of the data. We are posting them in this unanalyzed form at the request of those who have attended recent presentations. Our explanation of terms, methods, and materials and our interpretation of the data will occur in the planned articles and in future conference presentations. Meanwhile, if you have questions about the survey or the results you see here, please write to us.
You will note the reference made to the 1987 survey by Susan McLeod and Susan Shirley. This is the only other large-scale survey of WAC/WID activity in the U.S. and Canada. Results were reported in:
McLeod, Susan and Susan Shirley. "Appendix: National Survey of Writing Across the Curriculum Programs." McLeod, Susan. Strengthening Programs for Writing Across the Curriculum. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988. 103-130.
[From website, accessed July 2008]
Keywords: WAC, WID, data, survey, mapping, international, United States, Canada, 'International Network of WAC Programs', INWAC, research, writing across the curriculum, writing in the disciplines , interactive
Thaiss, Chris; Tara Porter; Erin Steinke. ([ongoing]). International WAC / WID Mapping Project. [Link to Site].
Research on Activity/Initiatives Worldwide Devoted to Student Writing in Disciplines
Begun in 2006, this project aims to identify, compile, analyze, and facilitate activity and interest in writing in the disciplines in higher education around the world. We are interested both in first-language and English-language initiatives. We are also interested in graduate-level initiatives, but we pay primary attention to undergraduate, college-university activities focused in disciplines, as well as academic writing centers or similar services devoted to working with students and faculty/staff in and across disciplines.
The Project is sponsored in part by the International Network of WAC Programs (INWAC).
[From site, accessed July 2008]
Keywords: WAC, WID, data, survey, mapping, international, United States, Canada, 'International Network of WAC Programs', INWAC, research, writing across the curriculum, writing in the disciplines
Thew, Neill; Magnus Gustafsson. (2007). Vintage WAC: Improving the learning impact of WAC. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Neill Thew and Magnus Gustafsson offer their reflections on the 2006 WAC Conference at Clemson University and offer suggestions for extending the impact of WAC in the U.S. and internationally. (Published April 1, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, WID, international
Thomeczek, Melissa A.; Dave S. Knowlton; David C. Sharp. (2005). Practical advice for supporting learning through the use of summary/reaction journals. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 02.
The authors of this essay regularly require students to engage in informal writing as a means to promote learning. One form of informal writing is the summary/reaction journal. In summary/reaction journals, students read a chapter or article, write a summary of that reading, and then react by offering their own insights and responses to the reading. The authors provide a theoretical rationale supporting the use of summary/reaction journals. Then, the authors describe how they introduce summary/reaction journals to students, support students as they journal throughout the semester, and assess journals once students submit them. This description can provide guidance for other faculty members in all disciplines who might consider using summary/reaction journals. (Published October 15, 2005) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing to learn, journal-writing, summary-log, pedagogy, pedagogy
Thompson, Nancy S.; Elisabeth M. Alford. (1997). Developing a writing program in engineering: Teaching writing to teach engineering literacies. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 409 584.
Keywords: WAC, WID, engineering, University of South Carolina, program, curriculum, discourse-community, academic
Thorlaksson, Brooks; Victor Lams. (1982). Writing assignments generated at workshop in 'Writing in the Disciplines', California State University, Chico, April 22-23, 1982, and directory of participants. Chico, California: California State University, Chico.
Keywords: assignment, WAC, WID, sample, faculty-workshop, California State University, Chico
Townsend, Martha A.. (1997). The University of Missouri's WAC/WID program. http://wac.colostate.edu/atd/archives.cfm [full-text]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 02.1, 100-105.
Keywords: University of Missouri, WAC, WID, program
Townsend, Martha A.; Martha D. Patton; Jo Ann Vogt. (2012). Uncommon conversations: How nearly three decades of paying attention allows one WAC/WID program to thrive. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 35.2, 127-159.
Keywords: WAC, WID, institutional, history, University of Missouri
Townsend, Marty. (2002). Writing in/across the curriculum at a comprehensive Chinese university. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
This essay describes research conducted at Nankai University, Tianjin, China, from June 25-30, 1999, the overarching question of which was 'In what ways is writing (composition) a part of the teaching and learning process at Nankai University, a well-respected, research-based institution?'
