WAC and Second-Language Writing Bibliography

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Abasi, Ali R.; Nahal Akbari; Barbara Graves. (2006). Discourse appropriation, construction of identities, and the complex issue of plagiarism: ESL students writing in graduate school. Journal of Second Language Writing 15.2, 102-117.
Drawing on case studies of five L2 graduate students – two MA students in a Second Language Education program, a PhD student in Counseling, a PhD student in Educational Administration, and a PhD student in Education – the authors examine how L2 graduate students make choices about appropriating discourse when writing, how they identify their voices in source-based writing, and how choices of appropriation and voice relate to a student’s identities. They found that the less experienced graduate students were less likely to be aware of textual choices as rhetorical and as creating identity in writing in contrast to the more experienced graduate student writers. After analyzing participants’ writing, the authors discovered that the less experienced graduate students also plagiarized more and tied this practice to their educational histories and assumptions about their roles as writers. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, plagiarism, identity, constructivist, graduate, appropriation, case-study
Alster, Kristine Beyerman. (2004). Writing in nursing education and nursing practice. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, nursing-course, teacher-opinion
Andra-Miller, Jean. (1991). Integrating 'writing to learn' and foreign language proficiency concepts. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 386 922.
Keywords: WAC, L2-requirement, L2 proficiency, testing, French literature-course, journal-writing, freewriting, pedagogy, integrated, language proficiency, proficiency
Anonymous. (1955). Workshop and Panel-Discussion Reports of the 1955 Conference On College Composition and Communication. College Composition and Communication 06.3, 123-179.
Keywords: FYC, newspaper, pedagogy, wcenter, read-write, training, honors, basic, ESL, reading, citation, advanced, deterioration, WAC, articulation, listening, creativity, examination, techcom, WPA, comskills, spelling, program, grammar, major,
Anonymous. (1956). Workshop Reports of the 1956 Conference On College Composition and Communication. College Composition and Communication 07.3, 120-172.
Keywords: English-profession, ESL, WPA, honors, testing, placement, comskills, media, training, gen-ed, wcenter, articulation, two-year, in-service, grading, spelling, linguistics, WAC, textbooks, listening, class-size
Anonymous. (1957). Workshop Reports of the 1957 Conference on College Composition and Communication. College Composition and Communication 08.3, 131-196.
Keywords: English-profession, ESL, WPA, testing, comskills, media, gen-ed, articulation, two-year, linguistics, WAC, class-size, population, research, basic, group, teacher-evaluation, reading, nonverbal symbolism, anthropology, classroom, discussion, standards, television, library, term-paper
Anonymous. (1961). Workshop reports of the 1961 Conference on College Composition and Communication. College Composition and Communication 12.3, 130-192.
Keywords: government, two-year, comskills, reading, FYC, paperbacks, textbooks, linguistics, training, articulation, honors, Rutgers, basic, ESL, WPA, techcom, placement, testing, standards, grammar, usage, rhetoric, term-paper, CAI, WAC, government, research
Anthony, Laurence. (1997). Preaching to cannibals: A look at academic writing in engineering. In Orr, Thomas (Ed.); Aizu University [Aizuwakamatsu, Japan], Center for Language Research; Proceedings 1997: The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 774.
Keywords: ESL, ESP, technical-communication, academic, engineering-course, WAC
Anthony, Laurence. (1998). Preaching to cannibals: A look at academic writing in engineering. In Orr, Thomas (Ed.), The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997); Aizu University [Japan], Center for Language Research, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 774.
Keywords: ESP, ESL, academic, engineering, WAC
Arapoff-Cramer, Nancy. (1971). A survey of university writing assignments. College Composition and Communication 22.2, 161-168.
Surveys 425 responses from teaching faculty about English skills foreign students need most. Finds the term-paper assignment emphasizing expository themes most important but underscores its lack of a consistent form. [Sue Hum]
Keywords: assignment, data, frequency, WAC, survey, ESL, international, arrangement, consistency
Balajthy, Ernest. (1989). Computers in curricula program for networked college level writing process instruction: A first year report. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 309 455.
Keywords: computer, ESL, mathematics-course, basic, WAC, tutorial, email, in-service, faculty-workshop, Curricula Network Project [New Jersey], two-year, process
Bean, John; interviewed by Carol Rutz. (2003). Up close and personal with a WAC pioneer: John Bean. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 14, 7-18.
Keywords: John Bean, WAC, history, assessment, pedagogy, Engaging Ideas, international, pioneer
Becket, Diana Catherine. (1995). Writing across the curriculum in a second language: An analysis of students and teachers [doctoral thesis]. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.
Keywords: discourse-community, WAC, ESL, evaluation, teacher-student, MX, error
Birch, Gary; Enju Norris; Himiko Negishi; Griffith University [Nathan, Australia]. (1995). The effect of explicit teaching of learning strategies on students' reading and writing in a Japanese partial immersion program, immersion. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 398 727.
Keywords: WAC, L1-L2, English-Japanese, write-to-learn, think-aloud, protocol-analysis, interview, data, explicit teaching, immersion, learner-strategy
Bloch, Joel; Bill Condon; Dona Hickey; Leland McCleary; Paul Kei Matsuda; Sarah Rilling; Mike Palmquist. (2001). Connecting WAC and ESL? [forum]. link to full text. Academic Writing 02.
Keywords: WAC, ESL, program-design, future, teacher-cooperation
Bloch, Joel; Bill Condon; Dona Hickey; Leland McCleary; Paul Kei Matsuda; Sarah Rilling; Mike Palmquist. (2001). FORUM: Connecting WAC and ESL?. [Link]. Academic.Writing 2.
This Forum builds on an article by Paul Kei Matsuda and Jeff Jablonski, Beyond the L2 Metaphor: Towards a Mutually Transformative Model of ESL/WAC Collaboration. [http://wac.colostate.edu/aw/articles/matsuda_jablonski2000.htm] Published in Academic.Writing in 2000, the article provided a thoughtful challenge to current thinking about relations between the two fields. This Forum opens with statements from four scholars whose primary focus is ESL and responses to those statements from two scholars whose primary focus is writing across the curriculum. [http://wac.colostate.edu/aw/forums/fall2001/participants.htm] The participants then engage in a discussion built around two follow-up and one closing question. Members of this Forum communicated with each other via electronic mail and the Web over a period of roughly two months. Their interactions are represented here using links among and beyond the texts that they produced. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: wac, esl, L2, ESL, l1-l2
Braine, George. (1989). Writing in the natural sciences and engineering: Implications for ESL composition courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 304 881.
Keywords: science-course, engineering-course, WAC, ESL, LEP, University of Texas, text-analysis, taxonomy, genre, laboratory-report, textbook, summary-writing, paraphrase, natural-science, implication
Brauer, Gerd. (2002). Drawing connections across education: The Freiburg Writing Center model. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
Considering the increasingly rapid turnover of knowledge and the growing need for multi-functional writing skills for successful knowledge management, including reflective practice and lifelong self-directed learning, the attitude that writing is more of an innate than learned skill has started to change, albeit too slowly. In this article, I will analyze the preconditions for a faster change regarding the redefinition of writing in higher education, on the level of the individual learner and instructor as well as within the frameworks of curriculum and institution. Based on this analysis, I will suggest a model for how to adapt the basic ideas of U.S. writing across the curriculum (WAC) in Germany.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, global, international, wcenter, Freiburg, Germany
Bridgeman, Brent; Sybil Carlson. (1983). Survey of academic writing tasks required of graduate and undergraduate foreign students [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 241 543]. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Keywords: survey, WAC, task, assignment, ESL, undergraduate, graduate, data, taxonomy, requirement, undergraduate
Bustamante, Isabel. (1991). The role of reading in teaching business writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 345 549.
