Welcome to the WAC Bibliography. The bibliography, developed and presented in collaboration with CompPile, was developed to support teachers across the disciplines who are interested in using writing and speaking in their courses; scholars who are interested in WAC theory and research; and program administrators, designers, and developers who have interests in the latest work in faculty outreach, program design, and assessment.
Barnes, J. Neal. (1988). A writing-intensive course in automotive engine repair. In Killingsworth, Jimmie; Donald H. Cunningham; Laurie L. Jones (Eds.); Texas Tech University; Designing writing assignments for vocational-technical courses: A guide for teachers in the two-year college and technical institute; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 298 331.
Berthelsen, Alice. (1988). A writing-intensive course in fashion promotion. In Killingsworth, Jimmie; Donald H. Cunningham; Laurie L. Jones (Eds.); Texas Tech University; Designing writing assignments for vocational-technical courses: A guide for teachers in the two-year college and technical institute; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 298 331.
Bishop, Wendy. (2002). In the writing-intensive univers(ity). In Anson, Christopher M. (Ed.), The WAC casebook: Scenes for faculty reflection and program development; New York: Oxford University Press.
Bitsche, Cathy. (1988). A writing-intensive course in respiratory care. In Killingsworth, Jimmie; Donald H. Cunningham; Laurie L. Jones (Eds.); Texas Tech University; Designing writing assignments for vocational-technical courses: A guide for teachers in the two-year college and technical institute; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 298 331.
Keywords: nursing-course, respiratory care, writing-intensive, WAC
Bodino, Angela Adamides; Princeton University, Mid-Career Fellowship Program. (1988). Using writing to integrate the curriculum: The constructs at the core. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 297 787.
Keywords: two-year, WAC, gen-ed, core-curriculum, write-to-learn, assignment, interdisciplinary, intensive, syllabus, Raritan Valley Community College [New Jersey]
Boice, Robert. (1990). Faculty resistance to writing-intensive courses. Teaching of Psychology 17.1, 13-17.
Keywords: WAC, faculty-resistance, write-to-learn, writing-intensive, teacher-opinion, survey, data
Brent, Edward; Martha Townsend. (2006). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: finding common ground. In Ericsson, Patricia Freitag; Richard H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Keywords: machine-scoring, computer, computer-analysis, University of Missouri, sociology-course, intensive, grading, evaluation, cost-effective, computer-feedback, Qualrus, SAGrader, tricking, WAC, conflict
Bridwell, Lillian S.. (1994). Writing-intensive courses: Possible criteria, national patterns, and resources (Technical Report No. 11). Minneapolis, MN: The Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing, University of Minnesota.
Bridwell-Bowles, Lillian; Michael Kuhne; Elaine Cullen; Kimberly Lynch; Mark Olsen. (1994). Writing-intensive courses: Possible criteria, national patterns, and resources (Technical report, No. 11). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing.
Bushman, Donald; Elizabeth Ervin. (1995). Rhetorical contexts of grammar: Some views from writing-emphasis course instructors. In Hunter, Susan; Ray Wallace (Eds.), The place of grammar in writing instruction: Past, present, future; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.
Keywords: grammar, WAC, intensive, grammar
Chadwick, Scott A.; John Dorbolo. (1998). InterQuest: Designing a communication-intensive web-based course. In Reiss, Donna; Dickie Selfe; Art Young (Eds.), Electronic communication across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 416 561].
Clark, Irene L.; Ronald Fischbach. (2008). Writing and learning in the health sciences: Rhetoric, identity, genre, and performance. [fulltext]. WAC Journal 19, 15-28.