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, China, Chinese, global, international, Nankai University
Underwood, Charles; Mara Welsh; Mary Gauvain; Sharon Duffy. (2000). Learning at the edges: Challenges to the sustainability of service learning in higher education. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.3.
In this article, we attempt to make both practical and theoretical contributions to the literature on service learning. On one hand, we focus pragmatically on the sustainability of service learning efforts, given the institutional culture of the university. On the other hand, we also examine service learning through the lens of socio-cultural theory, as a form of learning through apprenticeship. Our intent is to understand the multi-layered expert-novice roles implicit in service learning as a socio-cultural activity, and to interpret how the negotiation of those roles, especially the expert role assumed by participating faculty, directly impacts the sustainability of such programs in higher education. In the course of our discussion, we seek as well to contribute to the understanding of the expert's role in apprenticeship-like learning activities, a theoretical focus that has been largely neglected in previous literature.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, service-learning, novice-expert, activity theory, maintenance
Vanderslice, Stephanie. (2000). Listening to Everett Rogers: Diffusion of innovation and WAC. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
Vanderslice argues that 'diffusion theory' can inform WAC practice.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, 'diffusion theory', Everett Rogers, innovation
Keywords: WAC, WiD, writing across the curriculum, writing in the disciplines, writing-to-learn, writing fellows, interdisciplinary, cross-campus, campus wide, write-to-learn, writing to learn, write to learn
Wardle, Elizabeth A.. (2004). Can cross-disciplinary links help us teach 'academic discourse' in FYC?. [link to full text]. Across the Disciplines 01.
Wardle describes 'a number of contradictions and resultant constraints' revealed in a study of teachers in a linked FYC program at 'Midwestern U.' Using activity theory analysis, Wardle uncovers three contradictions that instructors in the linked course negotiated with different degrees of success: (1) distinctions between the teachers' unofficial motives and the official program motives, (2) the replacement of writing in disciplinary genres with writing about disciplinary topics, (3) a mis-recognition of English studies genres as generic academic forms. These findings lead Wardle to claim that 'before learning community FYC teachers can fully utilize the resources available to them in cross-disciplinary links, they must first come to a meta-awareness of the nature of genres . . . the varied genres of the university, and an acceptance of the legitimacy of non-English genres as academic discourse' (16). Wardle's conclusions are useful for those researching the ways in which linked courses require instructors to rethink the pedagogical centers and goals of their teaching practices. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Washburn University WAC Discussion Group. (2000). Faculty collaboration on writing-across-the-curriculum assignments: Linking teaching and scholarship. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 4.1.
Drawing on Herrington's assertion that WAC programs should be guided by collaborative faculty reflection and on Fulwiler's claim that mutually beneficial publication projects are integral to WAC success, these authors state that collaborating on experimental assignments can be an important link between teacherly reflection and scholarly publication.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, Washburn, collaborating, faculty retraining, reflection, pedagogy, pedagogy
Westbrook, Steve. (2003). 'Plerk,' 'Plabor,' and a conventional caper: Redefining the work and play of poetry within the discipline of English. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, poetry
Westphal-Johnson, Nancy; Mary Anne Fitzpatrick. (2002). The role of communication and writing intensive courses in general education: A five year case study of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Journal of General Education 51.2, 73-102.
An account of the "Writing Wars," the struggle at UW-Madison to define the goals of a commications component added to the gen. ed. requirements in 1994. The conflict was between a centralized, rhetoric-based course taught by Communications and English faculty, and a WID model. Compromise and conflict continue there to this day. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: gen-ed, University of Wisconsin, conflict, WAC, WID, curriculum, requirement, intensive
Winslow, Rosemary. (2003). Poetry's place and the poet's participation with fields of knowledge. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
In this essay, I want to present the case that poetry has an important place in learning precisely because it enables this remaking of old constructs of knowledge into new organizations. Poetry is actively participatory, engaging the writer in crossing boundaries among fields of experience and knowledge, breaking these into parts, selecting elements from constructs and rearranging them in new patterns of connection in and across fields. Poetry-making has had this function historically from its earliest recorded times, and it retains this renewing function. This creative, reordering, renewing capacity makes poetry valuable to learning across the disciplines.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, participation, poetry
Yavarow, Alexandra . (2012). From the interior design studio to the writing center: One tutor's unconventional journey to designing a tutorial [Tutor's Column]. Writing Lab Newsletter 36.9-10, 14-15.