Keywords: bizcom, business Spanish, L1-L2, English-Spanish, letter-writing, write-to-learn, University of Toledo [Ohio], WAC, contrast-group, gain, data
Coelho, Elizabeth. (1982). Language across the curriculum. TESL Talk 13.3, 56-70.
Keywords: high-school, ESL, WAC, Canada, geography-course, history-course, science-course
Courchene, Robert. (1994). Dialogue journals and teacher education: A window on the past, present, and future. Mosaic 01.4, 1, 3-5.
Keywords: teacher-training, journal-writing, WAC, dialogue journal, University of Ottawa, L2-teaching, content-analysis
Cox, Michelle. (2010). Identity, second language writers, and the learning of workplace writing. In Cox, Michelle; Jay Jordan; Christina Ortmeier-Hooper; Gwen Gray Schwartz (Eds.), Reinventing identities in second language writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Drawing from case studies of graduate students in a Communication Science and Disorders masters program, Cox compares the writing experiences of a L2 writer with native English speaking writers in the same program, concluding that the ways in which the L2 writer was identified as ‘ESL’ by faculty had negative consequences for this student’s progress through the master’s program. However, the same student’s bilingualism was seen more positively by supervisors in off-campus internships. Cox calls on WAC administrators to learn more about how L2 writers fare in the workplace in order to work more productively with faculty preparing students for different professions. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 2: Studies Focused on L2 Writers in Specific Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, WID, graduate, workplace, case-study, native-nonnative, evaluation, faculty-opinion, worker-opinion
Cox, Michelle. (2010). WAC/WID and second language writers (WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8). CompPile database [filed in the Annotation Field--enter: WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8].
In his 2009 article, 'WAC/WID in the Next America: Redefining Professional Identity in the Age of the Multilingual Majority,' Jonathon Hall argues for WAC/WID administrators to be inclusive of second language (L2) students in WAC/WID programs, research, and faculty development. This annotated bibliography takes up that call by providing WAC/WID administrators with reviews of 26 journal articles, book chapters, and monographs that together provide a range of resources useful for providing support for the L2 students writing across the curriculum, in the majors, and in graduate programs. This annotated bibliography is organized in three sections: WAC/WID administrative issues and L2 writers, studies focused on L2 writers in particular disciplines, and studies focused on L2 writers across disciplines. Many of the studies included are case studies tracking the experiences of undergraduate students writing in general education courses as well as courses in their majors, and graduate students writing across master and doctoral programs. What emerges from these studies is a picture of the complex linguistic, cultural, and identity transitions made by L2 students as they write across varying social, disciplinary, and rhetorical contexts. What also emerges is a map of the many opportunities available to WAC/WID professionals for advocating for L2 students. Positioned at the crossroads of teaching and learning as agents of institutional change, WAC/WID professionals are key to making our institutional landscapes, classrooms, and assessment practices more equitable for L2 students, a group not at the margins but at the center of US institutions of higher education. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, WID, ESL, WPA, administrating, needs-analysis
D'Alessio, Diane; Margaret Riley. (2002). Scaffolding writing skills for ESL students in an education class at a community college. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 13, 79-89.
Keywords: ESL, two-year, WAC, scaffolding, skill-level, education-course
de Courcy, Michele. (1994). English in music: Content-based ESL for tertiary music students. Prospect: A Journal of Australian TESOL 09.1, 39-51.
Keywords: ESL, Australia, Queensland Conservatorium of Music, WAC, data, mainstreaming
DeDominicis, Benedict E.; Tracy Santa. (2002). WAC in Bulgaria: Benefits and challenges. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
From the perspective of a writing program director functioning within an American-style post-secondary institution in the Balkans, WAC is a 'global' phenomenon in that it has transcended the national boundaries of its origin. In discussing our local instance of the globalization of WAC, we would like to examine the nature of the interdependencies between WAC shareholders as well as explicate who the actors in this realpolitic scenario are and how policy changes have (or have not) affected the educational climate at AUBG.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, Bulgaria, global, international
Devet, Bonnie . (2011). A tale of two UK writing centres. Writing Lab Newsletter 35.7-8, 10-13.
Keywords: wcenter, international, global, case-analysis, case analysis, case study, analysis of cases, British, WAC, writing across the curriculum, WID, writing in disciplines
Diaz, Diana M.. (1988). ESL college writers: Process and community. Journal of Developmental Education 12.2, 6-8, 10-12.
Keywords: ESL, needs-analysis, review-of-scholarship, acquisition, audience-awareness, collaborative, sheltered, WAC
Diaz, Diana M.. (1989). Language across the curriculum and ESL students: Composition research and 'sheltered courses'. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 326 057.
Keywords: WAC, ESL, needs-analysis, acquisition, mainstreaming, sheltered courses, retraining
Disch, Estelle. (2004). 'Still cannot solve it': Engaging ESOL students in the classroom conversation. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, sociology-course, teacher-opinion, classroom, discussion
Dixon, Richard. (1994). Developing higher cognitive skills through interpretive writing. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 374 643.
Keywords: L2, English-Spanish, write-to-learn, WAC, poetry-writing, sample, pedagogy, cognitive, skill, interpretive
Donahue, Christiane. (2004). Writing and teaching the disciplines in France: Current conversations and connections. Arts and humanities in higher education, an international journal of theory, research and practice 03, 59-79.
Keywords: WAC, WID, France, review-of-scholarship, international
Draper, Virginia. (1993). Writing and Learning: A handbook for UCSC faculty [University of California, Santa Cruz]. Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, Santa Cruz.
Keywords: WAC, teacher-manual, guidelines, critical-thinking, assignment-design, response, evaluation, ESL, peer-evaluation, group, intensive, teaching fellow, block, plagiarism, handbook, FYC, requirement
Dubino, Jeanne. (2004). Orality and writing: Conducting a writing exercise in Kenya. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 15, 55-66.
Keywords: WAC, international, Africa, Kenya, speak-write, orality, pedagogy
Ede, Lisa S.. (2004). Situating composition: Composition studies and the politics of location. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Keywords: location, place, politics, pedagogy, process, English-profession, social process, postprocess, theory, FYC, WC, WAC, ESL, service-learning, literacy, community, technology, online, cultural studies, literacy, resistance, desire, CCCC, historical studies, case study, anecdote, language, semiotics, course-design
El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.. (1998). Effect of dialogue journal writing on EFL students' speaking skill. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 772.
