The WAC Bibliography

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Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.

To view entries in the bibliography, follow the links to the right. If you are a member of the Clearinghouse, you can recommend new sources for the bibliography.

— Justin Jory
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Biology

Agutter, Paul S.. (1987). Precision testing: A method for improving students' written work in biochemistry. Journal of Biological Education 13, 25-31.
Keywords: biology-course, biochemistry, WAC, pedagogy, data, science, terminology, precision testing, data, improvement, reading-skill
Ambron, Joanna. (1987). Writing to improve learning in biology. Journal of College Science Teaching 16, 263-266.
Keywords: biology-course, write-to-learn, WAC
Ambron, Joanna. (1988). Clustering: An interactive technique to enhance learning in biology. Journal of College Science Teaching 18, 122-127.
Keywords: biology-course, write-to-learn, heuristic, pre-writing, clustering, interactive, WAC, interactive
Ambron, Joanna Theresa. (1989). Implementing writing across the curriculum: Strategies in the biological sciences [doctoral thesis]. New York: Columbia University Teachers College.
Keywords: WAC, biology, journal-writing, freewriting, microtheme, clustering, implementation
Andrews, Roy. (1991). Marine biology: An opportunistic approach. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 03.1, 37-39.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, marine biology, write-to-learn
Bayer, Trudy; Karen Curto; Charity Kriley. (2005). Acquiring expertise in discipline-specific discourse: An interdisciplinary exercise in learning to speak biology. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 02.
Trudy Bayer and her colleagues report the results of a study with 70 senior undergraduate biological science majors enrolled in a required course on Writing and Speaking in the Biological Sciences. Their study indicates that students demonstrated significant expertise in enacting a highly discipline-specific oral communication task. They attribute these results to a combination of students' ability to successfully deploy discipline-specific discourse to their own tacit knowledge of their field and instruction in both the disciplines of rhetoric and biology. (Published June 26, 2005) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: data, WAC, biology, oral, interdisciplinary, speech, WID, expertise, expertise
Blythe, Stuart; Laura Gonzales. (2016). Coordination and Transfer across the Metagenre of Secondary Research. College Composition and Communication 67.4.
Screencast videos were used to study the work of undergraduates enrolled in biology. Students were able to adapt to the writing requirements in biology because they implicitly understood the metagenre of "research from sources." Students coordinated multiple texts simultaneously to engage in processes akin to what Howard has called "patchwriting" but also similar to the habits of professional writers. The authors suggest that instructors spend more time helping students develop effective networks of information, including experts and organizations in addition to published sources.
Keywords: WAC, biology, transfer, metagenre, genre, research, patchwriting, professional-writing, FYC, WID
Bowles, Philip David. (1994). The collaboration of two professors from two disparate disciplines: What it has taught us. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 386 744.
Keywords: teacher-cooperation, WAC, interdisciplinary, Loma Nazarene College [California], early-start, literature-biology, team-teaching, teacher-story
Burns, Roxanne H.. (1994). Helping students succeed at a creative writing assignment in the biological sciences. American Biology Teacher 56.6, 364-366.
Keywords: biology-course, human-anatomy, write-to-learn, WAC, process
Cannon, Robert E.. (1990). Experiments with writing to teach microbiology. American Biology Teacher 52.3, 156-158.
Keywords: biology-course, WAC, assignment, evaluation, student-opinion, microbiology, virology, immunology
Clark Deborah J.. (2005). The use of peer evaluations to foster critical analysis of writing in biology. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, peer-evaluation, biology-course, critical-analysis
Conrad, Susan M.. (1996). Academic discourse in two disciplines: Professional writing and student development in biology and history [doctoral thesis]. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University.
Keywords: academic, disciplinary, WAC, biology, history-major, history-course, biology-course, academic-discourse
Creager, Jean C.. (1980). Teaching writing is every teacher's job. American Biology Teacher 42.5, 273.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course
Dale, A. R.; S. L. Hanson. (1993). Conversations with a petri dish (creative writing for biology lab reports). American Biology Teacher 55, 84.
Keywords: biology-course, WAC, creative, laboratory-report
De Micheli, Ana; Patricia Iglesia. (2012). Writing to learn biology in the framework of a didactic-curricular change in an Argentine university. In Thaiss, Chris; Gerd Brauer; Paula Carlino; Lisa Ganobcsik-Williams; Aparna Sinha (Eds.), Writing Programs Worldwide: Profiles of Academic Writing in Many Places; Fort Collins, CO: WAC Clearinghouse.