Clark and Fishbach argue that discussions of linked courses often overlook the need for students simultaneously to develop their professional identities as they work toward becoming more proficient writers. To explore this claim, the authors turn to their experience developing a link between a public health education course and a course in health sciences writing and rhetoric. Clark and Fishbach discovered that students benefited from the opportunity 'to 'perform' as writers and speakers within a particular field or profession' (18). More particularly, the link helped student writers to reconceptualize genre as a form of 'social action' as they became more familiar with the professional discourses they were learning. Clark and Fischbach subsequently consider the ways their focus on genre in the linkage put pressure on the shared term 'argument', but also discuss ways that researchers have shown the term to be similar across humanities-based writing and scientific writing. In closing, the authors assert that their experiences with this linkage affirm that role-play is essential to an increase in professionally situated rhetorical awareness for student writers. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Coker, Frances H.; Allen Scarboro. (1990). Writing to learn in upper-division sociology courses: Two case studies. Teaching Sociology 18.2, 218-222.
Keywords: advanced, WAC, intensive, sociology-course, religion, Millsaps College [Mississippi], write-to-learn
Cooper, Amy; Dawn Bikowski. (2007). Writing at the graduate level: What tasks do professors actually require?. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 06.3, 206-221.
This paper presents a case study of writing tasks in graduate courses at a large, American university. The study investigates writing tasks across the curriculum and draws implications for curriculum design in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Using actual course syllabi for task analysis, the researchers analyzed 200 course syllabi from 20 academic departments covering a wide range of disciplines. Findings indicate that library research papers and project reports are the most commonly assigned tasks across the curriculum. This study also found that professors in the social sciences, arts, and humanities assign a wider variety of writing assignments and more writing assignments in general than do professors in the sciences, math, and engineering. Finally, while many courses in the sciences, math, and engineering require no writing assignments at all, each of these departments does have at least some courses requiring extended writing. [author abstract]
Keywords: graduate, USA, task-analysis, EAP, syllabus-analysis, survey, data, term-paper, academic, genre, report-writing, WAC, disciplinary, social-science-course, science-course, assignment, intensive, data
Culp, Mary Beth; Suzanne Hoffman. (1998). Twice-told tales. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 41.6, 472-473.
Durfee, Patricia; Ann Sova; Libby Bay; Nancy leech; Robert Fearrien; Ruth Lucas. (1991). Formalizing WAC in the curriculum: Writing-emphasis courses. In Stanley, Linda C.; Joanna Ambron (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum in community colleges (New directions for community colleges, No. 73); San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass [ERIC Documentation Reproduction Services, ED 330 420].
Farris, Christine; Raymond Smith. (1992). Writing-intensive courses: Tools for curricular change. In McLeod, Susan H.; Margot Soven (Eds.), Writing across the curriculum: A guide to developing programs; Newbury Park, CA: Sage [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 350 622].
Keywords: WAC, program, change, writing-intensive
Gardner, Susan A.; Sherry A. Southerland. (1997). Interdisciplinary teaching? It only takes talent, time, and treasure. English Journal 86.7, 30-36.
Guralnick, Elissa S.; Paul M. Levitt. (1977). Improving student writing: A case history. College Engish 38.5, 506-511.
Describes environment of writing instruction at U of Colorado. Examines teacher and student attitudes toward writing, admission scores, placement tests. Allocates responsibility of writing instruction to all faculty and describes faculty reactions. Outlines revision of admission policies and entrance requirements. [Sue Hum]
Keywords: deterioration, SAT-testing, upper-division, requirement, cut-off, history, Univ ersity of Colorado, placement, basic, writing-intensive, case-narrative, University of Colorado, WAC, student-writing
Halsor, Sid Paul; C. L. Faul-Halsor; Patricia Boyle Heaman. (1991). Enhanced student learning through writing in a physical-geology class. Journal of Geological Education 39.3, 181-184.
Hendricks, William. (1987). The University of Pittsburgh's writing-designated courses. http://comppile.tamucc.edu/TeachingWriting/v9/V9N1(Hendricks).pdf [full text]. Teaching Writing: Methods, Materials, & Measurements 09, 42-47.