Keywords: pre-post, ESL, EFL, Egyptian, history-program, WAC, contrast-group, journal-writing, dialogue journal, speak-write
Ellis, Viv; Donna LeCourt. (2002). Literacy in context: A transatlantic conversation about the future of WAC in England. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
This is a story of WAC efforts that are indelibly marked by national differences in higher education and institutional structures which account not only for differing statuses for WAC efforts in our respective countries, but also for, surprisingly, different conceptions about writing itself and its function in higher education.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, global, international, England, literacy
Emerson, Lisa; Bruce R. MacKay; Keith A. Funnell; Marion B. MacKay. (2002). Writing in a New Zealand tertiary context: WAC and action research. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
This article explores the unique context of WAC in New Zealand Universities.
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, New Zealand, global, international
Estes, Gisela B.; Barbara Lopez-Mayhew; Marie-Therese Gardner. (1998). Writing in the foreign languages department. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 09, 69-81.
Keywords: WAC, L2-department, L2-course, write-to-learn
Fishman, Stephen M.; Lucille McCarthy. (2002). Whose goals? Whose aspirations? Learning to teach underprepared writers across the curriculum. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: basic, pedagogy, pedagogy, underprepared, WAC, University of North Carolina Charlotte, philosophy-course, ESL, African-Am, social-class, class-conflict, community, John Dewey, evaluation, grading, gradualism, student-motivation, racism, student-resistance, change, transformative, student-story
Fishman, Stephen M.; Lucille McCarthy. (2004). When writing-to-learn is not enough. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, philosophy-course, teacher-opinion
Freeman, David E.; Yvonne S. Freeman. (1991). 'Doing' social studies: Whole language lessons to promote social action. Social Education 55, 22-32,66.
Keywords: WAC, social-studies-course, international, transformative, social, whole-language, social action, social
Gaudiani, Claire; Center for Applied Linguistics [Washington, D. C.]. (1981). Teaching composition in the foreign language curriculum (Language in education: Theory and practice, No. 43). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 209 961.
Keywords: WAC, language-course, L2, syllabus, text-editing, journal-writing
Gibbons, Pauline. (2002). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: Teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Keywords: ESL, scaffolding, pedagogy, talk-write, WAC, listening, academic, mainstreaming
Gorini, Catherine A.. (1991). An integrated program of writing and speaking in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum. PRIMUS: Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies 01.3, 244-252.
Keywords: mathematical, curriculum, ESL, Maharishi International University , speak-write, WAC, integrated, undergraduate
Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Fredel M. Wiant. (2012). Integrating multilingual students into college classrooms: Practical advice for faculty. London: Multilingual Matters.
Keywords: ESL, pedagogy, unprepared, guidelines, WAC, mainstreaming, multilingual, academic-success
Haggan, Madeline. (1993). Actual and self-perceived spelling accuracy in Kuwaiti EFL students: Some practical and theoretical implications. TESL Canada Journal 10.2, 55-70.
Keywords: spelling, ESL, EFL, Kuwait, Arabic-English, self-evaluation, accuracy, data, pedagogy, implication, accuracy, self-perception, self-efficacy
Hale, Gordon A.. (1996). A study of writing tasks assigned in academic degree programs (TOEFL Research Report No. 54). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Keywords: survey, WAC, academic, task, assignment, data, ESL, research-report
Hall, Jonathan. (2009). WAC/WID in the next America: Redefining professional identity in the age of the multilingual majority. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 20, 33-49.
Drawing from data depicting the fast rise of linguistically diverse students in k-12 and in higher education, as well as the trend toward globalization in the workplace, Hall calls for WAC administrators to prepare for this ‘New America’ by shifting faculty development programming to be inclusive of second language writing. Hall provides areas of L2 writing research useful to WAC administrators for educating themselves on working with L2 writers as well as enrich faculty development programming to be inclusive of L2 writing issues. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, pedagogy, transformative, multilingual, WID, diversity, ESL, data, teacher-growth, identity, majority
Hallet, Rhonda. (1997). Promoting language skills through collaboration between content lecturers and language specialists. In Golebiowsky, Zofia; Helen Borland (Eds.), Academic communication across disciplines and cultures: Selected proceedings of the National Conference on Teritary Literacy: Research and Practice (Vol. 2); Melbourne, Australia: Victorial University of Technology Press.
Keywords: WAC, teacher-cooperation, pedagogy, lecturer, content-course, ESL specialist
Hirsch, Linda. (1988). Talking and writing across the curriculum: A tutorial model for adult ESL students in content courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 294 195.
Keywords: pre-post, questionnaire, student-opinion, faculty-opinion, course-grade, data, ESL, adult-ed, WAC, Hostos Community College, CUNY, tutorial, contrast-group, model-essay, tutoring, tutorial
Hirsch, Linda. (1989). Are principles of writing across the curriculum applicable to ESL students in content courses? Research findings. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 319 264.
Keywords: WAC, gain, data, contrast-group, two-year, Hostos Community College (SUNY), ESL, focus group, tutoring, contrast-group, grades, gain, data, persistence, drop-out, persistence, ancillary, principle
Hirsch, Linda M.. (1986). The use of expressive function talk and writing as a learning tool with adult ESL students across the curriculum [doctoral thesis]. New York: New York University.
Keywords: talk-write, expressive, ESL, adult-ed, WAC, write-to-learn
Hirsch, Linda; Carolina DeLuca. (2003). WAC in an urban and bilingual setting: Writing-to-learn in English y en Español. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 6.3.
Hirsh and DeLuca research the effectiveness of writing-to-learn pedagogies in a writing-intensive section of an Introductions to Humanities course taught in Spanish as part of a bilingual program. Hirsh and DeLuca argue that for L2 students, writing-to-learn in their first language enables them to create meaning and further understand course material, a benefit of WAC not always available to L2 writers when faculty insist on the use of English even in low-stakes writing activities. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, WID, WAC, L2, urban, write-to-learn, bilingual, Spanish-English, ESL, urban
Hirvela, Alan. (2005). Computer-based reading and writing across the curriculum: Two case studies of L2 writers. Computers and Composition 22.3, 337-356.
Keywords: L2, computer-use, pedagogy, WAC, CAC, case-study, ethnographic, ESL, read-write, literacy, data
Hodne, Barbara D.. (1997). Please speak up: Asian immigrant students in American college classrooms. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, Asian, native-nonnative, discussion, classroom, resistance, immigration
Horowitz, Daniel M.. (1986). What professors actually require: Academic tasks for the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly 20.3, 445-462.
Keywords: ESL, survey, faculty, assignment, WAC, task, academic
Inglis, Margaret. (1995). English language development in a university foundational programme for science students. In Orr, Thomas (Ed.); Aizu University, Aizuwakamatsu [Japan], Center for Language Research; English for science and technology: Profiles and perspectives; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 389 174.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, science-course, basic-skills, pedagogy, improvement, data
Janopoulos, Michael. (1995). Writing across the curriculum, writing proficiency exams, and the NNS college students. Journal of Second Language Writing 04.1, 43-50.