Keywords: WAC, Argentina, biology, science, curriculum
Dobler, Judith M.. (1988). Wading across the curriculum: A look at writing in hydrobiology. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 296 311.
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, biology-course, disciplinary, content-course, contextual, hydrobiology, academic, piecemeal
Eisen, Arri. (1996). 'Disease of the Week' reports: Catalysts for writing and participation in large classes. Journal of College Science Teaching 15.5, 331-333.
Keywords: biology-course, class-size, large-class, lecture, WAC, assignment, science-writing, Disease of the Week, participation
Farmer, Mary. (1992). Critical reading, writing to learn, and co-operative learning in the life science course. In Mahony, Elizabeth M. (Ed.); Saint Louis Community College at Meramec [Missouri]; Building community from diversity: Connecting students to their learning environments. An anthology of classroom projects undertaken for the Kellogg Beacon Grant: Final report; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 064.
Keywords: write-to-learn, WAC, biology-course, critical-thinking, reading, two-year
Fisher, Linda E.. (1996). Writing to facilitate learning in microbiology. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 399 166.
Keywords: biology-course, write-to-learn, diagnosis, summary-writing, in-class, group, laity, audience, discourse-study, pedagogy, WAC
Flynn, Elizabeth A.; George A. McCulley; Ronald K. Gratz. (1986). Writing in biology: Effects of peer critiquing and analysis of models on the quality of biology laboratory reports. In Young, Art; Toby Fulwiler (Eds.), Writing across the disciplines: Research into practice; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 264 592].
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, biology-course, peer-evaluation, imitation, text-analysis, quality, laboratory-report, student-opinion, assignment, data, criteria, sample
Fulwiler, Toby; Robert Jones. (1979). Writing in biology: A seminar. College Composition and Communication 30.3, 308-310.
Keywords: WAC, biology, write-to-learn, seminar
Geller, Anne Ellen. (2005). 'What's cool here?: Collaboratively learning genre in biology. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, biology-course, collaboration
Gladstein, Jill. (2008). Conducting research in the gray space: How writing associates negotiate between WAC and WID in an introductory biology course. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 05.
Keywords: WAC, teaching fellow, WAC, Swarthmore College, biology-course, case-study, ethnographic, peer-tutor, WID, symbiotic, introductory
Grabau, Larry J.; Patricia S. Wilson. (1995). Jumping on thin ice: Values argument writing assignment for a large enrollment plant science class. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education 24.2, 185-189.
Keywords: biology-course, plant science, class-size, large-class, lecture, library skills, argumentation, WAC, assignment
Harbour, Ted. (1987). Use of student notebook in biology. In Copeland, Jeffrey S. (Ed.), Essays grown from a writing across the curriculum institute at Indian Hills Community College: Fostering cooperation and cohesion in writing instruction; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 294 182.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, notebook-keeping
Herman, Carolyn. (1999). Reading the literature in the jargon-intensive field of molecular genetics: Making molecular genetics accessible to undergraduates using a process-centered curriculum. Journal of College Science Teaching 28.4, 252-253.
Keywords: science-course, molecular biology, genetics, genetics-course, process, jargon, research-article, pedagogy, WAC, accessibility, undergraduate
Hotchkiss, Sharon K.; Marilyn K. Nellis. (1988). Writing across the curriculum: Team-teaching the review article in biology. Journal of College Science Teaching 18.1, 45-47.
Keywords: review-writing, WAC, team-teaching, interdisciplinary, learning-community, biology-English, FYC, assignment, faculty-workshop, plagiarism, arrangement, evaluation, paraphrase, teamwork
House, Ken. (1983). Improving student writing in biology. American Biology Teacher 45.5, 267-270.
Keywords: biology-course, WAC, pedagogy, improvement, student-writing
Hyman, Michael; Gerry Luginbuhl. (2004). Inquiry-guided learning and the undergraduate major in the Department of Microbiology. In Lee, Virginia S. (Ed.), Teaching and learning through inquiry: A guidebook for institutions and instructors; Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Keywords: inquiry-based, WAC, microbiology-course, undergraduate, pedagogy, undergraduate
Jacobs, Suzanne E.. (1979). Student writing in the academic context: A linguistic study of well-shaped vs. poorly-shaped essays with implications for learning and teachings. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 191 074.
Keywords: academic, minority, WAC, biology-course, impromptu, text-analysis, arrangement, evaluation, text-analysis, data, predicate, syntactic complexity, development, sequence, in-class essay, style, implication, student-writing
Jacobson, Trudi E.; Lise D. Wilson. (1991). A bibliographic instruction program for college biology students. American Biology Teacher 53.5, 298-300.