Keywords: advanced, curriculum, syllabus, 'writing designated', intensive, WAC, University of Pittsburgh
Hilgers, Thomas L.; Ann Shea Bayer; Monica Stitt-Bergh; Megumi Taniguchi. (1995). Doing more than 'thinning out the herd': How eighty-two college seniors perceived writing-intensive classes. Research in the Teaching of English 29.1, 59-87.
Hilgers, Thomas L.; Edna Lardizabal Hussey; Monica Stitt-Bergh. (1999). 'As you're writing you have these epiphanies': What college students say about writing and learning in their majors. Written Communication 16.3, 317-353.
Hinman, Mary-Lou. (1998). W-courses in the English department: A goodbye interview of Henry Vittum. http://wac.colostate.edu/journal/ [full text]. Plymouth State College Journal on Writing Across the Curriculum 09, 105-109.
Keywords: WAC, literature-course, intensive, teacher-interview, Henry Vittum
Hocks, Mary E.; Daniele Bascelli. (1998). Building a writing-intensive multimedia curriculum. In Reiss, Donna; Dickie Selfe; Art Young (Eds.), Electronic communication across the curriculum; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English [ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 416 561].
Holdstein, Deborah H.. (2001). 'Writing across the curriculum' and the paradoxes of institutional initiatives. Pedagogy 01.1, 37-52.
Argues that faculty involved in WAC are often blissfully unaware of the motives of administrations that support WAC. Argues that WAC, which started as a "bottom-up" effort, can become institutionalized or "top-down." Observing a listserv, Holdstein finds that teachers think problems with WAC are peculiar to their university, rather than symptoms of a general problem: WAC being used deceitfully by universities. Holdstein warns that WAC can be used to avoid the issue of improving student writing. WAC can become public relations. Writing instruction may be shifted to teachers who have no interest in it; with no oversight, writing suffers. "Writing Intensive" classes may compartmentalize writing, counter to the spirit of WAC. Some universities are saying that WI classes should take the place of required composition classes. Holdstein warns that WAC may be "hijacked." Eric Martin wrote a rebuttal to this article. Available online via MUSE database. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Kelly, Erna; Ellen Strenski. (1983). For all intensive purposes: A collection of model student essays from Writing Programs' intensive writing courses, 1982-1983. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles, Writing Programs.
Keywords: sample, WAC, intensive
Kelly, Kathleen A.. (1985). Writing across the curriculum: What the literature tells us. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 274 975.
Kinheavy, James L.. (1983). Writing across the curriculum. ADE Bulletin, no. 76, 14-21.
Keywords: WAC, intensive
Kiniry, Malcolm; Ellen Strenski; Mike Rose. (1990). UCLA. In Fulwiler, Toby; Art Young (Eds.) Programs that work: Models and methods for writing across the curriculum; Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Heinemann.
Kiniry, Strenski, and Rose begin their chapter by discussing how the linked-course program at UCLA was developed to offset the paucity and pedagogical narrowness of writing-instruction in undergraduate classes on campus: 'many undergraduate course don't assign writing, and when it is assigned, it is more often used as an evaluative tool rather than a pedagogical one' (30). Their writing program’s answer to the increasing need for writing instruction Writing Intensive English (English 100W), 'offered as a two credit course attached to a specific course in another discipline, and . . . taken by a portion of the students in that base course' (p. 31). A mid-section of the chapter is dedicated to 'theoretical/philosophical foundations' of the writing program at UCLA, including the linked-courses; these ideals include that notion that writing must be integrated into the learning goals of the course, the writing instruction is more effective when assignments are scaffolded, and that instruction in writing must include instruction in reading (p. 35). The authors describe three of the courses at UCLA at the time of writing—'English Composition, Rhetoric, and Language,' 'Intermediate Exposition,' and English 100W 'Intensive Writing.' They wrap up the chapter with a discussion of the 'future' of writing across the curriculum at UCLA. [Michelle LaFrance, Linked Writing Courses; WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 14]
Keywords: University of California, WAC, Los Angeles, linked, scaffolding, intensive, ancillary, program, pedagogy, reading, future
Kinneavy, James; interviewed by Kristine F. Anderson. (1984). An interview with James Kinneavy on writing across the curriculum programs. Writing Across the Curriculum [Southern Technical Institute] 02.1, 4-5.