Janopoulos examines the additional pressure WAC programs may place on L2 writers to write at the same level as their native English speaking (NES) peers, especially through Writing Proficiency Exams. He reviews the literature on L2 writing assessment, and concludes that L2 writers will not perform as well as NES writers when the assessment is based on NES writing standards, and then examines the types of support currently available to L2 writers. Based on these findings, Janopoulos argues that L2 writers need more opportunities for writing across the curriculum, more experiences writing ‘for a wide range of purposes and audiences’ (48), and more mentoring from faculty across the curriculum on their writing. He then recommends additional institutional support for L2 writers, in the form of faculty development specific to L2 writing, staffing of writing centers with tutors trained in L2 writing, and funding for research on L2 writing. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: ESL, WAC, testing, proficiency, data, administrating, WPA, proficiency
Jennings, Lisa. (2005). Making the connection: A 'lived history' assignment in an upper-division German course. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 16, 61-69.
Keywords: WAC, assignment, historiography, term-paper, advanced, L2, English-German, upper-division
Johns, Ann. (1991). Faculty assessment of ESL student literacy skills: Implications for writing assessment. In Hamp-Lyons, Liz (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts; Norwood, NJ: Ablex [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 396 583].
Keywords: evaluation, ESL, WAC, case-study, political-science, criteria, read-write, interview, portfolio, implication
Johns, Ann M.. (1991). Interpreting an English competency exam: The frustrations of an ESL science student. Written Communication 08.3, 379-401.
Johns uses a case study approach to examine why a L2 student writing successfully in upper-level courses in the major would repeatedly fail a writing proficiency exam. Through interviews with a L2 science student, comparison of the student’s writing in response to the writing exam prompt and to a biology assignment, analysis of the writing instruction the student received within composition courses and courses across the curriculum, Johns presents a portrait of a system gone awry and opens questions on the ethics of administering writing proficiency exams to L2 students. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, administrating, WPA, assessment, testing, proficiency, case-study, science-major, competency, student-frustration
Johns, Ann M.. (2001). ESL students and WAC programs: Varied populations and diverse needs. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing across the curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
In this landmark chapter, Johns provides WAC administrators with an overview of the research on second language writers, covering such issues as differences between permanent resident L2 students and visa-holding L2 students; second language acquisition; error; and contrastive rhetoric. She then provides approaches for analyzing how and where L2 students are taught to write in a university as well as provides suggestions for better supporting L2 writers across the curriculum though faculty development, particularly in relation to understanding the writing development of L2 students, understanding and dealing with sentence-level errors in L2 writers’ texts, and the cultural complexities of plagiarism. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: WAC, ESL, program, needs-analysis, change, diversity, WPA, administrating
Johnson, Ellen. (1997). Cultural norms affect oral communication in the classroom. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, cultural, classroom, discussion, group dynamic, interaction, norms, oral-communication
Johnston, Susan S.. (1994). An ethnographic study of content-based language instruction in the context of an English for academic purposes program [doctoral thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.
Keywords: ESL, EAP, academic, ethnographic, WAC, content-based, pedagogy
Kainose, Motoko. (2004). Motoko's reflections on learning across the curriculum. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, Japanese-English, philosophy-course, sociology-course, literature-course, student-story
Kam, Angeniet; Yvette Meinema. (2005). Teaching academic writing to international students in an interdisciplinary writing context: A pedagogical rough guide. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 02.
Keywords: international, ESL, academic, WAC, interdisciplinary, pedagogy, Expert Centre on Language, Communication and Education (ETOC), Netherlands, international student, pedagogy
Kamhi-Stein, Lia D.. (1997). Redesigning the writing assignment in general education courses. College ESL 07.1, 49-61.
Keywords: gen-ed, WAC, literacy, academic, ESL, team-teaching, interdisciplinary, assignment, process
Kaplan, Robert B.; Richard B. Baldauf, Jr.. (2005). Editing contributed scholarly articles from a language management perspective. . Journal of Second Language Writing 14.1, 47-62.
Taking language management as its initial perspective, this paper examines some of the sorts of linguistic problems that second language writers of English face when contributing to scholarly journals and some of the issues that editors face when working with authors on those problems. Some ethical questions implicit in editing non-native speaker texts are explored. [authors' abstract]
Keywords: ESL, scholarly-writing, editing, ethical, language management, WAC, text-analysis, EAP, editing
Kasper, Loretta F.. (2000). The imagery of rhetoric: Film and academic writing in the disciplined-based ESL course. Teaching English in the Two-Year College 28.1, 52-59.
Keywords: two-year, film, academic, ESL, WAC, interdisciplinary, visual, imagery
Kawata, Jessica Newby. (1997). Geography in global issues classroom. In Cornwell, Steve; Peggy Rule; Toshiko Sugino (Eds.); Japan Association for Language Teaching; On JALT96: Crossing borders: Proceedings of the JALT 1996 International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning [November, Hiroshima, Japan]; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 412 750.
Keywords: ESL, Japanese-English, WAC, global issues, geography
Kawata, Jessica Newby; David Peaty; Donna McInnis; Junko Mukainakano. (1997). Commonly asked global issues questions. In Cornwell, Steve; Peggy Rule; Toshiko Sugino (Eds.); Japan Association for Language Teaching; On JALT96: Crossing borders: Proceedings of the JALT 1996 International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning [November, Hiroshima, Japan]; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 412 750.
Keywords: ESL, Japanese-English, global issues, WAC
Kennedy, Ana; Susan Navey-Davis. (2004). Inquiry-guided learning and the foreign language classroom. In Lee, Virginia S. (Ed.), Teaching and learning through inquiry: A guidebook for institutions and instructors; Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Keywords: inquiry-based, L2-course, foreign language, pedagogy, WAC
Klein, Ilona. (1990). Teaching in a liberal arts college: How foreign language courses contribute to 'writing across the curriculum' programs. Modern Language Journal 74.1, 28-35.
Keywords: school-college, articulation, teacher-dialogue, collaboration, L2-course, L2-English, WAC, liberal arts college
Kutz, Eleanor. (2004). From outsider to insider: Studying academic discourse communities across the curriculum. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, discourse-community, insider-outsider, marginality, academic-discourse
Lee, Debra S.. (1997). What teachers can do to relieve problems identified by international students. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: WAC, ESL, student-opinion, needs-analysis, cultural, talk-write, vocabulary, skill-level, international student
Leki, Ilona. (1995). Coping strategies of ESL students in writing tasks across the curriculum. TESOL Quarterly 29.2, 235-260.
In this landmark study--one of the first articles to present case study research on L2 students writing in courses outside of composition and ESL courses--Leki presents data from case studies of five visa-holding second language students in their first semester at a US university, analyzing the strategies these students use to write successfully in their courses. Leki categorizes the strategies, and discusses how the students used or adapted strategies they gained as writers and students in their first languages. The article concludes with a call for more case study research of L2 writers writing in courses across the curriculum. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: ESL, coping, learner-strategy, WAC, task, ethnographic, data, coping
Leki, Ilona. (2001). 'A narrow thinking system': Nonnative-English-speaking students in group projects across the curriculum. TESOL Quarterly 35.1, 39-67.