Young, Art; Patricia Connor-Greene; Jerry Waldvogel; Catherine Paul. (2003). Poetry across the curriculum: Four disciplinary perspectives. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
This article presents a discussion of Clemson University's Poetry Across the Curriculum (PAC) program.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, Clemson, poetry
Youra, Steven, Moderator. (2003). What must be done to ensure that college students communicate well in their fields? [Panel 2 Summary]. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
A panel discussion addressing practice and theory for preparing students to communicate within their fields. Panelists include Mary Burgan, Ken Cox, Brian Huot, David Jolliffe, Sharon Quiroz, and Tracy Volz.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, interdisciplinary
Zawacki, Terry Myers; Ashley Taliaferro Williams. (2001). Is it still WAC? Writing within interdisciplinary learning communities. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing-across-the-curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Taking up the learning community as a 'curriculum change agent,' this book chapter moves from a discussion of the broad pedagogical rationales for linked courses, to a description of the structural variations in linked courses, to a lengthy discussion of linked courses at New Century College (an experimental college attached to George Mason University), to a section on assessment of writing in learning communities. Simultaneously a discussion of the principles that have underpinned WAC programs since the inception of the field and an exploration of the ways linked courses require students, faculty, and program administrators to (re)negotiate writing and writing assignments in linked course models, this chapter will be useful to researchers seeking to identify and understand the points of praxis at the center of any successful writing program. Zawacki and Williams close by noting that linked courses require administrators and faculty to 'attend carefully to understanding what students see as their purposes in writing' (132), to seek a stronger understanding of what and how students learn in relation to program objectives (133), and to the ways in which writing instruction can be enacted as a 'central mode of learning in a learning-centered pedagogy' (137). [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: WAC, WID, definition, linked, program, objective, interdisciplinary, learning-community, George Mason University, New Century College, change, write-to-learn
Zawacki, Terry Myers; E. Shelley Reid; Ying Zhou; Sarah E. Baker. (2009). Voices at the table: Balancing the needs and wants of program stakeholders to design a value-added writing assessment plan. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
[various]. (1988). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Sixth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April, 1988]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 08, 4-33.
Keywords: testing, K-12, mode, portfolio, WAC, rising-junior [Governors State University], revamping, exit-exam [Ball State University], proficiency, rising-junior [University of Massachusetts], WAC, program, campus-wide, universal, literacy, validity, direct, reliability, scale stability, rater-training, holistic, discrepant-essay, primary-trait, placement, rhetorical, rater-training, video, program-program-validation, longitudinal, growth, regression, mode, rhetorical-task, pedagogy, reader-response, holistic, self-assessment, computer, style-checker, legal, national, international, Written Composition Study [International Association for Educational Achievement], criteria, contrastive, topic, classroom-research, computer-analysis, feature
[various]. (1990). [synopses of conference talks, Seventh National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Montreal, Canada, April, 1989]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 09, 2-48.
Keywords: testing, computer, process, large-scale, standards, WPA, international, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, ESL, literacy, competency, holistic, University of Minnesota, validity, construct-validity, topic, assessment, Scotland, classroom, portfolio assessment, program, self-evaluation, peer-evaluation, self-validation, professional-school, veterinary, WAC, rater-training, program-validation, empowerment, rising-junior [East Texas State University], wcenter, transfer-student, James Britton, Peter Elbow, campus-wide, universal, computer, individual-differences, ESL, community, contrastive, City University of New York, disciplinary, rising-junior [University of Missouri-St. Louis], rising-junior [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee], prompt, argumentation, validity, primary-trait, physics-department, feminist, pedagogy, placement, minimum competency, scale, score stability, response, local assessment, feature