Keywords: decline, SAT-testing, WAC, program, implementation, faculty inertia, turf, cost, faculty-motivation, incentive, University of Texas at Austin, intensive, future
Koncel, Mary A.; Debra Carney. (1992). When worlds collide: Negotiating between academic and professional discourse in a graduate social work program. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 349 573.
Keywords: social-work, program-validation, Smith College, graduate, WAC, masters, thesis-writing, alumn, questionnaire, student-opinion, teacher-opinion, intensive, workshopping, conferencing, data, negotiation, professional-discourse, social
Koprowski, John L.. (1997). Sharpening the craft of scientific writing. Journal of College Science Teaching 27.2, 133-135.
Latona, John. (1991). What do we mean by 'writing-intensive'?. Composition Chronicle Newsletter 04.6, 8-9.
Keywords: WAC, writing-intensive
Martin, Eric V.. (2001). WAC paradoxes revisited: A program director's response [to Deborah Holdstein]. Pedagogy 01.2, 275-286.
Martin is responding to Deborah Holdstein’s article “”Writing Across the Curriculum” and the Paradoxes of Institutional Initiatives.” He agrees that WAC programs have become “top-down,” and that programs don’t always work. But he disagrees about the cause. WAC proponents are aware that they need to convince teachers from other disciplines that writing is worth the effort, he says. The real problem is resistance from these teachers, and the solution is to not impose WAC from above, but begin with dialog with faculty. Martin also disagrees that universities use WAC deceptively. In his experience, administrators feel real pressure from businesses and community members, and really want writing to improve. But WAC directors are often not given enough access to upper administration, and so don’t have enough input. With all the different faculty agendas, WAC gets lost in the absence of clear leadership. Martin also has seen no evidence that WI classes will replace composition classes. In his experience, administrators push for more writing classes, because they feel pressure to do so. Martin says there are no sinister motives behind WAC, although mistakes have been made in implementation. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Mierse, William; Jean Kiedaisch. (1995). Fitting writing into the survey. Art Journal 54.3, 82-86.
Keywords: art-course, write-to-learn, WAC, journal-writing, University of Vermont, intensive, pedagogy
Montgomery, Abigail L. . (2009). [Book review]. Teaching English in the Two-Year College 37.1, 87-89.
Keywords: Writing-Intensive: Becoming W-Faculty in a New Writing Curriculum, by Wendy Strachan, WAC
Morrison, Julie Bauer; Jean-Paul Nadeau. (2003). How was your session at the writing center? Pre- and post-grade student evaluations. link to full text. Writing Center Journal 23.2, 25-42.