This important study focuses on how L2 students fare during group projects when in groups with L1 students. Drawing on data from a 5-year study of 6 L2 students, Leki examines the experiences of these students participating in group work across 54 courses, with 17 of these group work experiences resulting in evaluated projects. The case study students all reported having positive experiences with group work as students in their home countries, but negative experiences in the US university, due largely to their L1 peers’ lack of confidence in L2 students’ ability to make meaningful contributions to group work. Leki shares field notes on group dynamics (including transcript excepts of group conversations), interview material from the L2 case study participants, and an analysis on why these groups did not have the learning outcomes hoped for by the faculty, drawing on theories of power and language. The article ends with a call for ESL specialists to educate faculty across the curriculum on power, language, and culture, with the goal of working to create more equitable learning environments for L2 students across the curriculum. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: L2, group, data, case-study, longitudinal, student-opinion, data, native-nonnative, dynamic, ESL, WAC
Matsuda, Paul Kei; Jeffrey Jablonski. (1998). Beyond the L2 metaphor: Towards a mutually transformative model of ESL/WAC collaboration. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 426 602.
Keywords: discipline-metaphor, L2, WAC, marginalization, ESL, interdisciplinary, metaphoric, mutuality, mutuality, transformative
Matsuda, Paul Kei; Jeffrey Jablonski. (2000). Beyond the L2 metaphor: Towards a mutually transformative model of ESL/WAC collaboration. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
In this landmark essay, Matsuda and Jablonski argue that the metaphor often used in WAC that characterizes all students as second language students when writing in unfamiliar discourses renders ESL writers invisible in WAC programs and elides the additional challenges ESL students have when writing across the curriculum. Matsuda and Jablonski call for a rethinking of this metaphor as well as increased collaboration between WAC and ESL specialists. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: L2, L1-L2, ESL, WAC, WID, metaphor, pedagogy, pedagogy, metaphoric, mutuality, transformative, model, mutuality, transformative
Maylath, Bruce. (1997). Why do they get it when I say 'gingivitis' but not when I say 'gum swelling'. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: native-nonnative, ESL, listening, speak-write, ESL, WAC, vocabulary
McCallister, Jean; Margaret Robson. (1988). Language support across the curriculum. In Nicholls, Sandra; Elizabeth Hoadley-Maidment (Eds.), Current issues in teaching English as a second language to adults; London; New York: Edward Arnold.
Keywords: ESL, adult-ed, postgraduate, WAC
McLeod, Susan. (2008). The future of WAC [plenary address, Ninth International Writing Across the Curriculum Conference, May 2008, Austin, Texas]. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 05.
Keywords: WAC, future, change, teaching fellow, communication, technology, assignment-design, cultural lag, administration, assessment, democritization, internationalization, abroad
McLeod, Susan H.; with Anne Whitney. (2007). Writing program administration (Reference guides to rhetoric and composition). Colorado Springs, CO: WAC Clearinghouse; West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.
Keywords: WPA, administrator role, history, review-of-scholarship, bibliography, curriculum, FYC, ESL, WAC, advanced, pedagogy, basic
Melles, Gavin. (2005). Familiarizing postgraduate ESL students with the literature review in a WAC/EAP engineering classroom. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 02.
Keywords: ESL, research-review, postgraduate, engineering, WAC, EAP, pedagogy, familiarity
Morocco, Glenn; Margot Soven. (1990). Writing across the curriculum in the foreign language class: Developing a new pedagogy. Hispania 73.3, 845-849.
Keywords: La Salle University, WAC, L2, assignment, note-taking, job-application, letter-writing, essay, pedagogy
Mueller, Elizabeth Ann. (1995). English enhancement for Engineering students: Professional and technical communication (Protech). In Orr, Thomas (Ed.); Aizu University, Aizuwakamatsu [Japan], Center for Language Research; English for science and technology: Profiles and perspectives; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 389 174.
Keywords: WAC, engineering-course, ESL, techcom
Munoz, Martha. (2004). Martha's reflections on learning across the curriculum. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, student-opinion, Spanish-English, first-year seminar, literature-course, chemistry-course, biology-course, student-story
Murray, Denise. (1992). Making it happen: An ESL professional organization's advocacy for teachers and learners. English Language Teaching Journal 46.1, 92-95.
Keywords: ESL, professional-organization, advocacy, change
Nelson, Gayle L.. (1997). How cultural differences affect written and oral communication: The case of peer response groups. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, peer-evaluation, cultural, interpersonal, diversity, cultural, individualism-collectivism, face, interaction, service-learning, oral-communication
Nien-chu Kiang, Peter. (2004). Voicing names and naming voices: Pedagogy and persistence in an Asian American studies classroom. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, teacher-opinion, voice, Asian-American-studies-course, persistence, pedagogy
Nilsen, Ragnhild. (2007). Rupture and innovation: Joint instruction to health science students in Tromso, Norway. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Ragnild Nilsen reports on a collaboration in a first-year course taught jointly by faculty from Tromso University College and the University of Tromso. He analyzes differences in the instructional goals of the participants in the course, and reflects on the extent to which 'deep-seated professional disagreement was allowed to affect the course throughout without being properly dealt with.' (Published February 15, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: FYC, WAC, international, health-science, instructional, innovation, rupture, innovation
Numrich, Carol. (1989). Cognitive strategies for integrating ESL and content area instruction. In Macero, Jeanette D.; Barbara J. Agor; Nancy Tumposky (Eds.), Selected Conference proceedings: Realising the dream: New York State Teachers of English as a Second Language Seventeenth Annual conference, November 6-8, 1987, Buffalo, New York; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 314 949.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, content-area, cognitive, strategy, integrated
Ostergren, Joan Caryl. (1991). Relationship among English performance, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression for Hmong refugees [doctoral thesis]. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
Keywords: ESL, Hmong-English, refugee, apprehension, anxiety, depression, psychology, self-efficacy, acquisition, women, elderly
Ostler, Shirley E.. (1980). A survey of academic needs for advanced ESL. TESOL Quarterly 14.4, 489-502.
Keywords: ESL, advanced, survey, WAC, needs-analysis
Paik, Minja. (1982). Writing English as a second language: A mathematician's personal perspective. [fulltext]. Writing: Newsletter of the George Mason University Faculty Writing Program 02 (March), 02-Jan.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, mathematics-course, authorship
Peters, Sandra; Deborah Saxon. (1997). Simulation and collaborative learning in political science and sociology classrooms. In Orr, Thomas (Ed.); Aizu University [Aizuwakamatsu, Japan], Center for Language Research; Proceedings 1997: The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997); ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 774.
Keywords: ESL, ESP, technical-communication, WAC, simulation, collaboration, political-science-course, sociology-course
Peters, Sandra; Deborah Saxon. (1998). Simulation and collaborative learning in political science and sociology classrooms. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 424 784.
Keywords: collaboration, simulation, pedagogy, WAC, political-science-course, sociology-course, ESP, ESL
Peterson, Deborah. (1985). Writing to learn German. link to 2013 WAC Clearinghouse reprint In Gere, Ann Ruggles; Roots in the sawdust: Writing to learn across the disciplines; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Keywords: L2, German, acquisition, German-course, write-to-learn, pedagogy, WAC
Robinson, Peter J.. (1987). Reading and coping: Code, communication and the development of second language reading abilities using content area texts. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 294 146.