Keywords: biology-course, WAC, library skills, assignment, student-opinion, bibliographic-search
Janick-Buckner, Diane. (1997). Getting undergraduates to critically read and discuss primary literature: Cultivating students' analytical abilities in an advanced cell biology course. Journal of College Science Teaching 27.1, 29-32.
Keywords: science-course, biology-course, scholarly-article, report-writing, oral-presentation, pedagogy, WAC, undergraduate
Kumar, L.; D. D. Burke; C. O'Connor. (1989). An innovative biology lab for underprepared biology majors. American Biology Teacher 51.3, 155-158.
Keywords: biology-major, laboratory-report, WAC, innovation, underprepared
Langsam, Deborah M.; Kathleen Blake Yancey. (1998). E-mailing biology: Facing the biochallenge. In Reiss, Donna; Dickie Selfe; Art Young (Eds.), Electronic communication across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 416 561].
Keywords: computer, WAC, biology-course, email, class-size, lecture, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, text-analysis
Lord, Thomas R.. (1994). Using constructivism to enhance student learning in college biology. Journal of College Science Teaching 23, 346-348.
Keywords: cooperative, biology-course, WAC, group
Maimon, Elaine. (1979). Final report to the National Endowment for the Humanities [on the WAC program at Beaver College], Project No., E1-27873-77-752. Washington, D. C.: National Endowment for the Humanities.
Keywords: WAC, Beaver College, grant, linked, FYC, biology, final-report
McCarthy, Lucille Parkinson. (1985). A stranger in strange lands: An ethnographic study of a college student writing in two academic contexts. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 284 278.
Keywords: writing-about-lit, biology-course, WAC, case-study, think-aloud, protocol-analysis, student-interview, disciplinary, assignment, situational, data, student-writing
McMillan, Fay C.. (1988). Writing in different disciplines: Problems and possibilities. Writing Across the Curriculum [Southern Technical Institute] 05.2, 12-16.
Keywords: WAC, program, needs-analysis, interdisciplinary, discipline-specific, assignment, mathematics-course, engineeringcourse, chemistry-course, vocational, literature-course, biology-course, history-course, psychology-course, sociology-course, business education
Moll, Michael B.; Robert D. Allen. (1982). Developing critical thinking skills in biology. Journal of College Science Teaching 12.2, 95-98.
Keywords: biology-course, WAC, critical-thinking, West Virginia University, observation, data-collection, pre-post, gain, data
Moore, Leslie; Linda Peterson. (1983). Convention as transition: Linking the advanced composition course to the college curriculum. JAC: Journal of Advanced Composition 04.1-2, 173-188.
Keywords: advanced, curriculum, convention, WAC, syllabus, FYC, interdisciplinary, art history, biology, philosophy
Moore, Randy. (1991). How we write about biology. American Biology Teacher 53, 388-389.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course
Moore, Randy. (1992). Writing to learn biology. Fort Worth. TX: Saunders College Publishing.
Keywords: write-to-learn, biology, WAC
Moore, Randy. (1994). Writing as a tool for learning biology. Bioscience 44.9, 613-617.
Keywords: biology-course, write-to-learn, decline, pedagogy, improvement, WAC
Moore, Randy. (1994). Writing to learn biology. Journal of College Science Teaching 23.5, 289-295.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, skill-level, pedagogy
Morgan, Lorraine; Bill Friar; Jean Kutner. (1987). Pushing the write button: Writing-across-the-curriculum. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 280 028.