The authors know that students' initial attitudes about writing centers are overwhelmingly positive after a writing center visit (25, 30). They wanted know if this positive attitude changed over time, how extensive was the change, and what variables might correlate with the change, especially grades on papers. The authors gathered data with three surveys of undergraduate psychology students: a survey given immediately after the writing center visit (53 students), a survey given after the professor gave the paper grade (53 students), and a survey given one year after the second post-grade survey (16 students) (28). Analysis of the data (p <.05) reveals the usual positive results of most writing-center studies on student perceptions, 'regardless of semester, staff member, or month' (30); students expressed less satisfaction with the writing center after learning their paper grades irrespective of grade given, although students earning As lowered their ratings less than students earning a B or below (31-32); students who earned lower than an A thought that they could have worked harder; and students who earned an A thought they couldn't have done much more (32). Excepting one student's responses, the ratings collected by the third survey replicated the results of the first survey, and students report that their satisfaction with the writing center was 'directly influenced' by the paper grade (32). While contexts might have affected the satisfaction negatively, the authors suspect that the students' lower satisfaction of the writing center relates to the psychological 'idea of self-serving bias,' where these students did not want to take responsibility for their grade (33). The authors suspect, based on this psychological theory, that students blamed the writing center for the lower grade, thinking the staff members would 'fix' their papers for them (33-34). The authors recommend primarily that writing center staff and faculty work together to promote clear expectations of what writing centers and students can accomplish during sessions. They recommend 'forcefully encouraging' students to visit writing centers (writing center-based model of situating), but not requiring them to visit (curriculum-based model of situating). [Eliot F. Rendleman, Writing Centers and Mandatory Visits, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 22
Nelms, Gerald; Ronda Leathers Dively. (2007). [Printed version is incorrect: See NOTE in Annotation] Perceived roadblocks to transferring knowledge from first-year composition to writing-intensive major courses: A pilot study. [fulltext: Corrected Version: July 2008]. WPA: Writing Program Administration 31.1-2, 214-240.
NOTE: The version of this article that appears in the print copy of the journal is NOT the version meant for publication. It is an earlier draft that should not have been published. [authors] Nelms and Dively report on a study utilizing survey and focus group methodology to explore far transfer (as defined by Perkins and Salomon) from FYC to writing intensive (WI) courses at an institution with a two-course FYC sequence taught by GTAs with 'considerable freedom' of course design. Five themes emerged, several acting as 'roadblocks' to transfer. Student desire to 'compartmentalize' learning led to an inability to make connections across contexts. While some skills, including an understanding of the connection between thesis and support, an ability to analyze, and familiarity with the principles of citation, did transfer into WI courses, other skills identified as 'commonly addressed' in FYC did not. Further, WI instructors lamented the lack of time they had to address context-based writing in their courses, and although they recognized the essential nature of invention, peer response, and metacognition for writing success, they had not incorporated these strategies into their class meetings. Nelms and Dively note the significance of student dispositions, including lack of motivation, indifference about writing, and entitlement that are shown to limit transfer. Finally, they contend that the disparate vocabulary utilized in FYC and the content courses also hindered transfer; though instructors were often discussing the same concept, the different vocabulary prevented students (and instructors) from seeing connections. The authors recommend increased communication between FYC and WI instructors to bridge vocabulary differences, as well as teaching for transfer through contextualization, reflection, active learning, and the use of the 'hugging' and 'bridging' concepts of Perkins and Salomon. [Robin L. Snead, 'Transfer-Ability': Issues of Transfer and FYC, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 18]
Keywords: skill-transfer, knowledge-transfer, FYC, longitudinal, data, interdisciplinary, WPA, WAC, advanced, writing-intensive, pilot study
Nereson, Sally. (1994). Outside the lines but on the page: Perspectives on writing in an individualized, writing-intensive baccalaureate degree program (Technical Report No. 8). Minneapolis, MN: The Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing, University of Minnesota.
O'Neill, Peggy. (2012). How does writing assessment frame college writing programs?. In Elliot, Norbert; Les Perelman (Eds.), Writing assessment in the 21st century: Essays in honor of Edward M. White; New York: Hampton Press.
Palmquist, Mike. (2005). Writing in emerging genres: Student Web sites in writing and writing-intensive classes. In Herrington, Anne; Charles Moran (Eds.), Genre across the curriculum; Logan, UT: Utah State University Press.
Persky, Charles; Ann Raimes (Chairs); Faculty Seminar on the Teaching of Writing in the Subject Areas. (1981). Report of the Hunter College Faculty Seminar on the Teaching of Writing in the Subject Areas. New York: Hunter College of the City University of New York.