Keywords: ESL, academic, WAC, content-area, textbook, pedagogy, coping
Rochelle, Kapp. (2005). 'I was just never exposed to this argument thing': Using a genre approach to teach academic writing to ESL students in the humanities. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: genre, WAC, pedagogy, humanities-course, ESL, argumentation
Rubin, Donald; Dawn Bruton; William Dodd; Frederick Johnson; Bennett Rafoth; Lauri Emel; Rosemarie Goodrum; University of Georgia. (1985). Project Synapse: Sparking connection between speech and writing. Instructor's handbook. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 267 455.
Keywords: talk-write, oral-presentation, rhetorical, invention, audience, argumentation, group, role switching, peer questioning, forensic, grammar, ESL, WAC, guidelines, Project Synapse, handbook
Russell, David R.; Mary Lea; Jan Parker; Brian Street; Tiane Donahue. (2009). Exploring notions of genre in 'academic literacies' and 'writing across the curriculum': Approaches across countries and contexts. In Bazerman, Charles; Adair Bonini; Debora Figueiredo (Eds.), Genre in a changing world; Fort Collins, CO: WAC Clearinghouse; West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press.
Keywords: genre-analysis, international, contrastive, academic literacy, WAC, definition
Ryan, Patrick. (1995). Elements of style and an advanced ESL student: The case of Jun Shan Zhang. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 412 535.
Keywords: ESL, Chinese-English, case-study, acquisition, invention, arrangement, elaboration, wcenter, data, anthropology, major, WAC, style
Salvi, Rita. (1991). A communicative approach to testing written English in nonnative speakers. Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata 23.2, 67-91.
Keywords: economics-course, WAC, ESL, political-science-course, law-course, examination, authentic assessment
Shamoon, Linda K.. (1998). International e-mail debate. In Reiss, Donna; Dickie Selfe; Art Young (Eds.), Electronic communication across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 416 561].
Keywords: computer, WAC, University of Rhode Island, emai, global, teacher-opinion, email, international
Sieber, Tim. (2004). Excelling in the critical study of culture: The multilingual-multicultural student advantage. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, teacher-opinion, anthropology-course, multicultural, multilingual
Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck; Bruce Maylath (Eds.). (1997). Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, No. 70). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: ESL, nonnative, WAC, pedagogy
Sills, Caryl K.. (1991). Paired composition courses: 'Everything relates'. College Teaching 39.2, 61-64.
Sills notes that paired courses assist students in becoming aware of the 'connections among ideas and issues across disciplinary boundaries, and [helps] them gain intellectual sophistication by confronting and assessing multiple perspectives' (p. 61). She discusses the linkage between an English Composition course and Introduction to Sociology, where 'the professors were free to design two separate but related courses that would serve the goals of both the English and sociology departments' (p. 61). In this link, 'we focused on interpreting and communicating information as a component of the learning process,' Sills writes, 'accurate and effective use of language became a means of knowing sociology, rather than a separate exercise called ‘writing’' (p. 62). Sills comments that paired courses require a larger time commitment from faculty and that the relationship between the two courses must be actively managed by both instructors. Working together, the two faculty members can find an appropriate balance for 'pacing, methodology, and goals' (p. 64).[Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: Monmouth College [New Jersey], linked, FYC, EAP, ESL, learning-community, sociology-course, WAC, comparison, text-analysis, argumentation, student-attitude, faculty-commitment
Smoke, Trudy. (2004). Lessons from Ming: Helping students use writing to learn. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, Chinese-English, write-to-learn
Snow, Marguerite Ann; Donna M. Brinton. (1984). Linking ESL courses with university content courses: The adjunct model. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 244 515.
Experiences in using the adjunct model of language instruction, in which language courses are linked with content courses to better integrate the reading, writing, and study skills required of the two disciplines, are described. Although the program described includes both regular freshman English classes and English as a second language (ESL) courses, the focus here is on the link between two intermediate ESL courses taught at the University of California at Los Angeles and one of the four undergraduate content courses in the program, introductory psychology. Features of the adjunct model, such as its underlying philosophy and methodology, coordinated framework, selection and adaptation of materials, and the role of the language and content area instructors are analyzed and critiqued. Elements critical to successful implementation of the model are identified from these experiences, and causes of potential breakdowns are noted. Finally, the analysis demonstrates how the adjunct model meets the needs of academic ESL students. Applications of the adjunct model to other ESL populations and the match between the model and current theories of second language acquisition are discussed. [ERIC]
Keywords: ESL, ancillary, mainstreaming, content-based, WAC, UCLA, adjunct model
Soven, Margot; Glenn Morocco. (1990). Writing across the curriculum in the foreign language class: Developing a new pedagogy. Hispania 73.3, 845-849.
Keywords: L2, L2-course, pedagogy, WAC, pedagogy
Spack, Ruth. (2004). The acquisition of academic literacy in a second language: A longitudinal case study, updated. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, Yuko, Japanese-English, ethnographic, longitudinal, data, updating
Speck, Bruce W.. (1997). Respect for religious differences: The case of Muslim students. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: WAC, ESL, cultural, Arabic-English, Muslim, religion, difference, student-opinion, interview, transcript-analysis, respect
Srikanth, Rajini. (2004). The soil under the gravel: ESOL learners and writing about literature. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, literature-course, teacher-opinion
Stalker, James C.. (1997). My language, my culture: International variations in standards for English. In Sigsbee, David L.; Bruce W. Speck (Eds.), Approaches to teaching non-native English speakers across the curriculum (New directions for teaching and learning, Vol.70); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Keywords: world-Englishes, standards, international, cultural, ESL, pedagogy, WAC, variation
Sternglass, Marilyn S.. (2004). 'It became easier over time': A case study of the relationship between writing, learning, and the creation of knowledge. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, Dominican Republic, Spanish-English
Taylor, William M.. (1987). Political science 202: International relations: Writing assignments. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 284 626.
Keywords: WAC, political-science-course, international-relations-course, assignment
Thaiss, Chris. (2010). The international WAC/WID mapping project: Objectives, methods, and early results. In Bazerman, Charles; et al. (Eds.), Traditions of writing research; London: Routledge.
Keywords: WAC, WID, international, survey, networking, data
Thaiss, Chris; Tara Porter. (2010). The state of WAC/WID in 2010: Methods and results of the U.S. survey of the international WAC/WID mapping project. College Composition and Communication 61.3, 534-570.
Keywords: interdisciplinarity, international, survey, WAC, WID, wcenter, data
Thaiss, Chris; Tara Porter. ([ongoing]). International WAC / WID Mapping Project: Statistical results [Interactive Maps of United States and Canada]. [Link to Site].