Keywords: biology-course, WAC, Stanford University, write-to-learn, wcenter, speak-write, data, interdisciplinary
Moss, Andrew; Carol Holder. (1988). Improving student writing: A guidebook for faculty in all disciplines. Pomona, CA: California State Polytechnic University; Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Intended for college faculty in all disciplines, this guidebook offers practical methods and ideas intended to help teachers clarify writing assignments so that students' writing will improve, as has been seen to happen when teachers sharpen their responses to students' papers. Contents include: (1) "Assigning Writing," which describes ways of designing effective assignments including journals and ungraded writing, provides 17 suggestions for making and presenting writing assignments, and includes a checklist for evaluating assignments; (2) "Assignments That Work," which consists of a collection of writing assignments developed by instructors in various fields, including agricultural engineering, American studies, biology, chemistry, counseling, and criminal justice; (3) "Essay Examinations," which discusses how to write effective essay questions and how to help students write better exams; (4) "Strategies for Helping Students," which includes guidelines on brainstorming, research, and planning, drafting and revising, as well as a writer's checklist; (5) "Integrating Reading and Writing," which examines anticipation guides, selective reading guides, graphic organizers, vocabulary previews, and student journals; and (6) "Evaluating Students' Writing," which covers pre-evaluation, evaluation, paper marking, scores and scoring guides, and post-evaluation. (Eleven references are included, and appended are a sample of on-the-job writing tasks for professionals, a sample accounting assignment, and a techniques inventory for assigning writing and reading in the disciplines.) [ERIC; WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, assignment, journal, grading, evaluation, scale, list, checklist, essay-exam, read-write, academic, agricultural engineering, American studies, biology, chemistry, counseling, criminal-justice, commenting, pedagogy, workplace, task, essay-quality, teacher-manual, student-writing
Munoz, Martha. (2004). Martha's reflections on learning across the curriculum. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, student-opinion, Spanish-English, first-year seminar, literature-course, chemistry-course, biology-course, student-story
Patton, Marty; Ed Nagelhout. (2004). Literacy and learning in context: Biology students in the classroom and the lab. In Huot, Brian; Beth Stroble; Charles Bazerman (Eds.), Multiple literacies for the 21st century; Cresskill, NJ: 2004.
Keywords: literacy, context, academic literacy, biology, reformist science education, writing-in-the-disciplines, rhetoric, WAC, dialectic, observation, ethnography, genetics, graduate-mentor, laboratory, microthemes, assessment, journal, peer-evaluation, reflection, case-study, dissertation prospectus, coding, sample
Pechenik, Jan A.. (1993). A short guide to writing about biology. New York: Harper Collins.
Keywords: biology-writing, WAC, guidelines
Richardson Dennis J.. (2005). Protracted peer-reviewed writing assignments in biology: Confessions of an apostate cynic of writing across the curriculum. Segall, Mary T.; Robert Smart (Eds.), Direct from the disciplines: Writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: WAC, peer-evaluation, biology-course, assignment, cynicism
Richardson, Mark; Alison Morrison Shetlar; Robert Shetlar. (2003). 'Because his shell is empty': Writing poems about biology. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.2.
This paper will review a poetry writing assignment used in both an introductory level General Biology class of 148 students and in a 200-level Cellular Biology class of 34 students. In addition, it will consider two group-written poems composed in a first-year composition course linked to the General Biology class, demonstrating how writing poetry about technical material not only promotes the acquisition of knowledge but also stimulates critical and creative thinking, leading to a more accurate understanding of the material and to a deeper appreciation of the subject.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, poetry, biology
Rosenbaum, Nina. (1981). Writing in the biology classroom. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 244 275.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course
Ross, Frederick C.; Mitchell H. Jarosz. (1978). Integrating science writing: A biology instructor and an English teacher get together. English Journal 67.4, 51-55.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, teacher-cooperation, science-writing, Delta College, integrated
Samraj, Betty; John M. Swales. (2000). Writing in Conservation Biology: Searching for an interdisciplinary rhetoric?. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 3.3.
The authors of this article explore interdisciplinary writing in the environmental area.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, biology, interdisciplinary, environmental
Sharp, Julie Ervin. (1987). Expressive summary writing to learn college biology [doctoral thesis]. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University.
Keywords: summary-writing, expressive, write-to-learn, WAC, biology
Shea, George Bernard, Jr.. (1991). Writing, drawing, photographing: Composing texts to learn in a biology class [doctoral thesis]. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville.
Keywords: biology, WAC, improvement, write-to-learn, graphic, drawing, photography
Sims, Gerald K.. (1989). Student peer review in the classroom: A teaching and grading tool. Journal of Agronomic Education 18.2, 105-108.
Keywords: WAC, agronomy-course, microbiology-course, peer-evaluation, term-paper, grading, data, MX, paper-load
Spanier, Bonnie B.. (1992). Encountering the biological sciences: Ideology, language, and learning. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Writing, teaching and learning in the disciplines; New York, NY: Modern Language Associates.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, ideology, language-analysis, learning-theory
Spencer, Larry. (1992). 'The inveterate invertebrate reporter'. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 03.2, 41-46.
Keywords: WAC, zoology-course, biology, pedagogy, newsletter, student publishing
Spencer, Larry. (1997). The inveterate invertebrate reporter [reprint]. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 54-59.
Keywords: WAC, zoology-course, biology, pedagogy, newsletter, student publishing
Spencer, Larry. (1997). The inveterate invertebrate reporter--a backwards glance [afterword to Larry Spencer, 'The inveterate invertebrate reporter']. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 08, 60-62.