Quesenberry, Legene, et al. (2000). Assessment of the writing component within a university general education program. [Link]. Academic.Writing 1.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether flagged 'writing-intensive' courses within Clarion University's General Education Curriculum impacted on students' abilities to write. The major research question to be explored was, 'what effect does taking writing intensive courses have on students' writing ability, when factors such as initial matriculation ability and total coursework are taken into account?' After providing an overview of Clarion University and the State System of Higher Education (of which Clarion University is a part), this paper provides an overview of Clarion University's General Education program. This is followed by a description of the study's methodology, demographics of the research population, review of results, and discussion of results. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: gen-ed, general education, assessment, writing-intensive, WAC, WID, writing across the curriculum, data
Quirk, James R. F.. (1988). Teaching computer networks as a writing intensive course. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin 20.2, 30-35.
Roen, Duane H.; Stuart C. Brown. (1986). A sampling of the best: Interviews with fourteen writing emphasis instructors [in-house report]. Tempe, AZ: University of Arizona, University Composition Board for the Intercollegiate Writing Committee.
Roen, Duane H.; Stuart C. Brown. (1986). Writing emphasis courses at the University of Arizona [in-house report]. Tempe, AZ: University of Arizona, University Composition Board for the Intercollegiate Writing Committee.
Keywords: intensive, WAC, University of Arizona, program-validation, in-house
Explains how to incorporate writing into drama classes. The author examines writing in her field, observing that drama students improvise, and learn by doing. Thus, teachers need to teach revision and structure. At the same time, writing should be practical: journals about students' own acting, group scene writing, and research papers that culminate in performances. Also explains how to work in peer response. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Salem, Lori; Peter Jones. (2010). Undaunted, self-critical, and resentful: Investigating faculty attitudes toward teaching writing in a large university writing-intensive course program. link to full text. WPA: Writing Program Administration 34.1, 60-83.
Keywords: writing-intensive, WAC, WID, teacher-attitude, retraining, survey, quantitative, WPA, data
Shea, Kelly A.; Mary McAleer Balkun; Susan A. Nolan; John T. Saccoman; Joyce Wright. (2006). One more time: Transforming the curriculum across the disciplines through technology-based faculty development and writing-intensive course redesign. [Link]. Across the Disciplines 03.
Shea and her colleagues describe a WAC project, born of their university's commitment to writing and ubiquitous computing, that engaged nearly 70 faculty members in WAC training over four years. The authors describe the project and its results, emphasizing three case studies of faculty members from psychology, mathematics, and nursing. (Published February 21, 2006) [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: Writing Intensive, Becoming W-Faculty in a New Writing Curriculum, by Wendy Strachan, WAC, initiative, implementation, program
Sterling-Deer, Carolyn. (2009). Writing in the disciplines, technology, and disciplinary grounding. [fulltext]. Across the Disciplines 06.
Drawing on Boix Mansilla’s (2004) criteria for assessing students’ disciplinary knowledge and potential to make interdisciplinary connections, Sterling-Deer’s study explores the use of Blackboard eLearning course management technology and ePortfolio technology to share course materials and to increase student reflection. Sterling-Deer discusses students’ writing and their abilities to link to supporting documents as demonstrates of their learning. She argues that these ePortfolios illustrate students’ struggles to provide their own academically and/or professionally focused ePortfolios despite the general-purpose ePortfolio templates. Her work suggests that students at LaGuardia Community College, CUNY are aware of the potential distribution of their work to multiple audiences, whereas the templates in the ePortfolio software insist on a single format/audience approach. [Carl Whithaus, Distributive Evaluation, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 3]
Keywords: WAC, WID, education-course, capstone, undergraduate, childhood, LaGuardia Community College/CUNY, two-year, eportfolio, writing-intensive, interdisciplinary, validation, learning-community, evaluation, distribution
Townsend, Martha A.. (2001). Writing intensive courses and WAC. In McLeod, Susan H.; Eric Miraglia; Margot Soven; Christopher Thaiss (Eds.), WAC for the new millennium: Strategies for continuing writing-across-the-curriculum programs; Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Keywords: intensive, WAC, change
Townsend, Martha A.. (2002). To teach or not to teach. In Anson, Christopher M. (Ed.), The WAC casebook: Scenes for faculty reflection and program development; New York: Oxford University Press.