The following statistics are derived from the more than 1300 responses (50% return rate) to the U.S./Canada survey undertaken by Tara Porter and Chris Thaiss as part of the International WAC/WID Mapping Project. The online survey itself is closed as of July 1, 2008. Statistical results based on earlier readings of the data have been reported at conferences in 2007 and 2008. Articles based on the survey data are scheduled to appear beginning in 2009. If you wish more information about these publications, please write to Chris Thaiss (cjthaiss@ucdavis.edu) or Tara Porter (tsporter@ucdavis.edu). If you do not know if your institution replied to this survey, please contact Tara Porter (tsporter@ucdavis.edu). As more statistics are derived from the complete data set, we will post them to this website, as appropriate. Please keep in mind that the following statistics represent the most minimal analysis of the data. We are posting them in this unanalyzed form at the request of those who have attended recent presentations. Our explanation of terms, methods, and materials and our interpretation of the data will occur in the planned articles and in future conference presentations. Meanwhile, if you have questions about the survey or the results you see here, please write to us. You will note the reference made to the 1987 survey by Susan McLeod and Susan Shirley. This is the only other large-scale survey of WAC/WID activity in the U.S. and Canada. Results were reported in: McLeod, Susan and Susan Shirley. "Appendix: National Survey of Writing Across the Curriculum Programs." McLeod, Susan. Strengthening Programs for Writing Across the Curriculum. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988. 103-130. [From website, accessed July 2008]
Keywords: WAC, WID, data, survey, mapping, international, United States, Canada, 'International Network of WAC Programs', INWAC, research, writing across the curriculum, writing in the disciplines , interactive
Thaiss, Chris; Tara Porter; Erin Steinke. ([ongoing]). International WAC / WID Mapping Project. [Link to Site].
Research on Activity/Initiatives Worldwide Devoted to Student Writing in Disciplines Begun in 2006, this project aims to identify, compile, analyze, and facilitate activity and interest in writing in the disciplines in higher education around the world. We are interested both in first-language and English-language initiatives. We are also interested in graduate-level initiatives, but we pay primary attention to undergraduate, college-university activities focused in disciplines, as well as academic writing centers or similar services devoted to working with students and faculty/staff in and across disciplines. The Project is sponsored in part by the International Network of WAC Programs (INWAC). [From site, accessed July 2008]
Keywords: WAC, WID, data, survey, mapping, international, United States, Canada, 'International Network of WAC Programs', INWAC, research, writing across the curriculum, writing in the disciplines
Thew, Neill; Magnus Gustafsson. (2007). Vintage WAC: Improving the learning impact of WAC. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 04.
Neill Thew and Magnus Gustafsson offer their reflections on the 2006 WAC Conference at Clemson University and offer suggestions for extending the impact of WAC in the U.S. and internationally. (Published April 1, 2007) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: WAC, WID, international
Townsend, Martha; interviewed by Carol Rutz. (2006). Martha 'Marty' Townsend: A different kind of pioneer. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 17, 43-52.
Keywords: Marty Townsend, scholar-story, scholar-autobiography, WAC, University of Missouri, funding, international, program-validation, feminization, pioneer
Townsend, Marty. (2002). Writing in/across the curriculum at a comprehensive Chinese university. [fulltext]. Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 5.3.
This essay describes research conducted at Nankai University, Tianjin, China, from June 25-30, 1999, the overarching question of which was 'In what ways is writing (composition) a part of the teaching and learning process at Nankai University, a well-respected, research-based institution?'
Keywords: WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, China, Chinese, global, international, Nankai University
Vazquez, John D.. (1992). Implementation of integrated skills reinforcement teaching and learning strategies in the social sciences, behavioral sciences and Puerto Rican and Latin-American studies courses. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 343 165.
Keywords: data, gain, WAC, Skills Reinforcement, La Guardia Community College, two-year, student-centered, ESL, native-nonnative, sociology-course, oral-presentation, collaborative, narrative-log, vocabulary, academic, social-science, behavioral, implementation, integrated, learner-strategy, Puerto Rico, Latin America, social
Vazulik, Johannes W.. (1983). Postsecondary ESL methods in an intensive course model. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 232 469.
Keywords: ESL, intensive, WAC, pedagogy
Walker, Kristin. (1997). Consulting with lab, ESL students in an engineering writing center: Issues and strategies for dealing with the problem of plagiarism. [fulltext]. Writing Lab Newsletter 21.6, 1-5.
Keywords: wcenter, ESL, WAC, plagiarism, engineering, ESL, international, science-laboratory
Wey, Shyh-Chyi. (1998). The effects of goal orientations, metacognition, self-efficacy and effort on writing achievement [doctoral thesis]. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California.
Keywords: Taiwan, motivation, ESL, Chinese-English, self-efficacy, goal orientation, metacognition, high-school, G11
Wilkinson, Michael; Harry Wainmen. (1981). Legal English: A functional course. Journal of Legal Education 31.3-5, 664-672.
Keywords: legal-writing, ESL, syllabus, University of Malawi, letter-writing, advocacy, functional
Willcott, Paul Joseph. (1972). An analysis of the written English of native speakers of Arabic as found in American history final examinations given at the University of Texas at Austin [doctoral thesis]. Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin.
Keywords: ESL, Arabic-English, text-analysis, WAC, history-course, essay-exam, final examination
Williams, James D.; Seiji Takaku. (2011). Help seeking, self-efficacy, and writing performance among college students. link to full text. Journal of Writing Research 03.1, 1-18.
This study analyzed 671 undergraduates at a small California university, hypothesizing that, due to lower test scores, ESL students would have a lower degree of self-efficacy than native speakers. The authors begin with extensive background information about students' help-seeking behaviors, citing cultural background and gender as factors in student perceptions of self-efficacy, and, consequently, the degree to which students engage in adaptive help-seeking behaviors. The study compared a variety of test scores with data regarding the cultural backgrounds of the students in order to examine correlations between student self-efficacy, student performance, and cultural differences in help seeking. The results showed that self-efficacy and help-seeking behavior were inversely related. Further, help-seeking was found to be the most important element in raising the scores of ESL students. [Jacob Clayton]
Keywords: help-seeking, self-efficacy, wcenter, persistence, grades, data, correlation, attendance, correlation, native-nonnative, NS-NNS, ESL
Winter, Janet K; Esther J. Winter. (1992). Using the portfolio approach in teaching intercultural business communication. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 347 902.
Keywords: portfolio, WAC, bizcom, international, evaluation, letter-writing, report-writing, diversity, audience-awareness, intercultural
Wissot, jay. (1971). HESL and MESL: The teaching of history and math as components of an English as a second language program [Histor/Math for English as a Second Language]. In Jacobson, Rodolfo (Ed.), Studies in English to speakeers of other languages & standard English to speakers of a non-standard dialect (New York State English Council Monograph, No. 14); Oneonta, NY: New York State English Council.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, interdisciplinary, history-course, mathematics-course, high-school
Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Gabriela Segade. (1999). University support for second-language writers across the curriculum. In Harklau, Linda; Kay M. Losey; Meryl Siegal (Eds.), Generation 1.5 meets college composition: Issues in the teaching of writing to U.S.-educated learners of ESL; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
In this qualitative study, 29 L2 students enrolled in writing-intensive courses in 16 majors as well as 16 faculty instructors of writing-intensive courses representing 10 majors were interviewed to assess student and faculty perceptions of writing and language support available to L2 students writing across the curriculum. The authors also examined journals kept by the student participants documenting their writing experiences in the WI courses as well as syllabi and writing assignments provided by the faculty participants. The authors found that faculty were largely focused on sentence-level issues in L2 student writing; felt that these students should have more ESL education before being admitted into WI courses; and penalized L2 writers and L1 writers equally for grammatical issues in writing. The authors then used this knowledge to design a series of faculty development workshops, to work individually with faculty teaching WI courses, and to provide additional resources, such as literature on WI teaching practices. Also addressed is the role of the writing center in supporting L2 writers in WI courses. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 1: WAC/WID Administrative Issues and L2 Writers), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: ESL, bilingual, USA, WAC, program, Generation 1.5, administrating
Wolff, Dieter. (1999). Languages across the curriculum: A way to promote multilingualism in Europe. In Gnutzmann, Claus (Ed.), Teaching and learning English as a global language: Native and non-native perspectives (ZAA studies: Language, literature, culture, Vol. 8); Tubingen, Germany: Stauffenburg Verlag.
