Appendix II

Writing Activities and Genres that Reinforce Learning Objectives

I. Knowledge

            A. Knowledge of Specifics

1. Knowledge of terminology--process logs, journals

2. Knowledge of specific facts--abstracts, annotated bibliographies

B. Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics

1. Knowledge of conventions--critical analyses, lab and field notebooks

2. Knowledge of trends and sequences--outlines, summaries, abstracts,

annotated bibliographies, flow charts

3. Knowledge of classifications and categories--critical analyses, lab and

field notebooks; journals; outlines; précis; having students come up with questions before lecture; having students respond to questions about the lecture in the middle of it; having students summarize the lecture at the end of class.

4. Knowledge of criteria--outlines, summaries, abstracts, annotated


5. Knowledge of methodology--process logs, journals, lab or field


C. Knowledge of the universals and abstractions of a discipline

1.      Knowledge of principles and generalizations--outlines, summaries, journals, flow charts, essay exams, microthemes

2. Knowledge of theories and structure--outlines, summaries, journals (in

lab notebooks), flow charts, essay exams, microthemes

II. Intellectual abilities and skills

A.    Comprehension

1.      Translation--journals, formal translations, summaries, annotated


2.      Interpretation--journals, learning logs, critical analyses, letters to

editor, editorials, position papers

3. Extrapolation--journals, learning logs

B. Application

1. Analysis--journals, learning logs, essays, essay exams, microthemes,

diagrams and flow charts, etc.

2. Synthesis--diagrams linked with journals, hypertext webs, essays

3. Evaluation--reviews, critical analyses, editorials, position papers

III. Affective domain

A. Receiving

1.      Awareness--journals, learning logs

2.      Willingness to receive--expressive writings, journals, freewrites, summaries, outlines, annotated bibliographies

3.      Controlled or selected attention--lab reports, field notes, journals,


B.     Responding

1.      Acquiescence in responding--summaries, lab reports (how to titrate, etc.)

2.      Willingness to respond (creative engagement)--journals, publications

(newsletters, etc.)

3.      Satisfaction in response--journals, publications--essays, stories, poems,


C.     Valuing

1. Acceptance of a value--guided journals, freewrites, critical analyses

            2. Preference for a value--same as above, publications

            3.Commitment--same as above, publications (letters to editor, advocacy

literature, editorials, etc.)