Twomey, Marsha. (1988). A writing-intensive course in advertising. In Killingsworth, Jimmie; Donald H. Cunningham; Laurie L. Jones (Eds.); Texas Tech University; Designing writing assignments for vocational-technical courses: A guide for teachers in the two-year college and technical institute; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 298 331.
Vazulik, Johannes W.. (1983). Postsecondary ESL methods in an intensive course model. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 232 469.
Keywords: ESL, intensive, WAC, pedagogy
Walvoord, Barbara E.. (1996). The future of WAC. College English 58.1, 58-79.
Keywords: WAC, history, USA, change, social movement, workshop, faculty-retraining, political, intensive,
Watson, Marsha. (1996). Teaching to learn: WAC, composition, and engineering classrooms. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 398 587.
Keywords: WAC, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, engineering-course, intensive, student-centered, syllabus-design, criteria, teacher-cooperation, team-teaching, interdisciplinary
Watt, Stephen. (1988). A writing-intensive course in Basic Accounting II. In Killingsworth, Jimmie; Donald H. Cunningham; Laurie L. Jones (Eds.); Texas Tech University; Designing writing assignments for vocational-technical courses: A guide for teachers in the two-year college and technical institute; ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 298 331.
Westphal-Johnson, Nancy; Mary Anne Fitzpatrick. (2002). The role of communication and writing intensive courses in general education: A five year case study of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Journal of General Education 51.2, 73-102.
An account of the "Writing Wars," the struggle at UW-Madison to define the goals of a commications component added to the gen. ed. requirements in 1994. The conflict was between a centralized, rhetoric-based course taught by Communications and English faculty, and a WID model. Compromise and conflict continue there to this day. [WAC Clearinghouse]
Keywords: gen-ed, University of Wisconsin, conflict, WAC, WID, curriculum, requirement, intensive
White, Edward M.. (1991). Shallow roots or taproots for writing across the curriculum?. ADE Bulletin, no. 98, 29-33.
Keywords: WAC, program, history, writing-intensive, funding, faculty, resistance, staff, administrating, California State University, San Bernardino, rising-junior, class-size
Writing Across the Curriculum Program (Ed.). (1994). Abstracts of working papers on writing-intensive courses, 1986-1991. Radford, VA: Radford University.
Keywords: WAC, faculty-opinion, writing-intensive
Young, Beth Rapp; Barbara A. Fritzsche. (2002). Writing center users procrastinate less: The relationship between individual differences in procrastination, peer feedback, and student writing process. link to full text. Writing Center Journal 23.1, 45-58.
The authors conducted a study to 'examine the relationships between procrastination tendency, peer feedback, and student writing success' and 'to determine whether a writing center helps writers avoid procrastinating' (46). The study had 206 traditional student participants from writing intensive classes requiring'at least 6,000 words of assessed writing' ) and from all undergraduate class standings. To gather data, they administered the Procrastination Assessment Scale--Students (PASS), a self-report measure of six academic activities; the Writing Behaviors Assessment, which the researchers designed for this particular study; and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, which assesses current anxiety and tendency toward anxiety. After the semester, they also gathered participants' paper grades, courses grades, and overall GPA (48). The researchers found that 'writing center use was associated with higher satisfaction and fewer procrastination behaviors' (50). The researchers also discovered that students who were required to visit 'were significantly more likely to report delay behavior' (52). Yet for some students the 'requirement [might add] the necessary motivation for procrastinators to drag themselves into the writing center' (54). The authors recommend that bureaucratic paperwork should be reduced in order to increase visits of procrastinating students. [Eliot F. Rendleman, Writing Centers and Mandatory Visits, WPA-CompPile Research Bibliographies, No. 22]