Keywords: ESL, L2, WAC, multilingual, Europe
Young, Carolyn; Judith Powers. (1995). Helping faculty work with international writers across the disciplines. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 393 314.
Keywords: WAC, ESL, faculty-workshop, retraining
Zamel, Vivian. (1995). Strangers in academia: The experiences of faculty and ESL students across the curriculum. College Composition and Communication 46.4, 506-521.
Zamel presents interview and survey data of L2 student and faculty perspectives on L2 writers, action research motivated by requests by faculty for seminars and workshops on what they termed the ‘ESL problem’ at their institution. The faculty perspectives Zamel uncovers ‘reveal divergent views on language, language development, and the role faculty see themselves playing in this development’ (507). Zamel analyses the assumptions behind these views, and draws from 325 responses from first and second year L2 students on their perspectives on faculty, their experiences with faculty in relation to their writing, and what they need in order to learn and write more effectively. Zamel uses this data to argue that L2 students need’multiple opportunities to use language and write-to-learn, course work which draws on and values what students already know, classroom exchanges and assignments that promote the acquisition of unfamiliar language, concepts, and approaches to inquiry, evaluation that allows students to demonstrate genuine understanding’ (519). This argument fits well with approaches to pedagogy already valued by WAC. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: ESL, student-opinion, case-study, teacher-attitude, WAC
Zamel, Vivian. (2004). Strangers in academic: The experiences of faculty and ESOL students across the curriculum. In Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.), Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Keywords: ESL, WAC, academic, acculturation, student-opinion, teacher-opinion
Zamel, Vivian; Ruth Spack (Ed.). (2004). Crossing the curriculum: Multilingual learners in college classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
This edited collection brings together the perspectives of L2 students, ESOL and composition researchers, and faculty in different disciplines on what it means for L2 students to write and learn through writing across the curriculum and into specific disciplines. The first section is devoted to case study research on undergraduate L2 students’ experiences as they write across the curriculum; the second section features reflections by a L2 biology major and L2 sociology major on their writing and learning experiences in courses in their majors and across the curriculum; and the third section shares chapters written by faculty in anthropology, philosophy, nursing, literature, sociology, and Asian American studies on their attempts to address the needs of L2 writers in their classrooms. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: ESL, skill-transfer, multilingual, WAC, academic, case-study, student-opinion, biology-major, sociology-major, pedagogy
Zawacki, Terry Myers; Anna Sophia Habib. (2010). 'Will our stories help teachers understand?' Multilingual students talk about identity, academic writing, and expectations across academic communities. In Cox, Michelle; Jay Jordan; Christina Ortmeier-Hooper; Gwen Gray Schwartz (Eds.), Reinventing identities in second language writing; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Zawacki and Habib present data from interviews with 26 second language writers from across the curriculum on their experiences negotiating voice, identity, and writing as well as faculty representing 15 disciplines on their experiences and perspectives on second language writers. This study is part of a larger action research project run by a research team composed of WAC, writing center, and English Language Institute professionals, a project that has resulted in an institutional publication, Valuing Written Accents: Nonnative Students Talk about Identity, Academic Writing, and Meeting Teachers’ Expectations, and website, Valuing Written Accents. This article focuses on student and teacher perspectives on originality, voice, fluency, accuracy, transfer, and reflection in L2 student writing. [Michelle Cox, WAC/WID and Second Language Writers (Part 3: Studies that Look at L2 Writer across Disciplines), WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 8]
Keywords: interview, student-opinion, ESL, WAC, voice, identity, faculty-opinion, multilingual
[various]. (1985). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Third National Testing Network in Writing Conference, San Francisco, California, March 1985]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2085toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 05, 2-26.
Keywords: testing, assessment, K-12, portfolio, proficiency, procedure, teacher-certification, holistic, rating, rater-training, primary-trait, research-method, research, WAC [at Stanford University], Research in the Effective Teaching of Writing Project, discourse-feature, gain, classroom-research, longitudinal, development, regression, analytic, funding, program, ESL, teacher-training minority, curriculum, G5, response, administering, cost, data-analysis, peer-evaluation, topic, large-scale, Canada, placement, feature
[various]. (1987). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Fifth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, 1987]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2087toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 07, 3-20.
Keywords: testing, Writing Proficiency Examination [University of Massachusetts-Boston], rising-junior, standards, K-12, pedagogy, prompt, topic, assessment, holistic, rater-training, New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test, ESL, analytic, assessment profile, profiling, British Council Proficiency Test of the English Language, portfolio, computer, teacher-training, ESL, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, New Jersey High School Proficiency Test, WAC, content-area, basic, program-validation, nonacademic, cultural, China, large-scale, college-span [Temple University], cross-sectional, longitudinal, error, regression, gender-difference, national, NAEPgender-difference, high-school
[various]. (1988). [synopses of conference panels and talks, Sixth National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, April, 1988]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 08, 4-33.
Keywords: testing, K-12, mode, portfolio, WAC, rising-junior [Governors State University], revamping, exit-exam [Ball State University], proficiency, rising-junior [University of Massachusetts], WAC, program, campus-wide, universal, literacy, validity, direct, reliability, scale stability, rater-training, holistic, discrepant-essay, primary-trait, placement, rhetorical, rater-training, video, program-program-validation, longitudinal, growth, regression, mode, rhetorical-task, pedagogy, reader-response, holistic, self-assessment, computer, style-checker, legal, national, international, Written Composition Study [International Association for Educational Achievement], criteria, contrastive, topic, classroom-research, computer-analysis, feature
[various]. (1990). [synopses of conference talks, Seventh National Testing Network in Writing Conference, Montreal, Canada, April, 1989]. http://comppile.org/archives/NTW/Nov%2088toc.htm [full text]. Notes from the National Testing Network in Writing 09, 2-48.
Keywords: testing, computer, process, large-scale, standards, WPA, international, contrastive, African-Am, NAEP, ESL, literacy, competency, holistic, University of Minnesota, validity, construct-validity, topic, assessment, Scotland, classroom, portfolio assessment, program, self-evaluation, peer-evaluation, self-validation, professional-school, veterinary, WAC, rater-training, program-validation, empowerment, rising-junior [East Texas State University], wcenter, transfer-student, James Britton, Peter Elbow, campus-wide, universal, computer, individual-differences, ESL, community, contrastive, City University of New York, disciplinary, rising-junior [University of Missouri-St. Louis], rising-junior [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee], prompt, argumentation, validity, primary-trait, physics-department, feminist, pedagogy, placement, minimum competency, scale, score stability, response, local assessment, feature