Keywords: WAC, zoology-course, biology, participation, newsletter, student publishing
Stotz, Nancy G.. (1998). The biology classroom: A natural place for narrative. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 429 293.
Keywords: biology-course, narrative, pedagogy, WAC, narrative
Tarabochia, Sandra L.. (2013). Language and relationship building: Analyzing discursive spaces of interdisciplinary collaboration. link to full text. Across the Disciplines 10.2 .
In this article, I use textual discourse analysis to build a deeper understanding of the discursive spaces through which interdisciplinary collaboration takes place. Drawing on Norman Fairclough's (2001) framework for interactional analysis, I examine the linguistic features of a handout I composed to facilitate a WID meeting with biology faculty. Mapping links between discourse, language, and social interaction, I argue, allows writing specialists to critically examine our communicative strategies and their impact on the professional relationships we broker, empowering us to more creatively navigate the challenge of interdisciplinary collaboration.
Keywords: WAC, WID, discourse analysis, interdisciplinary, cooperation, teacher-cooperation, biology-course, hermeneutic, linguistic analysis
Taylor, Katherine L.; Sara J. Sobota. (1998). Writing in biology: An integration of disciplines. American Biology Teacher 60.5, 350-353.
Keywords: biology-course, WAC, clustering, peer-evaluation, creativity, format, clarity, logical, arrangement, integrated
TePaske, E. Russell. (1989). Writing in biology: One way to improve analytical thinking. American Biology Teacher 44.2, 98-99.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, write-to-learn, critical-thinking
Trombulak, Steve; Sallie Sheldon. (1989). The real value of writing to learn in biology. Journal of College Science Teaching 18.6, 384-386.
Keywords: biology-course, write-to-learn, WAC
Walvoord, Barbara E.; H. Fil Dowling, Jr.; with John Breihan; Virginia Johnson Gazzam; Carl E. Henderson; Gertrude B. Hopkins; Barbara Mallonee; Sally McNelis. (1990). The Baltimore Area Consortium. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.) Programs that work: Models and methods for writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Heinemann.
Keywords: program, WAC, Baltimore Area Consortium, biology-course, write-to-learn
Walvoord, Barbara E.; Virginia Johnson Anderson; John R. Breihan; Lucille Parkinson McCarthy; Susan Miller Robison; A. Kimbrough Sherman. (1995). Functions of outlining among college students in four disciplines. Research in the Teaching of English 29.4, 390-421.
Keywords: outline, praxis, WAC, ethnographic, assignment, functional, arrangement, history-course, business-course, psychology-course, biology-course
Wieler, S. H.. (1986). A context-based study of the writing of eighteen year olds, with special reference to A-level biology, English, geography, history, history of art, and sociology [doctoral thesis]. London: University of London Institute of Education.
Keywords: ethnographic, WAC, England, contextual, data, A-level, biology-course, geography-course, history-course, sociology-course, art-history-course
Williamson, Michael M.. (1984). The function of writing in three college curricula: The modes of discourse and the registers of writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 252 884.
Keywords: WAC, biology-course, sociology-course, teacher-interview, ethnographic, response, register, epistemological, certainty, individuality, teacher-perspective, discourse mode, data
Williamson, Michael McKay. (1984). The function of writing in three college undergraduate curricula [doctoral thesis]. Buffalo, NY: State University of New York at Buffalo.
Keywords: WAC, biology, sociology, disciplinary, functional, contextual, academic, undergraduate
Wotring, Anne Miller; Robert Tierney. (1981). Two studies of writing in high school science. [Writing to think about high school chemsitry; Using expressive writing to teach biology]. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Bay Area Writing Project.
Keywords: high-school, chemistry-course, biology-course, write-to-learn, expressivist, WAC
Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.). (2004). Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
This edited collection brings together the perspectives of L2 students, ESOL and composition researchers, and faculty in different disciplines on what it means for L2 students to write and learn through writing across the curriculum and into specific disciplines. The first section is devoted to case study research on undergraduate L2 students’ experiences as they write across the curriculum; the second section features reflections by a L2 biology major and L2 sociology major on their writing and learning experiences in courses in their majors and across the curriculum; and the third section shares chapters written by faculty in anthropology, philosophy, nursing, literature, sociology, and Asian American studies on their attempts to address the needs of L2 writers in their classrooms. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: ESL, skill-transfer, multilingual, WAC, academic, case-study, student-opinion, biology-major, sociology-major, pedagogy